John Paul Jones
Oliver Hazard Perry
Robert Edward Lee
William Tecumseh Sherman
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Read More Articles About: Famous Warriors
( Originally Published Early 1900's )
THE LIBERATOR OF ITALY
Giuseppe Garibaldi was a patriot. During his entire eventful career he proved himself a devoted lover of liberty, the enemy of oppression, a hater of tyranny, whether governmental, political, or religious. His enemies have made him out an atheist and a blasphemer. But Garibaldi, according to his own assertions, was net such. "I believe in God," he said ; "I am of the religion of Christ, not of the religion of the Popes. I do not admit any intermediary between God and man. Priests have thrust themselves in, in order to make a shop of religion."
His life was in many respects Quixotic, eccentric, and erratic. Yet he was consistent. He was strong in his principles, and adhered to them with a tenacity that was remarkable. From his youth he exhibited marked talents as a warrior of the guerilla order, and among this class he has not a peer in modern times. His career in two hemispheres, as a fighter on land and sea, repeatedly demonstrates him a really heroic type. Romantic episodes are not wanting among the events which succeeded one another. with startling rapidity throughout his life-His intense hatred of the church of Rome served to make him many enemies, but in his native land he is known as the liberator of Italy, and his memory is cherished by prince and peasant alike with pride and reverence.
Garibaldi imbibed his bitterness against the Roman Church as a natural result of his connection with the revolutionary society of Mazzini, which, like the reform party of the period, opposed the temporal power exercised by the Pope, and the right of the Papal power to act with arbitrary violence and inflict sufferings on the citizens of provinces presided over by cruel and oppressive Cardinals. The fact also that the Papal power was upheld by hated Austria with her troops added to the popular feeling against the Church. In this atmosphere Garibaldi became saturated, and none were more fierce against the Papacy. He wrote and preached that so long as the Pope held temporal power there was no hope of freedom for Italy.
Giuseppe Garibaldi was born at Nice in 1807, whether on July 19th, as recorded by some historians, or on July 4th, which is the generally accepted date, matters little. His father was a sea captain, who came from a long-line of soldiers and sailors, all renowned for courage and patriotism. The family originally hailed from Chiavari, Genoa, where the name can be traced back for centuries. His childhood was spent upon the shores of the Mediterranean, and, according to J. Theodore Bent's history of his life, he was, as a boy, contemplative and fond of solitude, yet a wild youth and guilty of many an escapade. Like his father and forefathers, he showed a natural inclination for the sea, and early began a life of adventure.
At the age of twenty-one he made his first voyage. During this trip, according to his own narrative written for Cassell's Magazine, the ship was three times attacked and plundered by Greek pirates. With his mates he reached Constantinople in a destitute condition. Letters written by him about this time do not show that he entertained any particular resentment against the pirates who had robbed him, but against the Government which permitted its citizens to be thus despoiled. During this period also, it appears, the affection for national liberty, which afterward became the dominating principle of his life, was kindled. The turn which his mind was taking can be gathered from the following scrap of a diary written at Constantinople : "Those noble victims of Greek brigandage, and those who fall a prey every day to Italian brigandage, must be added to the huge column of debts which European despotism forever contracts with humanity."
Under these circumstances it is easy to understand how, in 1834, Garibaldi associated himself in a movement then under way in Italy under the direction of Mazzini against the ruling powers. The revolt was general and widespread. For small offenses citizens had died under the lash in the public squares. Executions and prosecutions, both at Naples and in the pontifical States, were frequent. Even the Government of Charles Albert, up to that time the most liberal sovereign in Italy, was tyrannical and arbitrary. The first extensive plot of Mazzini, in which Garibaldi was involved, failed miserably. The plan was to occupy the village of St. Julien, and there set up the flag of revolt. The scheme was betrayed, and the plotters were forced to flee for their lives. Garibaldi, after many privations, succeeded in reaching his birthplace, an outlaw. From there he fled to Marseilles and began the life of an exile, a life he was destined to continue for fourteen years, during which time his career was one of marvelous adventures among the Republics of South America, which doubtless served to fit him in a great measure for the tremendous struggles he was afterward to undertake on behalf of his native land.
