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( Originally Published Early 1900's )

A. D. 1819


We have now, in the pages of this volume, advanced into the Living Age. We have very rapidly scanned the biographies of the sublimely courageous, the good, the intellectual, the crafty, the commanding, the graceful, the capricious but always the Famous. At present, who is the most Famous Woman in the World? If the answer be Victoria, let us close our roster with her illustrious name, noting that she is admired for what she has not done that might have been ill, and blessed for a womanly devotion to all that was abstractly good and uplifting to the Anglo-Saxon race. America has brilliantly closed a peace with Spain; during the war which pre-ceded it, our nation was astonished and gratified to find that the two English-speaking peoples were one. Our people attribute to the moral influence of Victoria and her deceased consort the revolution in sentiment abroad that has cemented the friendship f two powerful nations.

The ancient Egyptians honored an Arch-Prophet with great authority. The Romans elected a Pontifex Maximus, or chief priest who, in certain matters, possessed a paramount power. The Queen, all her life, has occupied a position akin to the station of some particularly august chief-priest or Druid of antiquity. "She reigns, but does not govern." The American does not know what that means. He must opine that her influence is a negative one to keep things as they were to discourage change. While Victoria is the most conspicuous woman of our time, it is perhaps possible to conceive that the monotony of her career will deprive her of the commanding place in the chapters of far-off future history.

George III, the King whose generals George Washington defeated, had four sons. Two f them reigned as George IV and William IV. The fourth son, Edward Duke of Kent, married the widow of the Prince of Leiningen, Mary Louisa Victoria, daughter f the Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. To this couple was born, at Kensington Palace, May 24, 1819, Alexandrina Victoria, destined, through the death f other heirs, to be Queen. The father died suddenly when Victoria was eight years old. She was carefully trained by her mother, and it was not till she was twelve years old that she learned she was the heir-apparent. She was taught regular habits and strict economy. She sang, danced, rode, and excelled with the bow and arrow. She labored patiently with the Latin, French and Italian, which were deemed essential to the education f English people of the upper classes. She was taught to be self-reliant, brave, and systematical. At fifteen she was allowed the society of the young Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, her cousin, and the young people found each other highly agreeable, to the satisfaction of their mothers.

At 2:30 a.m. of June 20, 1837, King William IV was no more. At five in the morning, three messengers, one f whom was the Archbishop f Canterbury, had reached Kensington Palace, and, after many delays on account f the early hour, the Princess of eighteen, in loose white night-gown and shawl, slippers and tears, with hair down, appeared in the receiving-room, and the great Victorian Era f railroads, steamships, dynamos, telegraph, telephones, chemistry, public education, literature and science was begun. A consultation was held, and the Privy Council, a large body of lords, was called to meet there at 11 o'clock. In this meeting she appeared plainly dressed, in mourning. She was first "taught her lesson" by the elderly peers who had seen other monarchs come to the throne. She then read her speech with skill, and received the homage of the great officers f England. Her two uncles and the other persons who had heretofore directed her actions now knelt before her and kissed her hand, the Duke f Wellington in the number, and this, to the satisfaction f the lovers of that method of government, she took as a matter f necessity; and comported herself through the informal ceremony with a youthful dignity that was the remark f all. She was small in stature, without much pretension to beauty, but with graceful manners, and a good appearance. She was in the best of health. Up to this time she had never slept out f her own bedroom, nor been alone with anybody but her mother and the Baroness Lehgen. Her mother had wisely determined to keep her daughter uncontaminated by the court-life f the Four Georges.

The Queen signed herself "Victoria," which has been the shibboleth of the British Empire. She was pro-claimed Queen, and appeared on the throne in the House f Lords to prorogue Parliament. A year later, June 28, 1838, the ceremony f her coronation took place. We will outline this act f State, to show its effect on the eyes f loyal subjects :

