Amazing articles on just about every subject...

Batters And Doughs

( Originally Published 1918 )


Batters.- Batters are mixtures of flour or meal and a liquid, with salt or sugar to give flavour, butter to make tender, and steam, air, or gas to make light.

One scant measure of liquid is used with one measure of flour for thin, or pour, batter. One measure of liquid is used with two measures of flour for a thick, or drop, batter. One measure of liquid is used with three measures of flour for a soft, or bread, dough. One measure of liquid is used with four measures of flour for a stiff, or pastry, dough.

Before mixing a batter, the oven or griddle should be at the proper temperature, with the fire well regulated and in good condition. The oven should be tested by putting in a piece of white paper or two tablespoonfuls of flour, which should brown in three minutes. The pans should be prepared by greasing with lard, salt pork. or beef dripping. All the materials should he measured and ready before beginning to combine the ingredients. When the batter has been mixed and beaten until smooth, it should be baked at once.


The teacher will be better prepared to give the lesson on batters if she first makes herself accustomed with the kinds of breads that are used in the homes of the pupils and the methods followed in their preparation. The simple, general methods of preparing hatters should he taught. The teacher should not attempt. the preparation of more than one or two hatters in this lesson.


Sour-milk Griddle Cakes

2 1/2 c. flour 1 1/4 tsp. soda

1/2 tsp. salt 1 egg 2 c. sour milk

Mix and sift the flour, salt, and soda ; add the sour milk and egg well beaten. Drop, by spoonfuls, on a greased hot griddle; cook on one side. When puffed full of bubbles and cooked on the edges, turn, and cook on the other side. Serve with butter and maple syrup.

Sweet milk Griddle Cakes

1c. flour 1/4 c. sugar 1 1/2 tbsp. baking-powder

2 c. milk 1 tsp. salt 1 egg 2 tbsp. melted butter

Mix and sift the dry ingredients, beat the egg, add the milk, and pour on the first mixture. Beat thoroughly and add the butter. Cook the same as Sour-milk Cakes.


Discuss hatters briefly. Have all measurements made, the fire regulated, the an. prepared, and so on. Demonstrate the mixing and cooking of Griddle Cakes. Serve the cakes daintily after they are cooked.

MuffinsóBaking-powder Biscuits


Methods of making batters light.óBatters are made light by beating air into them, by adding eggs into which air has been beaten, or by entangling gas in the batter. Gas is secured by using soda and sour milk in a batter (one teaspoon of soda to one pint of sour milk), or soda with molasses (one teaspoon of soda to one cup of molasses), or soda with cream of tartar (one teaspoon of soda with two slightly rounding teaspoons of cream of tartar). The soda should be mixed well with the other dry ingredients, then the sour milk or molasses added, the whole beaten up quickly, and baked at once.

Baking-powder is a preparation containing soda and cream of tartar, and may be used in place of soda if sweet milk is used. Two level teaspoonfuls of baking-powder should he used with one cup of flour.


This lesson is a continuation of the lesson on batter-. Care should be taken not tu undertake nuire than can be done well in the time available.


Graham Muffins

1 c. graham flour 1 c. milk

1 c. flour 1 egg

1/4 c. sugar 1 tbsp. melted butter

1 tsp. salt 4 tsp. baking-powder

Mix and sift the dry ingredients. Gradually add the milk, the egg well-beaten, and the melted butter. Bake in a hot oven in greased gem pans for 25 minutes.

Plain Muffins

1/4 c. butter 3/4 c. milk

1/4 c. sugar 1/2 c. flour

1 egg 3 tsp. baking-powder

Cream the butter, add the sugar and egg well beaten, sift the baking-powder with the flour, and add to the first mixture, alternating with the milk. Bake in greased gem pans for 25 minutes.

Baking-powder Biscuits

2 c. flour 1 tsp. salt

4 tsp. baking-powder 2 tbsp. fat

3/4 to 1 c. milk or water

Sift the dry ingredients together, chop the fat into the flour with a knife, slowly add sufficient milk to make a dough not too soft to be handled. Toss and roll the dough gently on a slightly-floured board and cut into small biscuits. Moisten the tops with a little milk. Handle the dough quickly, lightly, and as little as possible. Place on a buttered sheet. Bake in a hot oven till brown, from 12 to 15 minutes. Either white or whole wheat flour may be used for the biscuits. Serves six to eight. Oven test, the oven should be hot enough to colour a piece of unglazed white paper to a golden brown in one minute.

Soda Biscuits

1 c. flour 1/2 tsp. salt

1/2 tsp. soda (scant) 1 c. sour milk (scant) 2 tbsp. shortening (lard or other fat)

Proceed as for Baking-powder Biscuits.

If the sour milk is not thick enough to curdle, it will not contain sufficient acid to neutralize the soda, and the biscuits will be yellow and bitter. To avoid this, cream of tartar may be mixed with the soda (1 teaspoonful). If there is no cream of tartar at hand, it will be wise to use the recipe for Baking-powder Biscuits.


Have the oven and pans prepared and all the measurements made. Demonstrate the mixing of the muffins and, while these are baking, the mixing of the biscuits. Have one pupil take charge of the baking of the muffins and another of the baking of the biscuits. When the breads are done, have the class sit down and serve them to one another, or to all the pupils at the school lunch hour.

Household Science in Rural Schools:
The Value Of Carbohydrates In The Diet

Fruits And Vegetables


The Planning And Serving Of Meals


Soup Recipes

Eggs And Egg Preparation

Simple Desserts - Custards

Batters And Doughs


Read More Articles About: Household Science in Rural Schools

Home | Privacy Policy | Email: