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Umbrian School. His principal works are frescoes in the Vatican, Rome. Of the numerous "Madonnas" and other pictures ascribed to him there are many that must have been completed by his pupils.
LONDON, NATIONAL GALLERY
ST. CATHERINE St. Catherine stands facing us, her head upturned to the left. Her right hand is on her breast, her left arm rests upon a heavy wooden wheel. She is in a low-necked dark grey robe with green sleeves and a crimson mantle. The background is a peculiarly beautiful landscape with buildings beyond a lake on the left.
Painted about 1507.
Formerly in the Aldobrandini Collection. Purchased from Mr. Beckford in 1839.
THE GARVAGH MADONNA Seated under a cloister, the Virgin reaches down to the right to embrace with her left arm the little St. John, who, standing at her knee, has reached up to give a pink to the Child seated on His mother's lap. Background of buildings and mountains.
Formerly known as "The Aldobrandini Madonna," from having been in the Aldobrandini Collection in the Borghese Palace, Rome.
Sold to Lord Garvagh, from whom it was purchased in 1865.
THE ANSIDEI MADONNA A large altar-piece with a round top. On a pedestal, knee high, under a canopy, the Virgin is seated on a throne with the Child on her right knee and an open book on her left. On either side of the pedestal stand St. Nicholas of Bari and St. John the Baptist. The former, on our right fronting us, in episcopal vestments and mitre, his crosier in his right hand and a missal in his left. The latter, nearly in profile, looks up at the Virgin; he is clothed in a red mantle and a pelt. His crossed staff is of crystal.
Painted in 1506 for the chapel of the Ansidei family in the Servite Church of San Fiorenzo at Perugia.
Purchased from the Duke of Marlborouh in 1885.
THE MADONNA OF THE TOWER Seated facing us, turned half left, the Child standing on her knee with His arms round her neck. She clasps Him to her breast with her right hand, and supports His foot with her left. She is in a deep greenish-blue dress with grey sleeves and scarlet undersleeves, with a veil over her head. Landscape background with a mountain on the right and a tower half hidden in a wood on the left.
Presented by Miss Eva Macintosh in 1906.
THE HOLY FAMILY The Virgin, half kneeling towards the left, in a pink robe and blue mantle, takes the Child in both hands under His arms as He steps out of His cradle, which lies in the left foreground. Behind it sits St. Elizabeth holding the infant St. John, who clasps his hands in adoration of the Child. At the back are standing on the right St. Joseph leaning on a balustrade, on the left an angel, whose outstretched arms hold a bunch of flowers over the mother and Child, and in the centre another angel.
Called "La Grande Sainte Famille de Francois L"
"LA BELLE JARDINIERE" In the foreground of a flowery mead, backed by an open landscape, the Virgin is seated on a rock, turned slightly to our left, her right hand supporting the Child, who stands at her knee, her left holding His left arm, which rests on her lap. He presses His right hand against her knee, and with His left seems to be reaching for the book which His mother has been reading. Slightly to our right kneels the infant St. John on his right knee, his left hand resting on his left knee, and his right hand holding his crossed staff.
PORTRAIT OF BALTASAR CASTIGLIONE Bust length to left, head turned full face, the eyes meeting ours. Hands joined. Dressed in a black velvet tunic with full grey sleeves over a white linen shirt, and a broad black cap with tabs worn to one side. A man of middle age with full beard and moustache.
Painted in 1515.
"LA VIERGE AU VOILE" The Virgin, kneeling to left, with her left arm embraces the little St. John, who kneels beside her adoring the Saviour; with her right outstretched she lifts a veil from the Child, who lies asleep facing us. Background landscape and ruins.
THE MADONNA OF THE HOUSE OF ORLEANS Three-quarter length, seated in half profile to the right, in a plain closely fitting robe cut square at the neck. She is sitting on a stool looking down at the Child, who reposes at full length on her right knee, His left foot supported by her right hand and His shoulders by her left. His two hands are stretched upwards to her neck, and His head is turned towards us. Background on the left a curtain, and on the right a shelf with some pots on it.
PORTRAIT OF AGNOLO DONI Half length, three-quarters to right, leaning his left arm on a balustrade, the hand held downwards, meeting the other, which rests against his body. He is in a black tunic, full red sleeves, and flat black cap. He is clean shaven, his hair falling on his neck on either side.
PORTRAIT OF MADDELENA DONI The wife of Agnolo. Half length, seated towards the left, but full face. Long fair hair. Red dress with blue sleeves. Hands crossed at the waist. Landscape background, with one tall tree on the left.
This and the foregoing were painted in 1504 in Florence.
LA MADONNA DEL GRANDUCA Half length, full face, standing with the Child on her left arm supported by her right. Both look downwards, the Child's head also being turned towards us.
Painted about 1507.
"This picture excels all Raphael's previous Madonnas in the charm of a profound feeling. We feel that no earlier painter had ever understood how to combine such beauty with so intense an expression." (Knackfuss.)
It derives its name from having been in the possession of the Grand Duke Ferdinand III.
LA MADONNA DEL BALDACCHINO A large altar-piece left unfinished in 1507, and completed by a pupil. The Madonna with the Child on a throne set on a double pedestal under a canopy with curtains held back by two angels, on her left St. Peter and St. Bruno, on her right St. Anthony and St. Augustine standing. At the foot of the throne two boy angels stand holding a scroll of music. The background is a semicircular alcove.
THE VISION OF EZEKIEL The Almighty in a glory of cherubim, His outstretched arms supported by two little angels. Below are the mystical forms of the ox, eagle, and lion, the emblems of the Evangelists. To the right a ray descends from on high illuminating the prophet.
"LA GRAVIDA" The portrait of a woman, half length, turned slightly to the right. She has a cap on her head and a gold necklace. One hand rests on her body, the other holds her gloves.
Probably painted about 1504.
"LA VELATA" Half length, turned slightly to left. Hair parted in the middle. A veil or scarf falls from the back of her head over her shoulders. She wears a yellow dress with a full striped sleeve over a white chemise tied with a small bow on either shoulder, and a necklace. Her right hand is pressed against her bodice.Her eyes meet ours.
This picture is officially catalogued as "Portrait of the Lady he loved, called La Velata," and is claimed to be the portrait of " La Fornarina " spoken of by Vasari.
Knackfuss denies that it is by Raphael at all.
LA MADONNA DELLA SEGGIOLA The Virgin seen at half length seated on a chair in profile to right with her face turned to us, with the Child in her lap, who leans against her bosom in a happy child-like attitude. Behind Him on the right stands the little St. John with hands folded.
PORTRAIT OF POPE LEO X. Three-quarter length, seated, facing half left, at the corner of a small table covered with a red cloth, looking upwards to left. His left hand, holding a lens, rests on the corner of the table, and his right on an illuminated choral book which lies on the table in front of him, together with a silver bell. His robe is of white brocaded satin, over which is a plain cape with a narrow edge of white fur, and a cap to match. Behind him on either side are seen the heads and shoulders of Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, who was later Pope Clement VII. (right), and Cardinal de Rossi. This picture, painted in 1517, was copied by Andrea del Sarto in 1525 with such fidelity as to raise doubts whether this or the picture in the Naples Museum is the original.
PORTRAIT OF POPE JULIUS II. An old man with a full white beard looking downwards.Three-quarter length, seated in a papal chair facing half right; in a crimson cap and cape with narrow edging of white fur over a white robe. Arms resting on the arms of the chair, a handkerchief in the right hand.
As many as nine repetitions by Raphael's pupils are known, of which one is in the National Gallery (No. 27).
LA MADONNA DEL CARDELLINO The Virgin is seated on a rock in an open landscape, the Child standing between her knees with His left hand at Ills side, His right extended up wards to a goldfinch which rests on the little Baptist's right hand on the Virgin's knee. In her left hand the Virgin holds an open book, and with her right embraces the Baptist.
LA FORNARINA (See under PIOMBO.)