About ten in the morning Her Majesty entered Westminster Hall and sat in the Chair f State. The Sword f State was brought. Then Curtana (sword) and the two Swords of Justice were drawn. Then there advanced up the hall in procession the choirs, heralds, the bearers of St. Edward's Crown, the Orb, the Scepter with the Dove, the Scepter with the Cross, St. Edward's Staff, the Chalice and Patina, the Bible these forming the Regalia (regal things). These Regalia were now delivered to the great lords entitled to bear them to the Abbey church of St. Peter, Westminster. The Queen and peers now started in procession toward the Abbey, each peer bearing his coronet in hand, not on his head. The Queen's Herb-Strewers spread flowers and the procession moved with drums, trumpets, officers of the law, the Knight Marshal, London Aldermen, Masters in Chancery, choirs, gentlemen, priests, the Dean of Westminster bearing Victoria's new Crown, bands f music, Orders f Knights, Law Barons, and Lords, the Privy Council, the bearers f the Ruby Ring, and of the Sword to be girt on the Monarch, Heralds, the Barons in robes f State, the Standards of Ireland and Scotland side by side, the Bishops, the Viscounts in robes of State, the Standard of England, the Earls in their robes of State, the Union Standard, the Marquesses, the Royal Standard, the Dukes in their robes of State, the Lord Archbishop of York, cap in hand, the Lord High Chancellor, the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, cap in hand, the Regalia (as described), the High Constables, the Princes of the Royal Blood, their trains borne by nobles or officers, the Queen under a canopy borne by the Barons of the Cinque Ports, with train borne by the daughters f Peers ; Lords, Keepers, Pages, Aides.

As the procession entered, its members were seated. As the Queen entered, the Queen's scholars hailed her "Vivat Victoria Regina!" While Her Majesty stood, all present repeatedly acclaimed, "God save Victoria !" The Standards and Regalia having been received, litany, communion and sermon by the Archbishop of Canterbury followed, and the Queen took the oath, and was disrobed and anointed by the Archbishop under the Pall of Gold, held by Peers. Her Majesty was girt and spurred, and, rising, was invested with the Imperial Robe and Armil. She was given the Orb, the Ring, the Scepters. She next put on a pair of gloves on which were the Arms f Howard. The Archbishop consecrated St. Edward's Crown and placed it on her head, when all present acclaimed "God save the Queen !" with drums beating and trumpets sounding. The Holy Bible was presented. Her Majesty kissed the Archbishops and Bishops. The Te Deum was sung, and the Queen was enthroned. Sitting on her throne, she now received the homage, each Order altering name, office and oath to circumstance. For instance, the first Prince of the Blood Royal, kneeling before her, pronounced homage as follows, for himself and the other Princes: "I do become your Liege-man f life and limb, and in earthly worship, and firm and true I will bear unto you, to live and die against all manner of folks. So help me God." Their Royal Highnesses touched the Crown on Her Majesty's head, and kissed her left cheek. After the homages, the Queen took the sacrament. In the street procession, Marshal Soult, the French Ambassador (of Lützen and Waterloo), rode in a carriage of the house of Condé and was received with furious applause. He was very old. Prince Esterhazy, in Austrian robes, "sparkled in diamonds down to his very boot-heels."

Strangely enough, the very first great political issue came out of the "Question of Jupons" (short petticoats). The reader must be diverted to a short statement of the English system. The "Constitution" there means ""custom." Parliament meets in two houses, like our Congress. The Senate is the House of Lords, whose members are peers, and generally hold for life and by birth; but they cannot be elected to the House of Commons. A congressional district is called a "borough" and the candidate for the Commons may live outside his borough. Our President and his Cabinet may here be represented by the English Prime Minister and his Cabinet, who are chosen by the dominant political party from both Lords and Commons. For instance, Gladstone is elected to the Commons; the Queen, seeing his party in power, sends for him, and he forms a Cabinet. The members of this Cabinet now resign and stand for election again, to be sure they are popular enough to hold office. They come back and (note!) sit in Parliament being on hand to answer questions and lead debate. When they are out-voted, they can dissolve Parliament and have a new election, or they can resign, but they cannot stay in office like our Presidents, long after they have lost the confidence f the country. An election takes about six weeks ; ours takes four times as long. Theoretically, their system is much freer than ours; practically, the Queen, the Lords, the "Constitution," are in the way, and America stands today the only free country worthy of the name.

The Prime Minister Melbourne was a Whig. The new Parliament (there must be a new one with a new reign) had a Tory majority. Melbourne resigned. The Queen sent for Wellington, who could not sit in the House, where the Premier ought to have been then. He advised her to get Peel, who could. Peel tried to change the ladies of the Queen's bedchamber to Tory women they were Whig women. The Queen would not do it. Peel would not serve. Melbourne had to be recalled. The Irish always hate the Tories worse than the Whigs —but hate both. O'Connell was delighted. He called on the Powers above to "bless the young creature" who had stood out for her feelings against a great nation of persecutors, who desired to introduce politics into the royal household. But the Melbourne Ministry was also accused of crawling back to office behind the petticoats f the ladies in waiting to the Queen. It held on till 1841.

