Thomas Jonathan Jackson
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Thomas Jonathan Jackson
( Originally Published Early 1900's )
"DO YOUR DUTY AND LEAVE THE REST TO GOD"
As a warrior, General Thomas Jonathan Jackson, better known to fame as "Stonewall" Jackson, has frequently been compared to Napoleon. In the characters of these two men as warriors, there is indeed a great similarity. The wonderful marches and the rapidity with which movements in strategy were carried out by Jack-son were never surpassed by Napoleon. The clear vision of military plans which Napoleon possessed to so remarkable a degree was also a distinguishing characteristic of Stonewall Jackson. The confidence and loyalty of soldiers for their leader was never shown by the French troops of the "Little Corporal" to a more pronounced extent than was that of the Southern soldiers to "Old Jack." Like Napoleon, too, Jackson was on terms of friendly familiarity with the common trooper under his command. While Jackson was not a strict disciplinarian, no man ever drew the line of duty closer, and none ever performed it more faithfully. These traits, together with his calm and never-failing courage, his confidence and cool daring, and the aggressive spirit which at all times predominated his movements in the campaigns, accounts for the devotion with which his men followed their intrepid leader against many a forlorn hope and turned the tide of more than one desperate conflict. Stonewall Jackson's genius as a soldier was excelled only by his gallantry and indomitable bravery. He was throughout a consistent and practical Christian, and solemnly attributed to the Almighty every victory, while defeats were accepted with a calm resignation as part of the plan of the Creator. Jackson died as he had lived, a warrior and a Christian. General Lee, in announcing the death of Jackson to the army, wrote: "The daring, skill, and energy of this great and good soldier, by a decree of all-wise Providence, are now lost to us. But while we mourn his death, we feel that his spirit lives, and will inspire the whole army with his indomitable courage and unshaken confidence in God as our hope and strength."
The first of the Jacksons of Virginia came to America in 1748. This was John Jackson, of London, England, a youth of Scotch-Irish descent. Aboard the same vessel which brought Jackson to America was Elizabeth Cummins, a stately Saxon beauty, also bound for the new colonies in America. Shortly after their arrival they were married in Maryland, and soon moved to Western Virginia, and still later crossed the Alleghany Mountains and settled upon the Buckhannon River with other intrepid pioneers, who saw more of Indians than of white people. Among their children was Edward, who made his home in Lewis County; became a member of the Legislature, and was county surveyor. Jonathan, the son of Edward Jackson, settled in the town of Clarksburg, Harrison County, Va., where he practiced law, and was married to Julia Neale, daughter of Thomas Neale. It was at Clarksburg that Thomas Jonathan Jackson was born January 21, 1824, being the youngest of four children. In 1827 the father died, and three years later the mother married a second time, so that at six years of age Thomas was sent to live with relatives that were better able to provide for him than his mother and stepfather, who were very poor. Thomas finally came to live with Cummings E. Jackson, an uncle, near Weston, and here he remained, working on the farm and attending school long enough to acquire an ordinary English education. At sixteen years of age Thomas was so well thought of that the Justices of the County Court of Lewis County elected him con-stable, and while serving in this capacity he learned that there was a vacancy at West Point, and through the aid of Colonel J. M. Bennett he was admitted as a cadet in July, 1842. As a student the progress of Jackson was slow during the first year, but by close application he improved during the second year, and in the two succeeding years made great advances. He is described at this time as an awkward, absent-minded young man, who, although he was the subject of jest at times among his fellows, had really won many friendships among them because of his determination and energy in struggling to secure an education without having had the necessary preparatory training from childhood. At this time no one would suspect him of possessing even- a spark of military genius. Jackson graduated and received the appointment of brevet second-lieutenant of artillery, July I, 1846. It was an auspicious moment. The United States was at war with Mexico, and the young graduate was assigned to the First Regiment of United States Artillery, then serving in Mexico under General Taylor. It was not until the spring of the following year that his regiment had an opportunity for active service. His first experience with war was in the attack and capture of Vera Cruz. After the fall of the city, Jackson became attached to the battery of Captain Magruder, a dashing and intrepid officer. In the battle of Churubusco, Captain Magruder's first lieutenant was killed, and this advanced Jackson to a position next in command to the Captain. In his official report, Captain Magruder says : "In a few moments, Lieutenant Jackson, commanding the second section of the battery, who had opened fire upon the enemy's works from a position on the right, hearing our fire still further in front, advanced in handsome style, and, being assigned by me to the post which had been so gallanty filled by Lieutenant Johnstone, kept up the fire with great briskness and effect. His conduct was equally conspicuous during the whole day, and I cannot too highly commend him to the Major-General's favorable consideration." For his splendid behavior in this battle Jackson was promoted to the brevet rank of captain. In the storming of the Castle of Chapultepec, Jackson is again mentioned in most flattering terms by his captain, who says : "If devotion, industry, talent, and gallantry are the highest qualities of a soldier, then he is entitled to the distinction which their profession confers." This was September 13, 1847, and it earned for the enthusiastic young soldier the brevet rank of major. It was the day of the fall of the City of Mexico, and the bravery of Jackson brought praise from many of the officers about him. The war with Mexico having come to an end, he was stationed for two years at Fort Hamilton, and was then ordered to Fort Meade, Florida. He remained but a short time, as the climate was so injurious to his health that he was compelled to return. Early in the year 1851 he sought the position of Professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy at the Virginia Military Institute, and entered upon his duties September 1, 1851. This period of his life is marked by two events of interest; the first his marriage, and the second his profession of religion. The Military Institute was located near the town of Lexington, and Jackson became a member of the Presbyterian Church of that place. He attended with military regularity, and on November 22d made a public profession of faith. August 4, 1853, Jackson was married to Elinor Junkin, daughter of Rev. Dr. George Junkin, president of Washington College. She died fourteen months after the marriage, and a few years later, July 16, 1857, he married Mary Anna Morrison, daughter of Rev. R. H. Morrison, of Lincoln County, North Carolina. He was ever a devoted husband, of which bears witness the volume published by his wife, giving a large share of his correspondence with her during the Civil War and up to the time of his death. Jack-son was in earnest about everything. He possessed a strong will, and although he has been referred to by some as a fatalist, this feature of his character consisted in his religious belief that God had created for him a mission in life, and that until he had accomplished it, no harm could come to him. This feeling was; how-ever, strong in him before he professed religion, for it is a well-authenticated fact that during the Mexican campaign, on one occasion when the firing became so hot that his men took to shelter, Jackson walked quietly up and down by his battery and shouted to his men to return, and while shot was whistling all around him, confidently remarked, "See, they don't hit me." In the year 1858 Jackson made a journey to Europe and remained there several months. In the fall of 1859 the memorable John Brown raid took place at Harper's Ferry. Brown attempted to raise an insurrection among the negroes, and seized the Government stores, but was surrounded and captured. Among the troops ordered on duty to prevent a lynching of Brown were the cadets and their officers, and Jackson in the letter describing the execution of Brown deplores his refusal to see a minister, and expresses anguish that the victim must appear before the judgment throne unrepentant.
When in 1861 the war clouds broke as a result of the secession of several of the Southern States, Virginia for a time hung in the balance, uncertain what course to pursue. April 14, 1861, President Lincoln called for 75,000 men to enforce United States supremacy in those States which had seceded. This decided Virginia, and on April 17th the State joined the rebellion. It was expected that Federal troops would immediately be sent into Virginia, and the work of defense at once began. Col. Robert E. Lee, who had just resigned from the United States cavalry, was made Major-General of the troops in the State of Virginia. Steps were at once taken to prevent Fortress Monroe and the Norfolk Navy Yard from falling into the hands of the Federal army. Major Jackson marched with his cadets to Camp Lee, at Richmond, where he began drilling new troops that were constantly flocking to the camp. While thus engaged he was nominated as Colonel by Governor Letcher. His appointment was immediately confirmed by the Convention, and he was ordered to proceed to Harper's Ferry to take charge of the troops which were being assembled there. He took command May 3, 1861. On May 23d General Joseph E. Johnston, a former officer of the United States army and a man of unquestioned ability, arrived, and took command of the entire force at that time mobilized. Jackson was then assigned to command a brigade of infantry, composed of four regiments of Virginians. At this time the newspapers of the North were predicting a brief and bloodless war. It was evident, however, that President Lincoln was not of this opinion, for on May 3d he called for 40,000 additional infantry volunteers, 18,000 seamen, and ten more regiments for the regular army. This would give the Government a total of 150,000 troops. The plan of operation was to throw one strong column into the Mississippi valley, a second was to enter Kentucky and subdue the rebellion there, while a third was to march upon Richmond and stamp out the organization of the Confederacy in Virginia. At the same time all Southern ports were to be blockaded. The column for the invasion of Virginia it was intended to have move in detachments in four directions, converging upon Richmond, and after the capture of that city to quickly spread over the balance of the State and reduce it to submission. The Virginians were making strenuous efforts to meet the expected attack. Jackson was already beginning to achieve good results. He was rapidly molding his little army of volunteers into disciplined soldiers, and by his own example of tireless energy, imbuing them with that unyielding fortitude and magnificent courage which was destined to make the "Stonewall Brigade" famous in the annals of the Civil War. This brigade was composed to a large extent of very young men, many of them but fifteen years of age. Very few had ever experienced hardships of any kind. They had come from homes of luxury to enter upon a life which required their most heroic efforts, and yet it must be said that, unpromising as the material at first appeared, the result did not prove disappointing. The first opportunity afforded Jackson to test the courage and efficiency of his brigade did not come until July 2d. Jackson with his brigade had been dispatched on June 20th to the neighborhood of Martinsburg with orders to capture all of the Baltimore and Ohio rolling stock possible, to destroy the rest, and then to act in support of the cavalry under Stuart in the event of an advance by the enemy. Martinsburg was soon reached, a number of locomotives were sent back to Winchester, forty engines and 300 cars were destroyed, and Jackson then advanced to join Stuart. These two were to act together against the invading force tinder Patter-son. On July 2d, General Patterson, at the head of the Federal army, crossed the Potomac into Virginia. Jackson immediately advanced to receive the attack. He took with him only the Fifth Virginia and a battery of four six-pounders, under Captain Pendleton. The infantry numbered 38o men. Near the village of Falling Waters they came upon the enemy, which consisted of three brigades, aside from infantry and artillery. Undaunted, Jackson ordered an advance, and the Federal troops hastily formed in line of battle, taking in a barnyard and a farmhouse. In spite of the heavy firing, the attack of the Virginians was so fierce that the enemy was compelled to retreat from the farmyard and across the turnpike. Jackson with difficulty restrained his men from taking up a pursuit, and fell back, whereupon the Federal cavalry advanced to the attack. Captain Pendleton, who was an Episcopal clergyman, had brought up one of his six-pounders, and as the cavalry approached, he gave the order, "Aim low, men ; and may the Lord have mercy on their souls." The shot went true and the cavalry wheeled in confusion. The lone six-pounder was then, at General Jackson's orders, turned upon the Federal artillery, and the firing continued for several hours, each side fearing to attack. To prevent himself from being outflanked, Jackson was finally compelled to retreat. Each side lost but two men and had a few wounded, and General Johnston, in making his official report, refers to the engagement as the "Affair of Falling Waters." In the eyes of Jackson. however, and those of his men, it was of far greater importance, for he had been able to get an estimate of their nerve, and they had discovered that their leader was a man who would face death with them. A few days later, having returned to Winchester, Jackson received his commission as Brigadier-General, and at the same time an addition to his brigade by the arrival of the Thirty-third Virginia regiment.
At this time the Federal armies were preparing to strike a decisive blow against the main body of the Con-federates at Manassas. In connection with this design, it was the purpose of General Patterson to hold the army of General Johnston in check while the main body of the Federal army, composed of 55,000 men under General McDowell, could advance upon Manassas to crush Beau-regard without fear of interference. July 17th General Patterson was informed by telegraph that McDowell's army was at Fairfax Courthouse, only a few hours' march from Beauregard's position. This was the critical moment, and Patterson began a movement calculated to hold Johnston in the valley. An hour after mid-night on the morning of July 18th the Federal troops had already begun action against the advance forces of the Confederates around Manassas. And at that moment General Johnston received an order from the Government at Richmond telling him to hasten to the aid of Beauregard. In order to accomplish this, it became necessary either to defeat the forces of General Patterson or to elude him. The latter was the course decided upon, and the Confederate forces skillfully out-witted the watching Federals, escaped through the rough pathway of Ashby's Gap, and determinedly set out toward Manassas. On the way a second message reached General Johnston from Beauregard, which said: "If you wish to help me, now is the time." The weary, half-famished soldiers were urged forward at a quickened pace. At Piedmont the fatigued infantry embarked on a train of the Manassas Gap Railroad, while the cavalry and artillery continued the march.
The majority of the troops arrived about noon, July 20th. Among the first was Jackson's brigade, and the assignment which he received found him with his 2,611 men occupying a position in the pine thickets in the very center of the Confederate line. The battle of Manassas will always occupy a place among the celebrated conflicts of the world, and the fortunes of this memorable day was decided by the First brigade, whose gallant commander here first received the proud title of "Stonewall." It was the first great battle of the war. Opposed to the Federal army of 55,000 men, with nine regiments of cavalry, and twelve batteries of artillery, numbering 49 guns, was General Beauregard's force of 21,833 muskets, 29 pieces of smooth-bore artillery, and three companies of cavalry. By the arrival of General Johnston and General Holmes, this force was increased to 31,431 muskets, 55 guns, and 500 cavalry. These forces were posted behind earthworks along the water-course known as Bull Run, and extended along the stream from Union Mills almost to Stone Bridge, a distance of eight miles. Especially strong detachments were posted at the several fords. The center of the line rested at Mitchell's Ford, and at this point Jackson's brigade was stationed. An artillery battle on the 18th served as a prelude to the great struggle of the 21st. The fighting began early in the morning by a furious attack on the Confederate left. The Southerners fought with desperation, but were being pressed back by the overwhelming Federal line. A rapid and gallant advance by the regiments under General Bee checked for a time the onward rush. The limit of resistance was finally reached, and slowly but gradually the Federal troops pushed the enemy before them. Bee's battalion, badly shattered, finally broke and began a full retreat, while the Federals rushed forward with redoubled vigor and triumphant shouts upon the confused retreat, which was rapidly assuming the proportions of a rout. Bee frantically tried to rally his troops, but his efforts were unavailing. His voice was neither heard nor obeyed. At the moment when he was about to give up in despair a courier dashed up to inform him that reinforcements were approaching. Sweeping the field with a glance, Bee saw an array of glittering bayonets advancing in steady order. He galloped away to meet the rescuers, and in a moment was face to face with Jackson. "Gen eral," he cried, in bitterness, "they are beating us back." The stern features of Jackson betrayed no emotion as he replied, composedly: "Sir, we will give them the bayonet." The words acted like magic upon Bee. His own men were sweeping to the rear with the Federals in full pursuit, but the brigade of Jackson stood its ground, firmly and undismayed. The very sight was an inspiration. Bee plunged in among his men and shouted: "Look, there is Jackson standing like a stone wall. Let us determine to die here, and we will conquer." The detachments partially rallied and took up a position in support of Jackson. In an instant the for-tune of the day had changed. The Federal forces suddenly found themselves confronted by the bayonets of Jackson's brigade, and the advance was checked. For hours afterward the battle raged. During that day Jackson's brigade made many a gallant charge, and his artillery caused havoc in the battalions of the enemy. Throughout it all Jackson remained as calm as though the bullets were not falling like hail and men dropping all about him. At one period, according to Cooke's narrative, one of the officers rode up to him and cried in excitement and alarm, "General, I think the day is going against us." The cool and brief retort of Jackson was, "If you think so, sir, you had better not say anything about it." Finally a bayonet charge by his brigade broke the Federal center, a position which he continued to hold against desperate odds until a general attack all along the line completed the work which Jackson and his men had so bravely begun. For the Northern army the day ended in a retreat which soon became a rout, and at last a precipitate flight, in which everything that would impede a hasty departure from the field was left behind and became spoil in the hands of the victors. Watching the panic when at its height, Jackson quietly remarked: "Give me 10,000 men and I will be in Washington tonight." The following day, in a letter to his wife, Jackson characteristically writes: "Whilst great credit is due to other parts of our great army, God made my brigade more instrumental than any other in repulsing the main attack."
For three days following the battle of Manassas Jackson waited and hoped for the order which should tell him to advance on Washington. "I have three days' rations," he said, "ready to advance. Why doesn't the order come?" The question has never been answered. Certain it is that Jackson here saw an opportunity which, if taken advantage of, by his superiors, might have brought about an entirely different termination of the war. During the succeeding months Jackson and his brigade remained inactive. In November he was promoted to the rank of Major-General, and was ordered to take charge of an army to be composed of detachments from various sections. This army was officially styled the "Army of the Monongahela." Jackson at once proceeded to Winchester. He applied himself with great zeal to organizing and drilling the raw troops which formed part of his command. His force numbered about 10,000. Nearly a month after taking command, his old troops, the "Stonewall Brigade," became a part of his forces. This was the result of a request on his part accompanied by explanations of plans he had laid (or a forward movement against the enemy during the winter. He proposed to clear Virginia of the enemy before spring, and he had even more extensive plans. They included a march into the North against Harris-burg, and finally against Philadelphia. Jackson firmly believed that these operations, if properly carried out, would terminate the war before the summer of 1862. But his proposition did not find favor at Richmond. The Confederate authorities decided upon a defensive policy calculated to exhaust the patience and resources of the North. Neither Jackson nor his troops remained idle during the winter; December 17th a part of the Stonewall Brigade marched to the Potomac, drove back the Northern troops posted there, and destroyed Dam No. 5 on the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal. Jackson then prepared for a bold move against the Federal forces at Romney. January I, 1862, Jackson, with 9,000 troops, began a march, which on a lesser scale, might be compared to Napoleon's experience in Russia. The weather, which was mild at the outset, became intensely cold. Snowstorms followed, and the men suffered terribly. The baggage wagons failed to keep up with the column, provisions became exhausted, and the soldiers, without blankets to cover them, hungry and fatigued, were obliged to sleep in the snow. The advance met with practically no resistance until Hancock was reached. At Bath the Federals had retreated, leaving everything in the hands of Jackson. But at Hancock a stubborn resistance was met with, and after two days of cannonading the effort to capture the town was abandoned. He now turned to Romney, held by a force estimated at from 6,000 to 12,000. The terrible weather continued, men fell by scores in the line, horses perished, wagons were wrecked, and the troops were almost seized with a panic. In spite of all these difficulties, Jackson pushed on to Romney, which was evacuated on his approach. The object of his expedition had been accomplished, but only through his perseverance. He left the place well guarded, and, with his main body, returned to Winches-ter, having cleared two large counties of the enemy and holding possession of an important site which the Federals had intended as a connecting link between the East and West. General Loring and the troops that had been left at Romney were dissatisfied at their assignment, and so effectually made their complaints to the authorities at Richmond, that Loring received permission to withdraw from Romney. This evident lack of confidence in his capacity made Jackson indignant, and he promptly resigned his commission, but was prevailed upon by friends to reconsider his hasty determination.
With the spring of 1862 the authorities at Washing-ton began a determined campaign in Virginia, which was intended as the decisive movement of the war. Elaborate plans were laid for the converging of four great armies upon the Confederate capital. Two of these, under Banks and Fremont, were to unite and drive Jackson's forces out of the valley, cut the Confederate communications, and sweep down toward Richmond. The "campaign of the valley" was the greatest of Jackson's campaigns. Years afterward it was a proud distinction for any man to say that he had "fought with Jackson in the valley." It was not until February 26th that the Federals began to move. Major-General Banks, with 20,000 men, crossed the Potomac River at Harper's Ferry. General Lander was moving from above with a force of i i,000, and by the time he joined the columns of Banks the ranks of the latter had swollen to 35,000 troops, making a total of 46,000 men now posted in Jackson's front. Jackson had at his immediate disposal only about 4,000 men, but was expecting reinforcements, and, therefore, in his own words, "did not feel discouraged." He fully realized the advantages that would accrue to the Federal cause if the enemy succeeded in occupying the valley. On March 3d he wrote to a friend, "If this valley is lost, Virginia is lost." In the same letter he said : "My plan is to put on as bold a front as possible and use every means in my power to prevent an advance whilst our reorganization is going on." On the very day that this letter was written, Banks, with the main portion of his army, left Charlestown and marched to Martinsburg, from which an excellent road led straight upon Winchester, the headquarters of General Jackson. The expected collision came soon enough, and before any aid had come to the Confederates. On March 10th Banks moved upon Winchester, and on the following day was within six miles of the town. After a clash with Ashby's cavalry, which was compelled to fall back, Banks was surprised to find the enemy thrown forward in position to offer battle. This determined front induced him to make no further advance, but to wait for the arrival of his whole army. Jackson deter-mined not to sacrifice his brave men and evacuated Winchester, taking care, however, to leave behind him not a vestige of anything that could be of use to the enemy. The next morning the Federals took possession, and also began a hot pursuit of Jackson. His army disputed every inch of the way, and it was a running battle from Winchester to Mount Jackson, a distance of 45 miles. Here the pursuit was discontinued. Banks massed his troops at Winchester, sent the majority across the Blue Ridge toward Fredericksburg, turned over the command to a subordinate, and went to Washington. Jackson was informed that but four regiments had been left at Winchester, and at once decided to regain his lost ground, a move which he expected would cause the . return of the main army to-the valley, and thus prevent it from interfering with the movements of the Confederates under General Johnston. Hastening forward, he fell upon the enemy near Kernstown, and it was not until a fierce battle had continued for some time that he discovered himself to be engaged with a force of 11,000. For two hours there was an incessant roar of musketry, officers and men fell on every hand, and still the Federals had failed to crush the indomitable troops of Jackson, who held their ground without flinching. The distance between the adversaries was short. About midway between the opposing lines ran a low but substantial stone wall, to gain the protecting advantage of which each side was gradually but cautiously advancing, keeping up a hot fire. Suddenly both lines broke into a mad rush to gain the stone wall. The Confederates reached it first, and their opponents were still some forty yards distant when the Southerners dropped on their knees, rested their guns on the wall, and poured a deadly fire into the Federal ranks. It was more than human nerve could withstand, and the Northerners broke and fled in wild confusion, leaving hundreds of dead and wounded on the field. The Stonewall Brigade did heroic work, coming at one time or another to the sup-port of almost every part of the field. Finally, at sun-set, and at the most critical moment in the battle, the supply of ammunition gave out, and General Garnett, who commanded the brigade, ordered his men to fall back in preference to seeing them shot down without power to return the enemy's fire. Seeing his favorite brigade thus retreating, Jackson galloped up and imperiously ordered a halt. "Beat the rally !" he ordered, grasping the drummer by the shoulder, while bullets sped all about them. The drum rolled and the disordered lines were reformed. But it was too late. The enemy had discovered and taken advantage of this one weak point. With wild cheers they pressed forward and bore back the Confederates. It was Jackson's first and last defeat, but was dearly paid for by the victors. Their loss, according to the reports given out soon after-ward, was 418 killed. The Confederates had 8o killed and 342 wounded. Although beaten, Jackson had accomplished what he set out to do ; for General Williams, who was leading the main body toward Fredericksburg, heard the roar of artillery, and, suspecting that the Confederates had been strongly reŰnforced, marched his immense force back into the valley. Jack-son retreated slowly, while the enemy leisurely followed, and, after an occasional skirmish, crossed into Elk Run valley, and, on April 19th, took up a strong position near Swift Run Gap and faced the foe. Leaving General Ewell to confront Banks, Jackson proceeded to Staunton, and formed a junction with General Johnston, who with six regiments had advanced by forced marches to intercept the command of General Milroy, who was attempting to join Banks. May 7th four regiments of Federal pickets were driven off Shenandoah Mountain and the Confederates