John Paul Jones
Oliver Hazard Perry
Robert Edward Lee
William Tecumseh Sherman
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Read More Articles About: Famous Warriors
( Originally Published Early 1900's )
"THE MAN OF DESTINY"
No character in the world's history has been more bitterly assailed than that of Napoleon, nor has any been accorded greater admiration or more fulsome praise. In the hands of some historians, even his best deeds and those incidents of his life which tend to show his noblest traits, have been unqualifiedly condemned and ascribed to sinister motives, while on the other hand the darkest chapters of his career have by ardent admirers been so adroitly painted as to add luster to his fame. Neither side of his character can obscure the other. The good and bad in him seem to have predominated by turns. The point in which he was always consistent was his insatiable ambition. To satisfy this he allowed nothing to stand in the way. To obtain a desired result, he did not hesitate to sacrifice numberless lives and the best blood of nations, yet he could weep on viewing the carnage after that result had been obtained. Born in obscurity, he arose, first gradually, then with tremendous strides, until he reached the zenith of fame. For a quarter of a century he deluged Europe with blood and woe, trod paths of glory unprecedented since the days of Alexander, attained an eminence of almost unparalleled power, from which he was hurled by the combined efforts of his enemies, arose again triumphant and serene, only to be once more denounced and banished, and to die a broken-hearted exile and a captive. Yet, after his death, the nation which had cast him off wept that he was no more, and honored his remains by bringing them to the capital to rest in a tomb of unequaled magnificence. Throughout Napoleon's career, one fact stands undisputed and unassailable his genius and ability as a warrior. His courage never failed him. Reverses did not daunt him, nor did the most formidable obstacles dismay him. He fought and suffered with his soldiers, and they laid down their lives when called upon, with a fervor that passes understanding. Never were troops more devoted to their leader than were the soldiers of Napoleon. This fervor began with the battle of the Bridge of Lodi, where the veterans of the army nicknamed him, "the Little Corporal." It was here, too, according to Napoleon's own statement, that he first felt the spark of great ambition glowing within him. "Neither the quelling of the sections," he' says, "nor the victory of Montenotte, induced me to think myself a superior character. It was not till after the terrible passage of the Bridge of Lodi that the idea shot across my mind that I might become a decisive actor in the political arena. Then arose, for the first time, the spark of great ambition." He had caught his first glimpse of his "star of Destiny," and with mystic mien unfalteringly followed it. He never lost sight of it until at last it set behind the flame-streaked, smoke-crowned field of Waterloo.
There has been some dispute concerning the date of Napoleon's birth, but the general acceptance is that he came into the world August 15, 1769. This is the date which appears upon the records of the military school at Brienne, which he entered in 1779. The claim has been made that he was born in 1768, and that a false date was given in order that he might be admitted to the school, which accepted none over ten years of age. He came of the family of Bonaparte, or, as it was frequently written, de Buonaparte. This family was of ancient Tuscan origin, and one branch of it had settled in the Island of Corsica during the early part of the Sixteenth Century. Charles Marie de Buonaparte was of noble descent, and a man of affairs in Corsica. He married Letitia Ramolino, at the town of Ajaccio, two months after the island had been subdued by the French and added to French territory. There was nothing extraordinary in the early boyhood of Napoleon to attract attention. In 1779 he accompanied his father, who was chosen as Representative from the Island of Corsica to the court of Louis XVI. In this year admission was obtained for the boy to enter the military school at Brienne. Here his position became somewhat humiliating, both from the fact that he was regarded as an Italian, and for the reason that his means were small compared with those of most of the other pupils at the institution. It is related that Napoleon devoted himself to study, and that although he was far from bright in some branches, it was noticeable that in all of those matters which are necessary to a soldier's knowledge, he advanced rapidly. He remained at the school at Brienne for five years, and it was during his last year, according to all accounts, that he erected snow forts and engaged with his companions in mimic battle. In 1784 he became one of the three students annually selected from among the cadets to enter the Royal Military School at Paris. In February of the following year Napoleon's father died, and the lad sincerely mourned the death of his parent. In September, 1785, one year after entering the Royal School, he stood his examination and received his first commission, that of Lieutenant of Artillery. During the next few years he was stationed with his regiment at Valence, Lyons, Paris, Auxonne, and other towns, and had an opportunity of meeting with varied classes of people, and obtaining that general knowledge which is to be acquired only by travel and contact with the inhabitants of different sections of the country. During these years also he had leave on a number of occasions to visit his home at Ajaccio, remaining there several months each time. These leaves were granted on account of sickness. At this time he devoted himself to a considerable extent to literature, such as he knew it, and his productions, while they can-not be said to have any particular merit, are remarkable enough as the work of a boy. Bourrienne, who after-ward became the private secretary of Napoleon, relates that they were together in Paris on the 20th of June, 1793, that memorable day when mobs surged wildly through the streets of the Capital, surrounded the Tuileries, and demanded the life of the King. Watching the passion-inspired masses, Napoleon turned to Bourrienne, with the remark, "What madness, he should have blown four or five hundred of them into, the air, and the rest would have taken to their heels." Napoleon even went so far in his pity for this miserable monarch, that he wrote him a letter and offered to command the troops which should put an end to the disorderly rabble. But the obscure officer, as he then was, received no reply, and it was but a few months later that the monarch was executed in front of his palace, while the mobs howled in a delirium of joy. When the Revolution broke out in France, General Paoli, who had for years exercised a dictatorship over Corsica, but had been forced to flee, was received back with honor by the National Assembly after the Revolution of 1789, and restored to his former position in Corsica. But in 1792 he fell under the anathema of the Assembly, and he was ordered to appear before the convention to give an account of himself and Corsica. He refused, and when troops under Salicetti came to remove him from office, the Corsicans rallied around him and prepared for resistance. Napoleon was at this time at the parental abode in Ajaccio, and was offered flattering terms by Paoli, whose side he had taken in the previous Revolution. But Napoleon declined, and offered his services to Salicetti instead. Soon the undisguised hatred of Napoleon for Jacobin excesses laid him open to suspicion, and he was sent to Paris for trial. He was acquitted in triumph. Ajaccio was the only town in Corsica which had not by this time declared against France, and against Ajaccio Paoli and his followers marched. Napoleon's mother arid the others of the family fled from the island and safely reached Marseilles, though in a destitute condition. In France itself there had been a reaction against Jacobinism, and Marseilles was chief among the rebellious cities. At Toulon the monarchist fugitives had gathered by thousands, seeking protection under the guns of the Spanish and British fleets. The fleets were invited to garrison the city, and the invitation was promptly accepted and the town well fortified. The revolutionary leaders sent forward two armies to capture Toulon. After three months of disasters to the besieging armies, Napoleon came upon the field with a commission to take charge of the artillery. With his train of 200 guns he made the final breaches December 19, 1793, reduced the works of the enemy, and made it possible for the soldiers to enter the town and wreak vengeance upon the garrison and inhabitants. The streets of Toulon ran with blood, and the tricolor waved over the shattered ramparts. Despite the attempt of jealous rivals to conceal the facts, Napoleon was given due credit for the victory, and he was appointed to undertake the defense of the entire coast of France along the Mediterranean. Within a few weeks he had accomplished the tremendous task and rejoined the army at Nice. For his services he was promoted to Brigadier-General of Artillery. Soon General Dumerbion was leading the armies to conquest. The Maritime Alps were gained, and the way prepared for pushing into Italy. While the generals under whom Napoleon fought at this time were willing enough that he should take the brunt of the battle, and while they usually consulted him, and followed his counsels, he still remained comparatively obscure, his superiors taking to themselves all the glory. He did, however, shine sufficiently to make others jealous. Albetti and Salicetti plotted against him. He was relieved of his command, and soon afterward placed under arrest at the instigation of his enemies. They had no charges which could hold against him, and he was released after a brief imprisonment. Headley asserts that the injustice attempted against Napoleon is clearly shown by an effort on the 'part of his enemies to have him reduced in rank. He handed in his resignation and went to Marseilles to visit his mother and family. While there he became engaged to Eugénie Désirée Clary, the daughter of a merchant. Poverty alone kept him at this time from marrying, and the engagement was broken off. She subsequently became the wife of Bernadotte, and was Queen of Sweden. In May of 1795, Napoleon went to Paris. This period, so graphically described by himself, was the darkest of his youth. He was penniless, and at the same time had to endure the thought that his mother was in need. He was actually contemplating suicide, he relates, when, by good fortune, he met one of the very few of his schoolmates with whom he had been closely united Demasis, who was so struck with Napoleon's gloomy appearance, that he questioned him and learned the truth, with the result that he pressed $6,000 in gold upon him. Afterward Napoleon repaid him ten-fold in money, and gave him a high position. Evidence of his despondency is seen in a letter written June 25, 1795, in which he says, "Life is a flimsy dream." Exactly one month later he writes to his brother Joseph that he has received an appointment with the army of the West, but sickness detains him. August 20 he informs his brother that he is attached to the topographical board of the Committee of Public Safety, and that for the asking he can be sent to Turkey as General of Artillery. Two weeks later he writes that the Committee does not want him to leave France, and that he is to be reappointed to the artillery. By some of its acts the Convention was making myriads of enemies. The act which evoked the greatest bitterness was one by which the Convention should be renewed periodically, but only to the extent of one-third of its membership. In this move the Parisians saw a selfish tenacity to bring about continuity of power. The disaffected sections or wards created an insurrectionist Assembly, and this was arbitrarily suppressed by the Convention by force of arms. This roused the insurrectionists to a fiery pitch. The National Guard joined in the move, and the forces were preparing to march on the Tuileries. Menou had charge of the small body of the Convention's troops. He proved himself incapable, was arrested and imprisoned, and Barras, a politician, was given the command. "I have the man you want," announced Barras to the Convention, "a little Corsican officer, who will not stand upon ceremony." It was almost midnight, and the members of the Convention, pale and momentarily in peril, grasped at the straw, and calling Napoleon before them, gave him full power to act. He planted cannon at the cross streets and bridges, and with his troops, numbering 5,000, waited for the attack by 40,000, most of them soldiers of the National Guard. October 5 the insurgent hosts advanced, expecting an easy victory. A few musket shots were exchanged and then the cannon, loaded with grape, swept the insurgent columns with a hail of death. Again and again they poured forth upon the panic-stricken insurgents, and soon the streets were filled with slain and wounded. The spark of rebellion was quenched with blood. It was the work of one hour. Calmly he re-turned to the Convention, which unanimously declared that his energy had saved the Republic, and made him Commander of the Army of the Interior. He was thus at once placed in a position of the greatest power, military and political. This step also, according to the generally accepted record of the affair, brought him into contact with Josephine, who played such an important part in his life and in the history of France.* The story goes that among the arms captured during the search of the sections was a sword that had been worn by Viscount Beauharnais, who had fallen a victim to the guillotine. Eugene, his son, came to beg the return of the sword, and Napoleon granted his request. Josephine, the lad's mother, then twenty-eight years of age, called to thank Napoleon in person for his kindness. Their acquaintance resulted in marriage, March 9, 1796. Her family was one of the highest social standing in Paris, and Napoleon profited highly by the marriage from a social standpoint. Twelve days after the marriage, Napoleon, having been appointed Commander-in-Chief of the army of Italy, turned, as Headley says, "from the ravishing tones of love" to the "sweeter notes of fame's shrill trumpet." He found the