The Queen personally announced her forthcoming marriage January 14, 1840, in Parliament. The wedding took place February 10. Prince Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, besides giving a name to our long coats, earned the title of Albert the Good. A nobler consort-prince has not existed. This title was not officially bestowed on him until June, 1857. Parliament was at first jealous f him, for he was given precedence next after the Queen. He constituted himself her private secretary and Minister f Arts and Education without a portfolio. He was to be Regent, if she should die, and soon became the greatest cornerstone-layer the world has ever seen.

June 10, 1840, a pot-boy named Oxford shot twice at the Queen; May 30, 1842, John Francis, a machinist, fired at her; shortly afterward a hunchback named Bean fired at her ; May 19, 1849, an Irish bricklayer fired a pistol at her, loaded only with powder; May 27, 1850, an insane lieutenant f Hussars struck her with a stick. Finally, February 29, 1872, a lad of seventeen, named O'Connor, presented an unloaded pistol at her. None of these assassins was punished with death. Some of them were whipped. The attempts on Victoria, followed by the long series of assassinations elsewhere, led to rigorous measures for the protection of the Queen when she travels, and no persons except soldiers or officials can come near a railway station when she takes or leaves a train. When she is exposed all day to danger, as on her Diamond Jubilee, the nation feels a sense of relief at night, so little can foresight forefend her against the attacks of the insane and the seeker for infamous notoriety.

The Queen's first child, Victoria Adelaide, was born November 21, 1840, and became Empress of Germany. The Prince f Wales was born November 9, 1841, and has long been a grandfather. His birth was hailed with public rejoicings. The King of Prussia came to London to attend the christening, and the baby was a fine one. Lovers of oratorio will be interested to know that the "Hallelujah Chorus" was sung, and Prince Albert did all those things well. Probably our own success with the "Messiah" may be due to the interest he first excited in England. The Prince of Wales came near dying in 1872, and there was a national festival because he got well. When, as a child, he was old enough to stand, the Queen, Albert and the two children often presented themselves to the troops, who looked on the group with warm affection, and carried British arms abroad with the idea that that sort of thing would be good for the barbarians together, of course, with a creditable amount of trade. In all, nine children were born, Beatrice, the last, being the companion of her mother through life.

When Melbourne retired, Gladstone and Disraeli, a Jew, came into public life together. The Queen outlived them both. The Jews found their first true friend in Victoria. Moses Montefiore was the first Jew to be knighted or honored. The house of Rothschild continued to rise in power, Lord Rosebery took office, and Lombard Street has long ruled the finance of America as imperiously as that of the British Treasury. If you ask for Victoria's standard, it is emphatically the Gold Standard. Under it the prices of the leading commodities of life have fallen steadily since the beginning of her reign, while the British Government borrows money at 4 per cent interest, and a premium of 17 per cent or six years' interest is paid by the lender to obtain the chance to lend the money.

In 1843 the Queen and her husband visited the King of the French by yacht at the Chateau d'Eu, and went also to Belgium. The Czar came to England. Louis Philippe returned the visit f Victoria. Not many years later, Victoria made the first f those trips to the continent which during the latter decades of her life were as regular as the seasons. She built the castle f Balmoral, in Scotland. She early gave up the battle with Parliament and waged one against the seasons; summer sees her in Scotland; winter finds her at Wight, or amid the roses of the Riviera. She has evaded more bad weather than any other Famous Woman in history.

October 28, 1844, the Queen went to the city of London in state with a magnificent procession. Sir Robert Peel was never tired f telling how the Lord Mayor of London that day put on a pair of jack-boots over his shoes and stockings, to keep the mud off. They arrived at Temple Bar. The Aldermen, while the Queen was coming, took hold f one boot and pulled it off. A spur on the other boot became entangled in the fur of the robes of several Aldermen, the Mayor on one leg, swearing, and the Queen fast approaching. As she came up the steps, the Lord Mayor, in desperation, kicking him-self loose from the torn robes, shouted out in frenzy, "For God's sake, put my boot on again !"—and he ate in his jack-boots.