advanced on the village of Mc-Dowell, where, after a desperate battle, the Northern troops were beaten. A few days later Jackson proceeded in the direction of Harrisonburg, held by General Banks. On Jackson's approach Banks fell back on Strasburg. Jackson now marched and countermarched through the valley, met Milroy's command May 17th, defeated it, and then resumed his march on Harrisonburg. How thoroughly concerned the Federal authorities were at this time with the movements of Jackson is shown by the dispatches of that period. Jackson continuously kept himself, not only in a position to harry the enemy, but also at a moment's notice to respond to any call for aid in the defense of Richmond. He never lost sight of his aim, which was to prevent a concerted attack upon the Confederate capital. That he was succeeding in this design is plainly evident from the following dispatch, sent May 21st by President Lincoln to General McDowell, then at Fredericksburg: "General Fremont has been ordered to move from Franklin on Harrisonburg to relieve General Banks and capture or destroy Jackson's or Ewell's forces. You are instructed, laying aside for the present the movement on Richmond, to put 20,000 men in motion at once for the Shenandoah, moving on the line or in advance of the Manassas Gap Rail-road. Your object will be to capture the forces of Jackson and Ewell, either in co÷peration with General Fremont, or alone." At this time Jackson was pursuing a daring and aggressive course. May 20th he joined forces with Ewell at Newmarket, while General Banks was fortifying himself at Strasburg. Jackson then made a swift march upon Front Royal, defeated the enemy May 23d, captured great quantities of stores and ammunition, and set out in. pursuit of the fleeing Federals. During the day a section of rifled artillery, 700 prisoners, including 20 officers and large quantities of stores, had fallen into the hands of Jackson's army. The following morning the column was again in motion, this time toward Winchester. Near Middletown Jackson came upon the Federal cavalry in rapid retreat. An attack was at once made, the Federals routed, and 200 prisoners were captured, while the great body sought safety in flight. Banks had, in the meantime, ingloriously retreated from Strasburg to Winchester, and from there by rail to Harper's Ferry. Winchester fell under the combined attack of Jackson and Ewell on May 25th, and the victorious Confederates pressed vigorously after the vanquished foe to the very banks of the Potomac, capturing many prisoners, stores, and equipment of every character. But Federal garrisons still held Charlestown and Harper's Ferry, and to these Jackson now directed his attention. On May 28th, twenty minutes after the attack on Charlestown began, the Federal troops retreated and the Confederates entered and were received with the wildest demonstrations of joy by the inhabitants. The following day Jackson, with the main body of his army, was preparing to attack Harper's Ferry, when intelligence reached him that two great Federal armies were closing in upon his rear. Shields was approaching from Fredericksburg on his right, and Fremont from the south branch of the Potomac on his left. Their design was to concentrate a formidable force at Strasburg and cut off his retreat up the valley. His position was a hazardous one, and it was necessary to act with promptness and energy. He dispatched all of his troops to Winchester, and hurried there by special train. At Winchester was congregated the vast stores captured by him and valued at $300,000, and he had, besides, 2,300 prisoners. May 31st he sent the stores and prisoners up the valley and followed with the main body of his army. It was a race between the two armies, with Strasburg as the goal. Jackson reached it first and just in time, for the troops of General Fremont were already close by. After an attack upon Fremont's advance force, which resulted successfully, Jackson retreated toward the upper valley. The retreat resolved itself into a continuous series of skirmishes between the Federal vanguard and the Confederate rear. Finally, after passing Mount Jackson, the army crossed the bridge over the Shenandoah, burned it, and proceeded toward Richmond. At that moment General Shields, with a large Federal force, was advancing up the Luray valley to intercept Jackson at Port Republic, and Fremont's army had crossed the river and were again in pursuit of the Confederates. Jackson's plan was to keep the two Federal armies from uniting, and with this object in view he left General Ewell at Cross Keys to engage Fremont's army, while he proceeded to Port Republic to await the attack of Shields. It came June 7th, and the attacking force was repulsed with heavy loss. At about the same time the army of Fremont attacked the Confederates under Ewell at Cross Keys. The attack was unsuccessful, and Fremont was reported to have lost 2,000 in killed and wounded. Ewell was about to follow up the advantage he had gained by attacking his adversaries, when orders came for him to at once join Jackson at Port Republic. Shields, after being repulsed at Port Republic, had crossed the river and encamped. It was Jackson's design to unite his forces, fall upon Shields, and crush him at a single blow. At midnight Ewell's division left Cross Keys and joined Jackson before daylight. A small force was left at Cross Keys in order to delude Fremont.
At sunrise Jackson attacked Shields, the battle being a most sanguinary one and resulting in the utter defeat of Shields and a panic-stricken retreat. Jackson captured 450 prisoners, a large quantity of small arms, and one piece of artillery. Immediately after the conflict, while the dead were being buried and the wounded removed, General Fremont and his force appeared on the opposite side of the river. He was furious at the manner in which he had been outwitted, but being unable to cross the river, he retired the next morning.
When the sun set June 9, 1862, the famous "valley campaign" had ended. In three months Jackson with his troops had covered 600 miles, fought four pitched battles, seven smaller engagements and skirmishes; had defeated four armies, captured seven pieces of artillery, 10,000 stands of arms, 4,000 prisoners, and an enormous quantity of stores. "The military results," says Cooke, "in their bearing upon the whole field con-test had been very great. At an important crisis in the struggle Jackson had intervened with his small army and, by his skill, endurance, and enterprise, thrown the whole programme of the enemy into confusion. Their design of combining three heavy columns for an attack upon Richmond had been frustrated by his daring advance down the valley; all the campaign halted for the moment; and Fremont and McDowell were not only crippled for the time, but their dangerous adversary was in a condition to unite his forces with those of General Johnston, and make that sudden attack on Chickahominy which led to such important results."
During the next few days Jackson gave his men a well-earned rest, and for several succeeding days marched and countermarched his army with the object of deceiving the enemy into believing that the valley was full of troops, and at the same time to divert attention from Richmond, where the real blow was now about to be struck. General Robert E. Lee was now in command of the whole Confederate force in front of Richmond. His design was to make a general attack upon the Federal lines. In this important undertaking he needed the aid and services of General Jackson and his army, and in order to help out the scheme of deception practiced by Jackson, Lee sent reinforcements to the number of 9,900 men to join him at Staunton. This having been done as a blind, the whole force under Jackson rapidly countermarched and arrived at Ash-land on the evening of June 25th, having in the mean-time had a conference with General Lee. His directions were to march with his own, Ewell's, and Whiting's divisions from Ashland to Mechanicsville in an attempt to turn the enemy's right. At sunrise on the morning of June 26th his army was on the move, and that afternoon, after surmounting innumerable difficulties, Jackson was opposite the right flank of the enemy at Mechanicsville. The division of A. P. Hill had for some hours been in position, waiting for the arrival of Jackson before beginning the attack. On being apprised of Jackson's approach, Hill's division rushed upon the village, drove out the enemy, and, without waiting until the attack of Jackson could turn the enemy's flank, swept upon the strong intrenchments. In spite of the valor of the onset, the Confederates were repulsed, but remained all night in front of the enemy's works. Thus began the seven days' "battles around Richmond." The following morning Hill's division renewed the conflict, but the enemy, discovering the approach of Jackson in their rear, retreated along the Chickahominy toward Cold Harbor. Jackson was now ordered to proceed to Cold Harbor and fall upon the line of retreat. Not being acquainted with the country, Jackson took the wrong road, and, while he lost an hour by this mishap, it served in the end a good purpose, inasmuch as it brought him to his destination simultaneously with the arrival of General D. H. Hill, with whom he was instructed to co÷perate. The battle was stubbornly fought, and for a time the brilliant charges of the Stonewall Brigade and D. H. Hill's command made no impression upon the foe. Jackson here showed greater excitement than he had ever before displayed upon a battlefield. Finally the enemy began to yield, and, with a spontaneous effort, the Confederates swept the Federal armies into the swamps and to the south side of the Chickahominy. On June 30th Jackson and his army captured a field hospital at Savage Station, containing 2,500 sick and wounded; other prisoners to the number of about 1,000 were also captured. July 1st Jackson and his troops took part in the desperate assault on Malvern Hill, which continued throughout the day, and ceased only on account of darkness and the exhausted condition of the troops. That night, during a discussion among the officers as to the probability of the next move of McClellan, the Federal General, Jackson remarked : "I think he will clear out in the morning." His prophecy came true, for at dawn it was discovered that the Federal army had vanished.
As a result of the disastrous outcome of General McClellan's campaign around Richmond, involving a change of war tactics on the part of the North, General John Pope was now placed in command of the Army of the Potomac. Pope advanced with his army through Culpeper in the last days of July, without having met an enemy. It was important, however, that his advance should be checked, and for this purpose Jackson was ordered toward Gordonsville to protect it from threatened assault. On August 2d the cavalry of the opposing armies clashed, the Confederates being compelled to fall back. On the 9th Jackson's small army met Pope's advance guard on Cedar Run, six miles from Culpeper Courthouse. The Confederates were being overwhelmed, when Jackson suddenly appeared, and, by his presence, and the enthusiasm with which he inspired the men, turned defeat into victory, which resulted in a complete repulse of the Federal forces, over 400 prisoners being captured. This blow completely overthrew the plans of Pope, and he refrained from any further attempt to advance until fresh forces came to his aid. Thus began the movement of the Confederates north-ward. The Federals were driven from Virginia, and were finally compelled to concentrate all the available strength possible in Maryland. The Confederates, and not the Federals, were now the aggressors. On the night of the 18th Pope's army retreated, and two days later the whole Confederate army, Jackson having at: this time been joined by General Lee and his forces, started in pursuit. While the wonderful marches made at this time by Jackson's troops caused military men to marvel, no battle of consequence was fought until August 29th. The armies met near the scene of the first battle of Manassas, and this battle has therefore become known as