MILAN, BRERA GALLERY
LO SPOSALIZIO Mary and Joseph stand facing each other in the centre; the High Priest between them joins their hands; Joseph is in the act of placing the ring on
the Virgin's finger; behind her stand a group of five maidens; behind Joseph are four suitors, and in front of him a fifth, breaking their rods, Joseph's alone blossoming into a lily, which, according to the legend, signified that he was the chosen one. In the background is a circular-domed building representing the Temple at Jerusalem.
Painted in 1504 for the Church of San Francesco at Perugia. "A masterpiece of Raphael's Umbrian period." (Knackfuss.)
ROME, VATICAN GALLERY
LA MADONNA DI FOLIGNO A large altar-piece with a round top painted for the Papal Chamberlain, Sigismondo de Conti of Foligno.
In the upper part the Madonna is seated on clouds within a halo surrounded by cherubim, the Child standing on her left knee. Below in the centre foreground is a little naked angel holding a tablet in both hands and looking upwards. On the left kneels St. Francis, with the Baptist standing behind him; on the right kneels the Chamberlain, St. Jerome behind him with his hand laid on his head. In the background is seen the town of Foligno under a rainbow, with a bomb or thunderbolt falling into it.
THE CORONATION OF THE VIRGIN A large picture with a round top. In the upper part upon a floor of clouds the Virgin (left) and Christ are seated turned slightly towards each other. Christ holds the crown above the Virgin's head with His right hand, His left slightly uplifted. The Virgin sits looking downwards with hands joined. On the left stand two angels, one of them playing a tambourine with both arms upraised. On the right stand two others playing violins. Above in a cloud background are eight cherubim, and two more are crouched at the sides of the central group.
Below the twelve Apostles stand grouped behind and at the sides of an open sarcophagus, from within which are springing lilies and roses.
The predella pictures are The Annunciation, The Adoration of the Kings, and The Presentation in the Temple, Raphael's drawings for which are still preserved at Stockholm, Paris, and Oxford.
Painted at Perugia in 1502 for Maddalena degli Oddi for the altar of the Franciscan Church there. This was Raphael's first important commission, when he was not yet twenty years old.
ROME, BORGHESE GALLERY
THE ENTOMBMENT The Saviour's body lies with the head to the left, supported between two disciples, and on the knee of one of the holy women in the centre. Two other disciples stand behind on the left, and on the right in the middle distance is a group of three women supporting the fainting mother.
Landscape background with a river on either side, on the right being seen Calvary.
Painted in 1507.
LA MADONNA DELLA CASA TEMPI Half length, standing half right, the Child clasped to her with both hands, His cheek pressed to hers.
THE SISTINE MADONNA The Madonna is seen standing on clouds against a radiant golden background thronged with cherubim, holding the Child in both hands against her right shoulder. To her left is St. Barbara kneeling, and to her right in the foreground Pope Sixtus II. A curtain drawn back encloses the upper part of the picture on each side. On a ledge at the foot two little boy angels lean looking upward.
Painted in 1516 or 1517 for the high altar of the Church of San Sisto at Piacenza.
"Truly a rare and matchless work." (Vasari.)
THE MADONNA OF THE MEADOW The Madonna is seated in a foreground of flat country, beyond which is a lake flanked by distant hills. Her right foot is extended to the right, but her head and body are fronting us as she holds the Child, who stands in profile to left in front of her, and with His right arm uplifted grasps the top of the crossed staff which the infant Baptist, kneeling on the left, is holding up with both hands, while the Virgin's glance is directed downwards upon him.
Painted about 1507.
LA MADONNA DELLA CASA COLONNA Half length, the Madonna sitting with the Child on her right knee, supporting Him with her left hand and holding an open book in her right as she looks down at Him. He has His left hand on her shoulder, and with His right arm extended clutches the top of her bodice. Landscape background.
LA MADONNA DEL DUCA DI TERRA NUOVA. Three-quarter length. The Virgin is sitting facing us in front of a plain stone parapet which cuts across the picture. She looks down at the Child, who reclines on her lap supported by her right hand, and is taking a scroll from the little St. John, who stands on the left. On the right is an infant angel. Landscape background with buildings and rocks.