During a brief period after reaching Marseilles, Garibaldi continued to make voyages in the Mediterranean on board French merchant ships. He saw no hope for renewing the struggle on behalf of his country, and embarked on the brig Nantonnier of Nantes for Rio Janeiro, in 1836. At this town, aided by several of his countrymen, who, like himself, were exiles for political intrigues, he purchased a small vessel and established himself in the coasting trade. He continued in this business for nine months with but poor success. At this time the province of Rio Grande proclaimed itself a Republic and openly rebelled against the authority of the Emperor of Brazil.
In the opening skirmishes of this insurrection a number of Italians, who had espoused the cause of the rebellion, were taken prisoners, loaded with chains and brought to Brazil. Garibaldi witnessed their arrival, and the sight of his countrymen suffering in the cause of liberty inspired him to enter the struggle. He trans-formed his ship into a vessel of war, and called it, for the sake of old associations, the Mazzini. His services were gladly accepted, and with but sixteen companions he set out under the Republican flag of Rio Grande to make war against the Empire of Brazil. During the first days of their voyage they captured a large ship owned by an Austrian merchant who had settled in Brazil. Their second encounter was not so successful. While attempting to enter the port of Montevideo they were attacked by two armed Brazilian ships, and Garibaldi was severely wounded, and some of his men slain. The crew crowded on all sail and escaped to the harbor of Gualequay, where they regarded themselves as safe. But the flag of Rio Grande was not recognized, and the crew of the Mazzini and their leader were consigned to prison.
Garibaldi slowly recovered from his wound, and was given his liberty on parole. On learning, however, that his captors intended to send him to Bajada and deliver him up to the Brazilians, he considered himself free from any obligation, and made his escape. After wandering about in the forests for three days, he was found by soldiers, who had been sent to search for him. For this escapade he was terribly punished, being hung up by the wrists and tortured in an effort to compel him to impart information regarding the plans of the insurgents. He was then imprisoned for two months, after which he was set at liberty. Returning to Rio, he took part in several land battles against the Brazilians, and was then given command of three small vessels furnished by the incipient Republic. With these ships he carried on a persistent and aggressive warfare, capturing prizes, and often landing, and, with his crews, invading the enemy's country, only to retreat to his ships on the appearance of superior numbers, to renew the attack at some other point. It was here that Garibaldi acquired that skill in hasty maneuvers which was to stand him in good stead in after years in the Tyrol, and in his campaigns in Sicily. During this eventful period of his life Garibaldi became a splendid shot, an adroit swordsman, and an expert horseman.
It was in the midst of these campaigns that he met and fell in love with the far famed Anita. Although married, she did not hesitate to leave her husband to become the partner of Garibaldi. Of this event Ricciardi says: "He took Anita Rivieras in pretty much the same manner that he did Palermo."
It was only a day or two after he had carried away the beautiful Creole that the Brazilian fleet came upon Garibaldi determined to crush him. In the battle that followed Anita stood by the side of her adopted spouse and fired the first gun at the enemy. After a desperate conflict the imperial squadron withdrew when the Garibaldians were at the point of giving up. For six years Garibaldi faithfully served the Republic of Rio Grande in its struggle for independence, when the war degenerated into a conflict of individual ambition, for which he had no heart. During all of this time Anita faithfully remained by his side, helping to fight his battles, nursing him when wounded, and bearing him besides a son, who was born September 16, 184o. Prior to his departure for Italy, in the spring of 1848, two other children had been added to his family.
The struggle against Austria was then beginning, and Garibaldi presented himself to the Minister of War at Turin to offer his arm in Italy's service. His name was already well known, and he had an enviable reputation for valor and daring, but his connection with Mazzini and the revolutionary movement of fourteen years previous had not been forgotten. He was sent to the headquarters of the King at Roverbello, and was there received courteously by Charles Albert, who, however, did not definitely accept his proposals, but referred him back to the Secretary of War. The King could not forget that he had been a rebel against him, nor had Garibaldi forgotten that the King had forced him into exile. Impatient at the uncertain treatment accorded him, he without further ado hastened to Milan, where the pro-visional Government was preparing a defense against the Austrians, and was enthusiastically received. He was empowered to raise volunteers for the protection of Bergamo, and soon found himself at the head of several thousand volunteers. A few weeks later he was called upon to protect Milan itself from the Austrians, for the army of Charles Albert had been out-maneuvered and defeated at every point by Radetzky, and had been compelled to fall back upon Milan. But the Milanese received Charles Albert and his army with curses, and the agents of Mazzini made it so uncomfortable for the King that he was compelled to flee for his life. Following this, on August 9, 1848, Charles Albert came to terms with the Austrians and agreed to surrender Milan. In the meantime Garibaldi, by forced marches, had reached Monza, but twelve miles from the Capital, and here he was informed of the armistice, and ordered to evacuate Lombardy. Not having had an opportunity to strike a single blow against the enemy, Garibaldi refused to recognize the armistice, and declared the King to be a traitor.
For a time he succeeded in animating his troops with this spirit, and he determined to fight to the last. But he was harassed on every side, and his army, after forced marches, reached Luino greatly reduced in numbers, destitute of provisions, and completely worn out by fatigue and sickness. Garibaldi himself became a victim of typhus, and for a time his life was despaired of. After recovering, he went to rejoin his family at Nice, and, after a brief period of repose, proceeded to Genoa, where he received from Charles Albert, who had repented of his treatment, an offer of a high rank in the Sardinian army. But Garibaldi had been aroused to a high pitch of enthusiasm by reports that valiant resistance was being made against the Austrians at Venice under Daniele Manin, and he determined to again throw his lot with the revolutionists instead of enjoying a position of dignity in the Piedmontese army.
Accompanied by 250 volunteers, he started for Venice, and on reaching Ravenna he was apprised of the stirring events at that moment transpiring in Rome.
Pope Pius IX had retracted his liberal policy, Rossi had been assassinated, the Pope had fled to Gaeta, and Rome was in a state of siege. From his youth the eternal city had been the goal of his ambition, and now with a following of but 1,500 men, which had flocked to his standard, he abandoned his march toward Venice, and bent his course toward Rome.
With his little band he threw himself into the thick of the conflict, and when the task of defending Rome was given up as hopeless, and the French entered as victors, Garibaldi did not surrender, but with 5,000 troops withdrew in the direction of Tivoli. He escaped the pursuit of the Austrians, and led his army into Tuscany, hoping to awaken a revolutionary movement there. But Tuscany had suffered severely from insurrection, and preferred peace under a foreign rule. Garibaldi and his army, now reduced to half of the number that had left Rome with him, sought refuge at San Marino. The Austrians were in hot pursuit, and soon had the city surrounded, waiting for the Garibaldians to issue forth. Through the interposition of the local authorities, terms were made with the Austrian commander, Gortschowsky, which included a safe conduct for Garibaldi and his officers on condition that they would go to America.
Unwilling to accept these conditions, Garibaldi, accompanied by Anita and a few faithful followers, contrived to escape during the night, and made his way, after the greatest hardships, to the shores of the Adriatic. At the port of Cesenatico he secured from fishermen thirteen boats, and with his company embarked for Venice. It was a furious night, and, in spite-of their desperate efforts, they did not succeed in getting out of the port until daybreak, just as the Austrians were entering the town. Sails were spread, and on the following morning four of the boats which contained Garibaldi and his immediate followers reached the mouth of the Po. The other nine had been discovered by the Austrians, many of the crews were slain, and the remainder surrendered. During this voyage the faithful Anita had suffered terribly, and was borne by Garibaldi to an adjoining cornfield, where, in the midst of dangers from Austrian scouts, he watched her life slowly ebbing away. Later in the day he contrived to have her conveyed, after many dangers from pursuing Austrians, to a cottage on the estate of the friendly Marquis Guiccioli. Here, just after being placed upon a couch, the faithful woman breathed her last in Garibaldi's arms. In the meantime nine of his followers had been captured and instantly executed.
Thoroughly disheartened, grief-stricken by his great bereavement, and realizing that all hope was at an end, Garibaldi tore himself away from the side of his dead mate, and, after wandering for thirty-five days in disguise, encountering many perils, half starved, and accompanied by but one friend, he arrived safely at Genoa.