In 1851 Prince Albert opened the Crystal Palace, beginning that series of vast exhibitions which had their latest representative in the Paris Exposition of 1900. "The great event," wrote Victoria, "has taken place a complete and beautiful triumph a glorious and touching sight, one which I shall ever be proud of for my beloved Albert and my country." The Exhibition ran from May 1 to October 15.

An important episode in Victoria's life was her quarrel with Lord Palmerston. Imagine a learned Liberal, who had studied the languages, customs and peoples of Europe until he thought he understood them better than any other Englishman. Imagine him Foreign Secretary, where his Prime Minister (Lord John Russell) is notably deficient in a taste for foreign affairs. The Foreign Secretary, too, has scored a great success for English diplomacy, and Britain is proud of him. But "dear Albert," too, is an able man, and talks all languages perhaps enough fuss is not being made over "dear Albert" perhaps a little feminine feeling of jealousy there for "dear Albert." Anyhow, this Palmerston is headstrong he pays little or no attention to Lord John Russell, his Premier, and often the Queen is the last to hear f an action taken by England. That makes a pure jest of her sovereignty, and finally she gets angry. This Palmerston is always in a hurry. If a thing must be answered to-day, he cannot wait till next week. Now "dear Albert" was "open to new argument and late conviction." Let it lie awhile tomorrow, tomorrow just as they do in Spain. Let Albert think about it, too. He knows Europe was born there. Governments are toppling, sovereigns are abdicating, and this Palmerston sympathizes with the people every time. Let us write him such a letter that he will resign. Accordingly, Victoria Regina, to the Prime Minister, Lord John Russell this remarkable document "OSBORNE, August 12, 1850.

"With reference to the conversation about Lord Palmerston which the Queen had with Lord John Russell the other day, and Lord Palmerston's disavowal that he ever intended any disrespect to her by the various neglects of which she has had so long and so often to complain, she thinks it right, in order to prevent any mistake for the future, to explain what it is she expects from the Foreign Secretary.

"She requires :

"I. That he will distinctly state what he proposes to do in a given case, in order that the Queen may know as distinctly to what she has given her royal sanction.

"2. Having once given her sanction to a measure, that it be not arbitrarily altered or modified by the Minister; such an act she must consider as failure in sincerity toward the Crown, and justly to be visited by the exercise of her constitutional right of dismissing that Minis-ter. She expects to be kept informed of what passes between him and the Foreign Ministers, before important decisions are taken based upon that intercourse ; to receive the foreign dispatches in good time, and to have the drafts for her approval sent to her in sufficient time to make herself acquainted with their contents before they must be sent off. The Queen thinks it best that Lord John Russell should show this letter to Lord Palmerston."

Palmerston did not resign. He promised not to disobey his gracious Queen, and made such an ado over Kossuth, the Hungarian, that the Queen was in woe. The people cheered Kossuth. Her Majesty took it amiss. She did not dare make the issue then, but caught Palmerston when he had conversationally recognized the usurpation of Louis Napoleon as Emperor of the French.

The English people were furious against Napoleon III, and Victoria got Palmerston out f the Cabinet. He had been out-generaled, and Victoria came in as friend of the people. Five years later, in the Crimean war, the people called on Palmerston to be Prime Minister, and his victory over Albert seemed complete. But the same question of friendship for Napoleon III ruined him three years later.

September 14, 1852, "the Duke" (Wellington) died. He had been a bulwark of the throne. The Queen right or wrong, was, his way of thinking, and the people, adoring him because he had "whipped Boney," ended by loving him for his touching loyalty. Victoria lost her best subject, and England her greatest warrior.

The battle between Gladstone and Disraeli lasted twenty-four years, till Disraeli died. The Queen admired the Jew, and chose the abler of the twain. Gladstone had the genius f respectability, finance, verbosity. So far as Americans could see, he was as much of a Tory as Disraeli, and as to Ireland and Egypt, a far greater dissembler. Finally Disraeli made England the arbiter of Europe at the Congress of Berlin, while Gladstone deserted Gordon at Khartoum. The Queen cannot be condemned for preferring Disraeli to Gladstone. She was proclaimed throughout India, on November 1, 1858, "Victoria by the grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the colonies and dependencies thereof, in Europe, Asia, Africa, America. and Australasia. Queen, Defender of the Faith." In 1877 Disraeli had her proclaimed Kaisar-i-Hind (Empress of Hindostan).

