Arrangement And Care Of The Kitchen
( Originally Published 1918 )
In arranging the kitchen, the three things of most importance are the stove, the sink, and the kitchen table. If there is no sink in the kitchen, there will he some other place arranged for washing the dishes, probably the kitchen table, and this must he taken into consideration when the furniture is placed. As most of the work is done at the stove and the table, both these must be placed where they will have a good light, and they should be close to each other, so that but few steps are necessary for the worker.
In furnishing the kitchen, the housekeeper will find a high -stool very useful, as it will enable her to wash dishes, prepare vegetables, and do other work while seated.
All the furniture should he kept so clean and free from dust that the kitchen will have a neat and attractive appearance, A vase of flowers or a potted plant, and a washable table-cover to be used after the dishes have been put away, will help to make this room a pleasant place for the family. Special attention should he given to the ventilation.
The kitchen should he thoroughly cleaned after each meal. If it has become dusty or disarranged. it should he put in order before the next meal is to be prepared. While the cooking is under way, everything should he kept in an orderly condition. As soon as the meal is completed. the left-over food should he covered and put away the scraps and waste material should he gathered and disposed of; and the dishes, pots, and pans should he scraped, and washed in hot, soapy water, then rinsed in clear, hot water, dried, and put away. The table should he scrubbed, the stove cleaned the floor swept and scrubbed whenever necessary, and everything put neatly in its place.
Care of the coal or wood range.-All spots should be removed from the range by wiping it with old paper. If it is in bad condition, it should be washed with soap and water. If it is oiled occasionally. blacking will not be necessary ; but if blacking is used. it should be applied with a cloth and rubbed to a polish with a brush, just a, the fire is being started. The a-hes and soot flues back of the oven and underneath it should be cleaned out once a week.
Directions for building a fire.—To build and care for a fire in the coal or wood range, close all the dampers, clean tile grate, and remove the ashes from the pan. Put on the covers and brush the dust off the stove. Open the creative damper and the oven damper, leaving the cheek damper closed. Lay some paper, slightly crumpled into rolls, across the base of the grate. Place small pieces of kindling wood across one another, with the large pieces on top. Lay pieces of hardwood or a shovelful of coal on top of the kindling, building so as to admit of the free circulation of air. If the stove i- to be polished. rub it with blacking. Light the paper from below. When the fire begins to burn briskly, add coal or wood: then add more when that kindles. When the fire is well started and blue flame is no longer seen (about ten minutes ). close the oven damper. ('lose the creative damper when the fire is sufficiently hot. Brush the stove and the floor beneath it as soon as the fire is started. Polish the stove. If the fire becomes too hot. open the cheek damper. Fill the tea-kettle with fresh water and set it on the front of the range.
Care of the sink, wash-basin, garbage pail. A neglected sink or garbage pail may be a fruitful source of disease, in addition to attracting waterbugs and other pests. Scraps should never be left in the sink. After washing the dishes it should he thoroughly cleaned, a brush and scouring material being used. The nickel part may be washed with hot soap-suds, wiped dry, and polished. Water should never be left in the wash-basin. Both the soap-dish and the wash-bash should be scoured daily. The garbage pail should be emptied and washed every day, and carefully scalded once or twice a week.
It will be well to have this lesson succeed or follow a cooking lesson, for then the pupils will have a keener interest in the problems of the kitchen.
METHOD OF WORK
Cleanliness and order are the two points to he considered in this lesson. The doing well of each simple household task and the thoughtful arrangement and planning of all parts of the house should be emphasized as being of great importance to the housekeeper's success.
Begin the lesson with a discussion of the purpose of the kitchen; then discuss its arrangement from the stand-point of convenience for the work that must he doue there. Emphasize the importance of having the furniture so arranged that the work may be done quickly and easily, and that the kitchen may be given a comfortable and attractive appearance. Let the pupils arrange the furniture in the school-room. Diseuss and demonstrate the care of the stove by the use of the school stove. Assign each pupil a time when she is to look after the stove on succeeding days and grade her on her work. Let each pupil firing a report from home as to what she is doing to help in the care of the home kitchen. Make a specific assignment for home work.
Household Science in Rural Schools:
Arrangement And Care Of The Kitchen
Care Of Cupboards And Utensils
Care Of Foods
Disposal Of Waste
Setting And Clearing The Table
Waiting On Table
General Cleaning Of A Room
Care Of The Bedroom
Care Of Lamps
Read More Articles About: Household Science in Rural Schools