He then went to Tunis, and later to Gibraltar, but at both places he was refused permission to remain. He crossed to Tangiers, and, after a stay of several weeks, embarked for Liverpool, and from there proceeded to New York. This was in the year 1851. He remained in New York until 1853, when he was given command of an Italian ship bound for China, thence to Italy, and then to return to New York. He made the round trip successfully, reaching New York again in 1856. During this voyage he explored the desolate island of Caprera, where he bought a tract of land, which afterward became his home. On leaving the United States he went directly to his new-made home, and there lived peacefully until 1859. In the winter of that year the climax was reached of the intertwining of French and Italian politics, under the manipulation of Cavour, the Italian Minister. Garibaldi knew nothing of the portentous agreements that were being entered into agreements that meant war with Austria, the formation of the Kingdom of Italy from the Alps to the Adriatic, and the cession of Nice and Savoy.
Garibaldi was summoned to Turin and asked by Cavour to take command of the Chasseurs of the Alps. This was the beginning of one of his most celebrated campaigns, which made him the idol of Italy and won for him the admiration of Europe. By the end of the following April he was in command of three regiments of infantry. When these volunteers entered Lombardy they were joined by large additions of Milanese. Austria demanded that these troops be dismissed. Cavour declined to comply and Austria began hostilities. On the 6th of May Garibaldi left Biella for Casale, and two days later engaged in several skirmishes, with the Austrians. Then the jealousy of the older generals in the army began to manifest itself by throwing obstacles in his way. These facts were made known to Victor Emmanuel, who straightway granted Garibaldi permission to make war when and where he pleased. Less than five hours after receiving this permission he had begun the series of brilliant exploits which continued through the campaign, and served, owing to their recklessness and effrontery, to dumbfound and confuse the Austrians.
Night and day during the succeeding weeks he kept up continued skirmishes with the Austrians in the mountains and on the plains. Volunteers flocked to his ranks, and on May 23rd his army entered Varese during a heavy storm, momentarily expecting an attack from the Austrians. Two days later General Urban, with an Austrian army of 5,000, began bombarding the town; but in the face of the determined resistance made by the Garibaldians, was compelled to retreat. The Austrians encamped at San Fermo, leaving Garibaldi in some perplexity regarding their future movements. At this juncture he received information which led him to believe that the object of the Austrians was to cut off his approach to Como. In spite of the fact that he was out-numbered nearly three to one, he determined to attack. With fixed bayonets his brave troops went to the assault, captured San Fermo after a desperate contest, and pursued the Austrians through the town of Como, scattering them in great disorder along the road to Monza. The Garibaldians in this engagement secured large quantities of ammunition and supplies. After fortifying the place, Garibaldi, with the majority of his troops, hastened to Varese, which Urban was preparing to attack. He had demanded a war indemnity of 2,000,-000 francs, threatening on refusal to sack the town. At dawn Garibaldi, by rapid maneuvers, had reached a desirable but dangerous position. He was practically in a trap, and in the first attack of the Austrians suffered severely. He began the erection of palisades, and at the same time dispatched a telegram to the allied army asking for reinforcements. He knew full well that there were no allies in the vicinity, and that his dispatch would fall into the hands of the Austrians. This proved true. The Austrians felt certain that Garibaldi was waiting for reinforcements which would never come, and that eventually he must surrender. That night he made a great display of bivouac fires, and marched his men up and down before them. During the midst of a storm he quietly marched his army away through ravines and by-paths, and at dawn was back in Como, having completely outwitted his adversary.
Throughout the summer Garibaldi continued making headway, defeating or outgeneraling the Austrians at every turn until July, when an armistice was declared. With his volunteers he was at this time encamped at Lovere, where he remained awaiting developments. When, on July 15th, the Peace of Villafranca was announced Garibaldi and his men were filled with anger, and would have disregarded the treaty but for an imperial order from Victor Emmanuel. He then resigned his commission, and returned to his peaceful abode at Caprera.
