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Old Squaw
Equally well marked is the Old Squaw, Old Wife, or South Southerly (Harelda hyemalis), which may be known among other characters by the very long, narrow middle tail-feathers, which are held at an angle of 60 degrees when the bird is sitting on the water.
In the southern part of South America, about the Straits of Magellan, the Falkland Islands, and the Chilean coast, is a very curious Duck known as the Steamer-Duck (Tachyeres cinereus), so called from its peculiar method of locomotion.
Labrador Duck
With a melancholy history equal almost to that of the Great Auk is the handsome Labrador or Pied Duck (Camptolaimus labradorius), which is now believed to be extinct, the last individual so far as known having been killed in 1878.
Passing over the Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus), a strong-flying sea Duck of the northern parts of the Northern Hemisphere, we come to the Eiders and Scoters, which are all strong-flying and diving sea Ducks.
The Scoters
(Oidemia), or Coots as they are sometimes called, are large surf or sea Ducks in which the large, strong bill is usually much swollen at the base.
The European Scoter
(O. Nigra), found throughout the northern portions of the Eastern Hemisphere, has the male uniform black, with the bill black, marked with a yellow or orange spot in front of the basal knob.
Ruddy Duck
The so-called Stiff-tailed Ducks, in which the feathers of the tail are narrow and very stiff, constitute the subfamily Erismaturince, and are comprised in four genera and about a dozen species.
Mountain Ducks
Before passing to the final subfamily we may mention briefly the Mountain Ducks (Subfamily Merganettince), so called from their dwelling exclusively on the rushing mountain streams.
The Mergansers
The Mergansers, or Fish Ducks, comprise the remaining subfamily (Mergince) of the great group of Ducks.
The Smew, Or Nun
(Mergus albellus) , of the Old World is the sole representative of its genus, being separated from the remaining genera by the culmen being shorter than the tarsus.
Hooded Merganser
The beautiful Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus) is also the only representative of its genus, it and the true Mergansers having the culmen longer than the tarsus...
True Mergansers
Of the true Mergansers (Merganser) two species are found in North America, the American (M. americanus) and the Red-breasted (M. serrator).
Falcon-like Birds
IT is a fact well known that among the mammals there are certain groups — the so-called carnivores -- which are especially adapted for preying upon their fellows.
The American Vultures
Notwithstanding the fact that the American Vultures quite closely resemble the Old World Vultures in general appearance and habits, there are certain marked differences which well entitle them to be ranked as a separate group.
Turkey Buzzard
One of the most familiar and widely distributed members of the group is the Turkey Vulture, or Turkey Buzzard (Cathartes aura)...
The Black Vulture
(Catharista urubu) is found throughout the whole of tropical and warm-temperate America, ranging south to Argentina and Chile, and north regularly to North Carolina and the lower Mississippi Valley.
California Vulture
By far the largest of the species found in the United States is the California Vulture (Gymnogyps californianus)...
The Condor
(Sarcorhamphus gryphus) has usually been regarded as the largest of the birds of prey, but it is closely approached in size, if not indeed exceeded, by the California Vulture.
King Vulture
The most brilliantly colored and striking of all is the King Vulture (Gypagus papa), which is found more or less abundantly over the whole of tropical America, except the West Indies, extending north into Mexico and possibly reaching southern Arizona.
The Secretary—bird
Beyond doubt the most remarkable, not to say anomalous, member of this group is the so-called Secretary-Bird (Gypogeranus serpentarius) of South Africa.
The Falcons And Their Allies
Having disposed of the two preceding more or less aberrant groups, we come to the principal suborder, that of the Accipitres.
The Falcons, Goshawks, Caracaras, And Their Allies
The Falconidce, according to Mr. Ridgway, may be logically and advantageously divided into four subfamilies, the Falconince or true Falcons, the Polyborince or Caracaras, the Micrasturince or the Tropical Goshawks, and the Her petotherince or Laughing Falcons.
The Gyrfalcons
(Subgenus Hierofalco) form a striking group of large, closely allied Falcons, in which the middle toe is shorter than the tarsus, which is densely feathered in front and on the sides for the upper two thirds.
The Prairie Falcon
(F. Mexicanus) inhabits the western United States from the eastern border of the Great Plains to the Pacific, and from the northern boundary southward into Mexico.
Saker Falcon
The last of this group that we shall have space to mention is the Saker Falcon (F. cherrug), a large, handsome bird ranging from south-eastern Europe through central Asia to China and India.
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