army in Italy in a desperate condition. It numbered 50,000 men, poorly fed and clad, lacking in cavalry, and surrounded on every side by formidable foes. His first address to his new army electrified the discouraged and discontented soldiers. "You are hungry and naked," he said, "the Republic owes you much, but she has not the means to pay her debts. I am come to lead you into the most fertile plains the sun beholds. Rich provinces, opulent towns, all shall be at your disposal. Soldiers, with such a prospect before you, can you fail in courage and constancy?" The three objects of the expedition which Napoleon was now about to undertake were; first, to compel the King of Sardinia, who, although he had lost Savoy and Nice, still maintained a formidable army on the frontiers of Piedmont, to sever his alliance with Austria; secondly, to compel Austria to withdraw her heavy armies from the French frontier on the Rhine. This was to be accomplished by an invasion into Austria's Italian provinces, and if possible to stir up the Italian subjects of the Austrian crown to revolt and throw off the yoke. The third object was to bring the Vatican to terms, owing to the fact that it was suspected by the French Directory that the Church was secretly encouraging the Royalists. Napoleon lost little time in preparation. He reached Nice, March 27, and the campaign opened April 10. Beaulieu, the Austrian general, had taken every precaution. He had arranged his great force to cover Genoa, and guard the passes of the Alps. He held a strong position at Voltri, ten miles from Genoa, and another large force under D'Argenteau, occupied Montenotte, a summit further west. Colli, with the Sardinian troops, was stationed at Ceva. The array was an imposing one. All of these troops were tried and seasoned, and the generals were renowned for skill. But Napoleon had plans of his own, not only in regard to the manner in which he would attack the enemy, but also in regard to the manner in which he would cross the frowning Alps. He followed along the chain close to the shores of the Mediterranean, through March storms and April rains, to a point where the ridges sink almost to a plain, and then moved rapidly and silently upon Montenotte. The night of April i I was unusually dark and stormy, yet all through the night the army of Napoleon pushed steadily forward through torrents of rain, over miry roads, across swollen streams, and finally as day was about to dawn, the various divisions took up their positions around the camp of the enemy. Within an hour the order to attack was given, and the wet and weary troopers fell upon the unsuspecting Austrians, causing them to take precipitately to flight, leaving of their number 3,000 dead and wounded upon the field. The defeated army tried to rally at Dego, joining forces with Beaulieu. He was dislodged, and 3,000 of his soldiers taken prisoners. At Millesimo 1,500 Sardinians surrendered. At Ceva he fought the Sardinians under Colli. The enemy retreated, but he again fell upon them and won a complete victory. With the enemy scattered and flying in all directions, Napoleon rapidly marched upon Turin, the capital of Sardinia, and dictated his own terms. Within the space of one month the young general had fought three great battles, had killed, wounded, or captured 25,000 men, and taken 8o guns and 21 standards, and that with an army inferior in numbers and equipment as compared with the enemy. By the terms of peace, the King of Sardinia gave up three great fortresses in the Alps, and abandoned his coalition with Austria. His army was now a victorious host, and the promises he had made relative to finding plenty of all things needed for their comfort proved true. The troops, therefore, had already begun to exhibit that devotion and loyalty which was so often in after years demonstrated by those who served under Napoleon. His gaze was now turned upon Lombardy. By skillful maneuvering he caused the Austrians to believe that he desired to cross the river at Valenza, and while the enemy was preparing for him at that point, he was rapidly and under cover of night marching to a point eight miles distant. The distance was made in thirty-six hours, and the entire army crossed the Po in ferry boats without the loss of a single man, and in the face of two large reconnoitering parties of the enemy. This was May 7, and four days later was fought the memorable battle of Lodi. The Adda River was here spanned by a large wooden bridge. Beaulieu had prepared to make a desperate resistance. He had posted strong bodies of troops in the town of Lodi, and with his main army waited on the opposite side, after posting thirty cannon so as to completely sweep the bridge. No more daring task was ever undertaken in warfare than this feat of taking an army across the bridge of Lodi. The outposts of