In the year 1860 Garibaldi's surprising expedition to Sicily and Naples was made. The revolutionary movements in other sections of Italy had found a responsive thrill in the hearts of the oppressed Sicilians. They had suffered atrocities of every description at the hands of Maniscalco and Salzano, who had been made rulers by Francis II. This state of affairs attracted the attention and awakened the sympathy of the Garibaldian party. On the night of the 5th of May, 1860, Garibaldi, at the head of 1,000 volunteers, set sail from Genoa. Just be-fore his departure he sent a message to the King, announcing his project. With his troops he landed at Marsala May 11th, and his appearance electrified the people of that town. Neapolitan cruisers were already upon his track, and within two hours after he had disembarked his two ships had been destroyed by the Neapolitan fleet. Garibaldi immediately issued two proclamations, one to the people of Sicily, the other to the Neapolitan army. The first informed the Sicilians that he had come to liberate them. He called them to arms, and appealed to them to show the world how a country can become free from. its oppressors by the powerful will of a united people. In the second he asked the soldiers of the Neapolitan army to fight side by side with him against the enemies of Italy. Almost immediately a corps of Sicilians of 1,200 men was organized. Garibaldi led his troops to Salemi, where he was enthusiastically received by the citizens. He declared himself dictator, and proclaimed the royal Government suspended. He made a general levy upon citizens between the ages of seventeen and fifty, and volunteers poured into his ranks by the hundred. Wherever the Garibaldian army went it was received with open arms. By rapid movements he completely deceived the Neapolitans, and while Naples was being informed that his army had been scattered and routed, Garibaldi was almost at the gates of Palermo. He first encountered the royal army at Calatafimi, and the battle lasted three hours. For a time success was doubtful, but the Neapolitans were finally repulsed with heavy losses. Garibaldi arrived at Palermo at 3 o'clock in the morning of May 27th, and before the authorities had recovered from their surprise the guard at the Termini gate had been overpowered and the insurgents were streaming into the city. Residents rushed half dressed from their houses in a frenzy of joy to welcome their deliverer. Barricades against the royal troops were built in the streets out of vehicles, merchandise, and furniture of every description, which were freely supplied by the citizens. Even women and children aided in the work. Every-where fighting was in progress, and after four hours of desperate work the royal army was dislodged from all points except the castle and the royal palace. For two days Palermo continued to be the scene of a bloody conflict, acts of terrible cruelty being committed. The royal troops pillaged, burned, and massacred wherever they gained an entrance, while the inhabitants aided the Garibaldians and fought with the ferocity of long-suppressed hatred. Finally, on May 30th, through the efforts of the English Consul, Garibaldi had a meeting with Lanza, the commander of the royal troops, and a truce of twenty-four hours was agreed upon. Before the expiration of this time instructions arrived from Naples ordering the Neapolitans to evacuate Palermo.
A great victory had been won, but it had cost Garibaldi many of his bravest men. During the fighting Garibaldi performed many deeds of heroic daring, once being surrounded by four dragoons who, with uplifted swords, demanded his surrender. Garibaldi fearlessly drew his sword, and in turn demanded the surrender of his adversaries. Had not some of his men at this moment come to his assistance his life would have certainly paid the forfeit of his valor. From Palermo Garibaldi made a rapid advance upon Messina. As the battle of Calatafimi had been the opening wedge for his entering into Palermo, so the battle of Milazzo opened the way for him to Messina. For hours after commencing the attack upon this point the Garibaldians failed to make any headway, and it was only by one of Garibaldi's masterly guerrilla movements that the day was won. With two aides and only fifty men he made a detour, and managed to turn the right of the defending line, thus outflanking the Neapolitans and forcing them to beat a hasty retreat to their fortress which, however, was so persistently attacked by the Neapolitan warship, Veloce, which had joined Garibaldi's side, that the royal troops were compelled to capitulate, This hard-fought battle completed the conquest of Sicily, and Garibaldi and his army entered Messina to be received with the same enthusiasm that had been exhibited at Palermo.
Having rested his army for a month, and leaving the administration of Sicily in the hands of a subdictator, Garibaldi proceeded to carry out the second part of the great project he had undertaken. He embarked his army and landed on the Calabrian Coast, where he found the inhabitants eager to coöperate with him to over-throw the much-hated dynasty of the Spanish Bourbons. On this expedition Garibaldi took with him a little more than 4,000 troops. The successes of Sicily were repeated, and on August 21st the defenders of the city of Reggio capitulated, leaving in the hands of the victorious Garibaldians all their arms, ammunition, and supplies. Thus a foothold had been gained on the main-land, and Garibaldi hastily summoned reinforcements from Messina and instituted that victorious campaign which a few weeks later found him within the walls of the city of Naples itself.