We have seen that Maria Theresa established a successful Order. The decoration f the Victoria Cross, instituted by the Queen of Great Britain, has become in the minds of the English-speaking people one of the proudest marks ever put on a subject by a sovereign. On the forenoon of June 26, 1857, in Hyde Park, London, in the presence of a Hyde Park multitude, Victoria made her first distribution. Sixty-two heroes presented them-selves, and as the Queen with her own hands fastened the cross on the breast of a soldier who had performed some signal act of valor in the presence of the foe, there was a cheer from nearly a million people.

The American Civil War broke out. The North looked first to England for sympathy. England, Spain and France were the only three nations that did not extend good wishes. Our true friend was despotic Russia. The Queen looked on the disintegration of the Republic as a foregone conclusion, and hoped it would strengthen all human thrones. What respect had the Yankees for the Scepter with the Dove, for Cutana the sword, for the Orb? How long would men bow down before her son, her son's son, kissing the royal hand and pledging blood and treasure from the body kneeling to the anointed body on the throne? Gladstone was eloquently for the South. Abraham Lincoln was giving up Mason and Slidell at the savage demand of England when, December 14, 1861, on the midnight air of London the great bell of St. Paul's tolled the passing of Prince Albert, who had counseled peace and "to-morrow" against Palmerston's irate demands on America, the last advice of the good Prince to his Queen's subjects. He died looking lovingly at his sovereign. That was long, long ago. She mourns him today, not so bitterly as then yet London was for decades to see her no more. Her chair was usually vacant in the House of Lords. Her son was in her place at great ceremonies. She built to Albert's memory a vast monument, a replica of one of whose groups of statuary was to be seen at Victoria House in the Chicago Fair f 1893, and now stands in Garfield Park of that city.

In 1867 the Sultan of Turkey visited Queen Victoria, and she took him to Spithead to review the fleet. The Queen gave much attention to the preparation of volumes regarding the life and works of Prince Albert. In 1867 appeared "The Early Days of His Royal Highness, The Prince Consort," by General C. Grey, under her super-vision. Then, in 1869, throwing aside all court etiquette, she avowed the authorship of "Leaves from the Journal f Our Life in the Highlands." A work in five volumes, giving the history of the labors of the Prince, was published under her care between 1874-80. She has since printed another journal of the Highlands.

Since our era began, the Queen's Government has made war on a surprisingly large number f puny governments, and has avoided war twice with America and once with Russia. Note the number f countries into which British arms have been carried, or where uprisings have been suppressed : Abyssinia, Egypt, Nubia, the Nyanza country, Zululand, the Boers' country, Ashantee, Dahomey, Manitoba, Mexico, Crete, Cyprus, India, Burmah, Afghanistan, Beloochistan, Persia, Tibet, the Chinese Coast, Venezuela, Ireland. Now both China and Persia are likely to be partitioned between Czar and Queen. It is hard to say which one of these potentates has acquired the more territory since 1837, and both Empires are nearly alike in area, with the advantage in square miles on the side f Great Britain, while Russia's acquisitions are integral, and Manchuria, lately taken, is nearly equal to India. As the Queen has grown old in fact, all her life she has been a prudent counselor for peace with great nations, yet it has been under Liberal Ministries that she has submitted to rebuffs rather than to declare war, and this has nearly always defeated her natural political opponents, the Liberals. She has seen the power f "the classes" slipping slowly away, and the rule f "the masses" increasing by insensible stages. Not one f these arrogations of popular rights has she ever approved yet she was not like Marie Antoinette. She could make terms, keep promises, and say no more about it. Her extraordinary value to the nation as an exemplary daughter, mother, and wife have given to her an authority which the English, with felicity and justice, bestow only on the good. Democrat and aristocrat, at heart, consider such results to be f greater importance than mere written forms of government. She ranks with Isabella and Maria Theresa as a chaste and pure-minded monarch, and she has reigned nearly as long as both of them.