THE SOLLY MADONNA Half length. The Virgin is sitting facing us, reading a small book which she holds up in her right hand, while her left touches the outstretched right foot of the Child, who is sitting in her lap with His head turned to the book. Landscape background.
This and the following (No. 145) and the Conestabile Madonna at Petrograd are three of the earliest of Raphael's Madonnas. It was formerly in the Solly Collection.
THE PICTURE OF THE THREE SAINTS Half length. The Virgin sits facing us, but With her head turned towards the Child, who is seated on her right knee with His right hand raised. Behind, on either side, are seen the heads and hand of St. Jerome (left) in a Cardinal's hat, and St. Francis, bareheaded, in monk's habit. In the background are two spires of distant buildings.
CARDINAL ALIDOSIO Half length, seated, slightly to left in cape and biretta, the left arm bent along the foot of the canvas, a young man with an aquiline nose.
One of the finest and best preserved of Raphael's portraits.
THE HOLY FAMILY WITH THE LAMB The Virgin, kneeling, holds both shoulders of the Child, who is mounting the back of a lamb which lies, head towards us, in the left foreground. On the right, watching Him, stands Joseph, leaning on his staff, which is planted in front of the Virgin in the centre foreground. Landscape background, with hills and buildings on the left and a tree on the right. Signed and dated, 1507.
THE HOLY FAMILY WITH THE LIZARD The Virgin sits facing us, with her left arm resting on a high fragment of a ruined Roman tomb. The Child is on her right knee, which rests on a cradle in the left foreground, and behind which stands the little St. John with his right foot on the edge of it. He is unfolding a scroll inscribed, " Ecce Agnus Dei," and the Child turns His face upwards to His mother as though to ask her about it. St. Joseph leans on the stone at the Virgin's right elbow.
Landscape background, with a large shady tree in the centre.
THE MADONNA WITH THE FISH A large altar-piece painted for the Church of St. Domenico at Naples. The Virgin is seated on a marble throne with the Child standing on her left knee. Both look downwards to the left at Tobias, who kneels with the angel behind him, holding the fish with his right hand. On the right stands St. Jerome reading a large Bible, with a lion at his feet. Behind the throne is a curtain looped up to the left.
LO SPASIMO DI SICILIA A large altar-piece painted for the Church of Santa Maria dello Spasimo at Palermo. Christ, sinking under the weight of the cross, turns to the group of holy women on the right. On the left are three Roman soldiers, and another, mounted, bearing a standard. Behind the women on the right are more soldiers with lances.
THE HOLY FAMILY To the right the Virgin seated, the Child on her knees clutching her dress at the neck with His right hand, and looking up at Joseph (a clean-shaven man) who stands leaning on his staff on the left.Marble wall background with landscape seen through an opening on the right.
Known as La Madonna Col Giuseppe Imbabato.
THE MADONNA OF THE DUKE OF ALBA The Madonna, full length, is seated in a quiet landscape with the Child in her lap and a book in her hand. The little St. John kneels before the Child offering Him a cross, which He takes with a look of un utterable love. The Madonna's eyes are directed to the prophetic play of the children with a deep and earnest expression.
THE CONESTABILE MADONNA A Round. Half length. The Virgin stands turned slightly to our left, holding a book in her right hand and the Child in her left and on her right arm. Both are reading the book. Landscape background with a river. One of the earliest of Raphael's Madonnas.
It was brought from the Conestabile Palace at Perugia in 1871.
ST. GEORGE AND THE DRAGON The dragon lies on the left under the forelegs of the prancing charger, whose hind-quarters occupy the right foreground, transfixed by St. George's lance.
Painted in 1506 for the Duke of Urbino for presentation to Henry VII., who had conferred on the Duke the Order of the Garter. The blue garter with the word " Honi " is shown below St. George's knee. A finished drawing for this picture is at the Uffizi, Florence.
( Originally Publihed 1910 )