the second battle of Manassas. In spite of the repeated assaults of the Federals, the Confederates stubbornly held their ground. The battle lasted three successive days and ceased at 10 o'clock on the night of the third day. During that night, in the midst of a terrific rainstorm, the Federals retreated to the Heights of Centreville. The Confederate loss in this battle was 7,500, and that of the Federals even greater. The brunt of the battle fell upon Jackson's corps, and his losses exceeded those of any other division engaged. Recent Confederate successes emboldened Lee to invade Maryland. This move caused consternation at Washington. Having penetrated as far as Frederick, Md., Lee ordered Jackson to return to Virginia to dislodge the enemy at Martinsburg and at Harper's Ferry. The Martinsburg garrison evacuated the town upon Jackson's approach. Its citizens greeted him with astonishment and delight. On the morning of September 13th Jackson's army appeared before Harper's Ferry, and, after. a bombardment on the following day, the occupants, on September 15th, surrendered. The victory gave Jackson 11,000 prisoners, 6o pieces of artillery, 13,000 stand of arms, horses, wagons, and great quantities of military supplies. In the meantime the forces of Lee had been compelled by the approach of McClellan's grand army, to evacuate Frederick, Md. The Federals pursued, and Lee determined to make a stand at Sharpsburg. To this point Jackson was hastily summoned by a courier, who found him at Harper's Ferry. The battle of Sharpsburg raged for two days, the Confederates finally withdrawing into Virginia in the face of overwhelming numbers. The battle was fought September 16 and 17, 1862. Three days later came the battle of Shepherdstown, in which the Confederates, under Jackson, recaptured a number of guns which they had lost. After a cessation of hostilities for several weeks, the two armies met again, this time at Fredericksburg. The town was held by Federal troops under Burnside. After a series of battles lasting several days, Burnside quietly withdrew his forces during the stormy night of December 15th. The Federal troops admitted a loss of 12,000 killed and wounded, while the Confederate loss was 4,200. Out of this number 2,900 belonged to Jackson's corps. Following the withdrawal of Burnside's troops from Fredericksburg, hostilities ceased, and Jackson spent the winter peace-fully in camp at Moss Neck. Spring found his corps increased from 25,000 to 33,000 men, so diligently had he employed the winter in recruiting. Early on the morning of April 29th, the announcement was made that-Hooker, leading the Federal army, was crossing the river. Jackson's corps was speedily rushed for-ward, when it was discovered that the crossing of the enemy below Fredericksburg was merely a ruse to engage attention while larger forces were crossing west of Fredericksburg. These forces proceeded toward Chancellorsville, fifteen miles from Fredericksburg, where Hooker was massing his army. Jackson hastily proceeded toward Chancellorsville, and on the afternoon of the 2d sent a note to Lee, stating that the enemy had made a stand at Chancellor's, two miles from Chancellorsville, and announced his intention of attacking. That evening Jackson suddenly fell upon the enemy and drove them before him, and, though checked for a moment at the strong position of Melzi Chancellor's, continued the rout through the forest and over the uneven ground known as the "Wilderness," toward Chancellorsville. Darkness had by this time come on and the confusion was great. The lines of the various divisions became mixed and disordered. While reforming his lines for further pursuit, there came a sudden lull in the fighting. At this time Jackson rode forward to make a reconnoissance, and found Hooker with fresh forces turned about and marching to face his foe. Jackson and a few members of his staff advanced along the turnpike for a short distance in the direction of the enemy, when suddenly there was a volley of musketry and the party turned and started for their own lines. As they advanced they were mistaken for Federal cavalry, and a body of Confederates opened fire upon them. General Jackson was thrice wounded. One ball passed through his right hand, another struck his left arm below the elbow, shattering the bone and severing the main artery, while a third struck the same arm above the elbow. Medical aid was hastily summoned, and, although the wounds caused him great pain, he made no complaint. He was carried for a distance by members of his staff, and then determined to walk. Finally, becoming so weak that he was unable to proceed further, he was placed upon a litter. All of this time they were under a heavy fire from the enemy. One of the men carrying him was shot, and the litter fell violently to the ground, causing Jackson for a time excruciating pain. A few hundred yards further on, Dr. McGuire appeared with an ambulance, and the General was taken to the field infirmary at the Wilderness Tavern. The left arm was amputated two inches below the shoulder. He complained that his right side had been injured in falling from the litter, and thought he had struck a stump or stone. No external evidence of injury, however, could be discovered. During the first few days he seemed to be recovering, but on the Thursday following was attacked with nausea and complained of great pain. Examination showed that pleuro-pneumonia had set in. His wife, who had already been sent for, arrived and remained at his bedside until he died. The end came peacefully on Sunday, May Io, 1863. Jackson faced death as calmly on his bed of pain as he had on the field of battle, and his last words, uttered distinctly and clearly as the unconsciousness, from which there was to be no awakening, began to fall upon him, showed how serene was his mind and conscience. These words were : "Let us cross over the river and rest under the shade of the trees." His death was a severe blow to the cause for which he had fought, and he was sincerely mourned by the South. His remains, according to his own request, were buried at Lexington, after the highest marks of honor and respect had been paid by the President, Cabinet, and officials of the Confederacy.