Osborne House, on the Isle of Wight, Windsor Castle, near London, Balmoral Castle in the Scottish Highlands, Nice in the worst months these are the places that have seen the Queen for thirty years. She has kept a good account of state affairs, and is by this time the best-informed politician in Europe. Sovereigns may well send her gifts at Christmas, and ask her by what magic she has kept her throne, while walking delegates and Joseph Arches have gone to Parliament, lived, spouted, died. Free trade, Irish disestablishment, trade unions, Rothschild and his oath, Bradlaugh and his oath, rotten boroughs, absentee-voting in the House of Lords —hundreds of little royalties, little steps to the throne, have broken away, yet Victoria, at her Golden Jubilee, in 1887 when she had reigned fifty years and a thousand times more certainly in 1897, at her Diamond Jubilee, seemed the best-seated of all the monarchs. She reigned in the British heart. She saw, marching before her, the four races of Africa, the sects of the Mohammedan Arabs, the Kanakas and yellow men of the Pacific Islands, the Japanese, Chinese, Burmese, Hindoos, Singhalese, Canadians, West Indians, Esquimaux, American Indians, Australians, Maltese, Cyprians, the English, Scotch, Irish, Spanish, Dutch. She saw the magnates of the state processions like the Coronation, the sinew and intellect of the trades, the arts, the sciences. She smiled upon the magistrates not only f the Kingdom f Great Britain and Ireland and the Empire of India, but of the British Governments of Socotra, Aden, Ceylon, Hong Kong, Labuan, Borneo, the Straits, Cyprus, Canada, Guiana, Honduras, the Australasian group of countries, Papua, New Zealand, the West Indies, the Cape Colony, Natal, Mauritius, West Africa and Gold Coast, the Falk-lands, St. Helena, Malta, Gibraltar, Egypt, and the new and scarce named areas of British Africa. The triumphs of the Roman conquerors, when the Mediterranean basin was totally theirs, pale into insignificance before the tribute which the Anglo-Saxon conquerors laid at the feet f Victoria on the day that she had ruled them sixty years. And looking over westward at another large nation which they hungered to have with them that day in order to show the true Anglo-Saxon power, they began forthwith, by works f love, to win back the riches they had lost through un-English tyranny and un-Saxon sympathy with slavery and secession. Nor do we know that Victoria does not keenly feel the joy of this great coming together; for when the British-Americans of Western America, on her Golden Jubilee, sent to her their testimonial, f affection, signed by 60,000 British-born persons, she broke down all etiquette, took the vast reel of paper from the hands of the courageous special messenger, who would give it to no one else, and to his speech of joyful triumph over the beef-eaters, herb-strewers, and waste-basket emperors of Windsor Castle, she made extemporaneous answer in finest style, being secretly glad to demonstrate that no American stump-orator could give the English sovereign any lessons in either good-will or occasional eloquence.

Of all the great monarchical courts that of St. James is the simplest, yet the Queen's household numbers 1,000 persons. The salaries paid are the highest, but the services exacted are not light. The Queen's grant for these expenses is $2,250,000 a year. Her unostentatious existence has made her long life monotonous in recital, and it has been only when some pageant has called her forth that she has appeared in conspicuous manner before the world, whose curiosity, however, has increased with the surprising length f her reign.

She rises at 8 a.m. and eats oatmeal, fish, and drinks cocoa. Thirty-five lords and ladies in waiting dine more sumptuously. For their service there are a kitchen clerk, a chef, six cooks, and fourteen helpers. At 10 o'clock she receives her mail and news. Court etiquette requires that she shall not handle a single newspaper or magazine. Clippings are prepared for her and fastened to white satin. Printed matter for her use is on white satin. She receives none except family letters. No member f the royal family or other person can call her attention to news, or hand her any periodical whatever. Political clippings are never made.

The six -Pages f the Back Stairs are her principal servants, being the door-keepers, at $50 a week. These persons are well hated in the palace because f their power. It is said one f them on summoning Prince Battenberg (husband of Beatrice) to the Queen's pres- <> ence, told him the guard would be called if immediate attention were not paid to the royal command, and the Prince f Wales backed up the servant.

The Gentleman of the Cellar receives $3,000 a year, and has three assistants. The Queen no longer drinks beer. When she did, the tapped keg went to the servants, no one else drinking out of it at table. She now drinks a glass or two of Beaune.