Garibaldi's march from Reggio to Naples was a succession of triumphs. The Bourbon soldiers were so disheartened at the defeats they had sustained that they were ready to lay down their arms at the mere mention of the conqueror's name. At Villa San Giovani 12,000 Neapolitan soldiers consented to unconditional surrender, although confronted by only a few hundred volunteers. At Soveria, a few days later, the victor, with about fifty men, accepted the surrender of 1,200 Neapolitans. The nearer he approached to Naples, the greater his welcome seemed to become. Not a hand was raised against him or his followers. Salerno was evacuated without a blow. On September 7th Garibaldi, with a few followers, left Salerno by train for Naples.
King Francis had been practically deserted by his army, his advisers had already begun making overtures to the conquering Garibaldi, and so, almost alone, the miser-able young monarch sailed from Naples to Gaeta, where he hoped to make a last struggle for supremacy. Mean-while the train carrying Garibaldi was met at every station by wild crowds, who came to cheer their hero and liberator. When he entered Naples, according to Bent's narrative, the troops of King Francis threw up their caps and shouted, "Viva Garibaldi."
He was hailed as Dictator, and idolized and fêted by the populace. In the meantime the agents of Cavour were busy with plans to dissuade him from proceeding with his project of marching upon Rome. At the same time King Francis was rallying what remained of his forces around Gaeta, prepared to make a last stand on the banks of the Volturno. At this moment, also, Victor Emmanuel was hastening with an army toward the Neapolitan frontier to block the expected onward move of Garibaldi toward Rome. On October 1st, the last battle in the Sicilian campaigns was fought at Volturno. Garibaldi's army of 37,000 was opposed by that of King Francis, numbering about 40,000. The Garibaldian advance line of 11,000 was being hard pressed, and was retreating before the Neapolitans when the arrival of 5,000 reserves turned the tide of battle, and the Neapolitan forces were completely routed.
When Victor Emmanuel crossed the Neapolitan frontier with his army, he was met by Garibaldi, who came to deliver up his dictatorship to his sovereign. He had already caused the citizens of Naples and Sicily to vote upon the question of annexation to Piedmont, and they favored it unanimously. On November 7th Victor Emmanuel entered Naples by the side of the red-shirted Garibaldi and was proclaimed King. Almost his first act toward the man who had placed him there was to sternly forbid him to make any effort upon Rome, and Garibaldi sorrowfully took leave of his volunteers and once again returned to Caprera, having refused all offers of honors and emoluments from the Government.
The year 1861 was ushered in peacefully enough, but Garibaldi soon grew restless among his quiet surroundings. He remained closely in touch with political events and the affairs of the Government. Rome, the loadstone of his life, was constantly uppermost in his mind. There were also other matters which disturbed and fretted him. His beloved Southern army had not received the recognition he had craved for it. In the interests of diplomacy, it was urged, such an army could not be maintained on the Roman frontier. Diplomacy, however, had no part in Garibaldi's makeup, and his hatred of the Papacy and the priesthood grew more bitter every day. When, therefore, he was offered a seat in Parliament, he gladly accepted it as an opportunity to force his grievances upon the Government. When, in April of 1861, he appeared in the Assembly at Turin, it was not as a deputy of peace. He was attired in the red shirt, and wore the broad-brimmed hat that had served as his attire in the campaigns. The scene in the Assembly was a tempestuous and memorable one, Garibaldi indignantly and passionately attacking the policy of the Government as represented by Cavour. The latter favored and was pursuing a waiting policy as regarded Rome; while Garibaldi was for no other policy but action. These two were reconciled before the session closed, and Garibaldi again returned to Caprera. During the spring of 1862, the impatience of the people, fostered by the Garibaldi party, grew more than ever perceptible for the overthrow of the temporal power of the Pope, and the establishing in Rome the capital of the Kingdom of Italy. Cavour had died, and his place was filled by the crafty Ratazzi. The historian, Bent, does not hesitate to pronounce against Ratazzi as the author of a trap into which Garibaldi was easily led. Apparently having the silent consent of the Government, and certainly so believing, Garibaldi placed himself at the head of an expedition to move against Rome. He was afforded every opportunity to organize his volunteers, and the King, although openly proclaiming against the enterprise, placed no obstacle in his way, until, after camping for the night on the now famous hill of Aspromonte, the Garibaldians at dawn found themselves surrounded by royal troops. Both sides afterward disclaimed responsibility for the sharp conflict which followed. Garibaldi was ordering his men not to fire, when he was struck by two balls from Royalist rifles. His troops were disarmed, and he was taken to Spezia, and after several months of suffering was able to return to his island home. The affair was a sad blot on the reign of Victor Emmanuel, concerning which many explanations have been offered, but the whole truth of which will perhaps never be known.