Dinner at 7 p. m. is the event of the day. The Table-Decker has a suite of rooms, three Assistant Deckers, a Waxfitter for the candles, and three Lamplighters. Two hours are occupied in setting the table. The Queen enters, preceded by the White Wand. She likes to have the Scottish pipers march round the table making a droning music, which is said to have afflicted Battenberg's ears exquisitely. She gives the signal for rising, and proceeds to her private apartments, where she works with the needle, listens to readings, or herself reads the poems, etc., in bronze letters on satin with bullion fringe, that are showered upon her. In 1889 an American woman in Florida forwarded to the Queen a collection of leaves which she had spent three years in gathering. Custom forbids the acceptance of any presents at court, but the Queen retained these volumes three months, poring over their pages and specimens many evenings, and returned the gift with expressions f deep regret.

The Queen goes to bed at 10 o'clock. There are eight Ladies of the Bedchamber of very high rank, and eight bedchamber women. The bed is nearly all f Australian products, the woolen blankets being marvels of softness and light weight. While Her Majesty sleeps the sleep of the just, the valiant Queen's Rat-Catcher goes forth to fulfill his oath and keep the royal palace "free from all rats and mice and such small deer."

Christmas is spent at the handsome Osborne House on the Isle of Wight, and thither the merchants take their wares for the royal inspection, as she has a long list f relatives, servants, and sovereigns to remember. Holly and mistletoe come from Windsor Park to deck the royal chapel and Whippingham Church. The firs for Christmas trees come from Frogmore (Windsor) and have been born and raised to be royal Christmas trees. The great baron f beef, the gigantic woodcock pie, the royal boar's head and the Queen's plum-pudding are all shipped from the big kitchens at Windsor. The boar's head has opened jaws, artificial tusks and eyes, and encochinealed gums, and is the trophy par excellence of the feast. The plum pudding gets bigger each year, keeping pace with the Empire. The leading spirit in these island festivities is the Princess Beatrice, who has taken them up exactly as her mother practised them. The men native to the island all have presents they received from the hands of the Queen. Since the large dining hall was built the Queen entertains at Osborne, and here the new German Emperor was first received by her, his grandmother.

The Queen's life in the Highlands is covered in her own two books. Lady Bloomfield's life at Windsor as a waiting maid of honor to the Queen is a familiar book. The vast Diamond Jubilee, with its unparalleled naval review, is a volume by itself, and has received deserved attention in the magazines f periodical literature. The annual hegira to Nice has also become a matter familiar to the world. The Queen then takes her bed with her, and occupies a chateau, which she rents.

Death has entered her family, but a great family has risen to call her blessed. The death f Prince Albert came at Christmas-time, and she felt her first great woe at Osborne. Her third child, Princess Alice, died in 1878; Prince Leopold, the seventh, died in 1884. All her children in turn had children save the Princess Louise, who married the son of the Duke of Argyll in 1871. "The Duke maun be a prood mon this morning," said Sandy to Malcom ; "Hoot, mon !" cried Malcom, hotly, "The Queen maun be a prood woman, this morning." For the Argyll, the Campbell clan, are an old people !

The Queen has outlived eighteen or nineteen Ministries. There have risen against her political views O'Connell, Cobden, Bright, Bradlaugh, Parnell. Melbourne, Peel, Palmerston, Derby, Disraeli, Gladstone and Salisbury have been her leading Premiers. Some men like Gladstone and Disraeli, Dilke, Morley, and Chamberlain, have started off one way and ended another. The men whom we admire the most here in America those men the Queen, of necessity, has admired the least. It is the English theory that there is luck in pretending to be governed by the Queen, and yet in making her do as she does not wish to do, together with many kissings, genuflections, and costumings in imitation of the scenes before the Paynim armies, when the armor f Christian knights threw back the sunbeams of an approving heaven. In admiring Victoria, we must pass by the fact that she is no friend of democratic rule, but remember that she has successfully played the part that was set for poor Marie Antoinette. And as the most important canons of our government, after all, operate within the walls of our own homes, we have, in the powerful Victoria, in whose name the battleships sweep the sea, on whose dominion the sun never sets, a moral mentor, friend, exemplar, uplifter, such as must exalt the world. At the capital f mankind, where wealth has made its largest purse, where temptation to waste and dissipation has whispered its softest words, there, for the greater portion of one hundred years, only the moral man and woman have received the royal approbation. People are less savage and more just because Victoria has lived and ruled. She died January 22, 1901, after the longest and most eventful reign in English history.

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