Following an unusually long period of peace, Italy again began war against Austria, and in July of 1866, Garibaldi was invited to take command of the volunteers. Without hesitation, he accepted, and in the' short campaign which followed, in which, however, twenty battles were fought, and at the end of which the Garibaldians had advanced almost to the walls of Trieste, he exhibited the same valor, skill, and daring which had marked the fighting of his younger days. During one of these engagements he was wounded in the thigh, but remained out of his saddle only a few days. Peace was brought about through the intervention of foreign powers, and Garibaldi, disgusted, but uncomplaining, wended his way home to wait for the next opportunity to take up arms against his enemies. He had not long to wait.
The year 1867 dawned upon Italy and found her, for the first time in centuries, free from foreign rule. By the peace concluded the previous year, the Venetian territory had been ceded to Italy, and the Austrians had departed to their own country. France had withdrawn her troops from Rome under the pledge that the Pope was to be left in undisturbed possession. The time was ripe, and all the conditions seemed favorable for another of those revolutionary movements which had continually stirred Italy. Garibaldi at once came to the front. In February he toured the country, calling the patriots to arms. Organizations, having for their object the establishment of the Roman Republic, sprung up on every hand. When, in September, Garibaldi set out for the Roman frontier, volunteers were everywhere awaiting to join him. For months the Government had been watching these preparations, but determined to act only when Garibaldi was on his way to the scene of action. On arriving at Sinalunga, he was arrested and hastily transferred to the citadel at Alessandria. Here he was well treated, and after a few days was liberated and taken to his home at Caprera, while several warships were detailed to watch the island and prevent -him from leaving it. The arrest of Garibaldi did not still the rising storm. Volunteers continued to cross the frontier, and began carrying on a guerrilla warfare. against the Papal troops. While this was going on, Garibaldi, in spite of the watch kept over him, managed to escape, and in seven days reached Florence, where he was given an ovation. He then proceeded toward Rome, the Government making no further effort to hinder him. He placed himself at the head of the volunteers, and took up a position at Monte Rotondo, twelve miles from Rome. The pledge with France had been broken, and French troops were landed at Rome, October 30th. Together with the Papal forces, they marched against the Garibaldians, and after some promiscuous fighting, came the battle of Mentana on November 3d. The soldiers of Garibaldi fought with courage and desperation against the disciplined French legions and the Papal troops, but were terribly defeated. Over 600 of the volunteers were killed or wounded, and about 1,600 were taken prisoners. Garibaldi was in the thickest of the fight, but after the blow his army had suffered, nothing remained for him but to retreat. He started for Florence, but at Montevarchi was made a prisoner by the orders of the Government and conveyed to Varignano fortress in Spezia. Soon afterward the King permitted him to retire to Caprera. So far as Italy was concerned his campaigns were forever ended. In 1870, soon after the breaking out of the Franco-Prussian War, Garibaldi, though not much more than a wreck of his former self, offered his services to France. After some' hesitation they were accepted. He was given command of several brigades of raw volunteers, and with them performed valuable service, though not to be compared with the brilliant exploits of his previous campaigns. During the armistice of February, 1871, he resigned his command and returned to Italy to receive once more the plaudits of an idolizing multitude. In the meantime, Rome, which he had failed to conquer, had been won to Italy with scarcely a blow, and thither he went in 1875, having been elected to Parliament. He was received with the wildest acclamations. Feeble, bent, and scarcely able to walk without assistance, the old warrior was still the idol of the people. His advent was feared yet desired. But there was nothing further to fear. His fighting days were past, at least as far as the sword was concerned. With the pen he continued to battle for reforms, and besides completed several books, romantically describing his campaigns.
Giuseppe Garibaldi breathed his last on Friday, June 2, 1882, at Caprera. To the end, he remained firm in the principles which had dominated his life. He loved liberty, his country, and his countrymen. When his heart ceased to beat, the whole nation mourned. In the midst of a furious storm his remains were consigned to the grave on the island where he had passed his only peaceful days. The island was afterward purchased by the Government, and is held sacred to his memory.