Napoleon's army drove the Austrians before them out of the town and across the bridge only to be met with a deadly storm from the batteries. Napoleon's first care was to plant cannon to offset those of the enemy. With his own hands he pointed and aimed guns, and in the meantime he had sent a detachment to ford the river some distance away, with orders to attack the Austrian flank. At the moment when the attack was made Napoleon gave the word and (columns of grenadiers, led by Lannes, Lallemagne, and Berthier, swept forward. For a moment the hail of shot ,checked them, but the next, rallied by the officers, and urged by Napoleon himself they swarmed across the structure and were upon the Austrian gunners, bayoneting them at their posts. Lannes, that gallant fighter and self-elected body guard of Napoleon's, was the first to cross the bridge. Following his giant form, and second to cross, was the diminutive figure of Napoleon. Four days more and Napoleon entered Milan, the capital of Lombardy, in triumph. This was May, 15, 1796. The citadel alone had not surrendered to the victor. After resting a week Napoleon set forward to pursue the Austrian general. He left a force to blockade the citadel, and with the balance of his army, he marched upon Mantua, "the citadel of Italy." Here Beaulieu had strongly entrenched his army, with Mantua to the left and Peschiera, a Venetian fortress which he had taken, on the right. At this juncture the Directory, fearing that Napoleon's power and glory was growing too fast, proposed to divide the command, letting half of the army go against the Austrians, while Napoleon, with the other half, could proceed against the Papal dominions. Their plans were met by a simple and absolute refusal on the part of the young Corsican. At this time also an insurrection arose in Lombardy as a result of heavy taxes imposed by the French. Napoleon pitilessly turned upon them, and without mercy slew all who were concerned in the outbreak. Advancing now upon the Austrians, he again deceived Beaulieu, their general. Napoleon crossed the River Mincio at a point where he was not expected, and laid siege to Mantua. It was occupied by 15,000 Austrians. July 29, General Wurmser at the head of an Austrian force, variously estimated at from 50,000 to 80,000 men, advanced to the relief of Mantua. Several engagements were fought, the principal one being at Bassano, where a sanguinary conflict took place, which resulted in tremendous losses to the Austrians, gain for France of hundreds of statues and a collection of paintings of the old masters, which were sent to Paris to be placed in the National Museum.
Up to this time Napoleon's army had fought no fewer than fourteen pitched battles, had taken part in seventy actions, captured over 10o,000 prisoners, 2,000 heavy guns, over 500 field pieces, and besides maintaining itself without cost to the Republic, had sent to Paris millions in money, and valuable treasure of other description, such as paintings, statuary, and priceless manuscripts. Napoleon was now about to begin his sixth campaign. He turned toward Vienna, the capital of Austria. To give the details of this campaign would be practically a repetition of the previous one against Austria. The Austrians, under Archduke Charles, again operated on a double basis, one division on the frontier of Tyrol, and the other under the Archduke on the Friulese. Napoleon marched against the Archduke, and sent Joubert with an army against the Austrians in Tyrol. March 12th Napoleon's army attacked and defeated the Austrians, who retreated with the French in full pursuit. Gradisca was stormed, and 5,000 prisoners taken. Through Trieste and Fiume and across the mountain passes, the thinning ranks of the Austrians fled before the victorious French. In the meantime General Lau-don had gained some successes in Tyrol, and the Venetians, notwithstanding that they had solemnly pledged themselves to neutrality, had committed acts of violence against the French soldiers. This led to an attempt to disarm them, and the consequence was several insurrections, in which many hundreds of the French were massacred. Just before this came to the ears of Napoleon, the court of Vienna had ordered Archduke Charles to bring the war to an end, and in April, 1797, negotiations were begun at Leoben. Having specified the terms of the treaty, and without waiting for its conclusion, Napoleon marched upon the treacherous Venetians. They begged for mercy. "French blood has been treacherously shed," replied Napoleon. "If you could offer me the treasures of Peru; if you cover your whole dominion with gold, the atonement would be insufficient; the Lion of St. Mark must bite the dust." Venice offered no resistance, and Napoleon satisfied his anger by taking five ships of war, 3,000,000 francs in gold; besides paintings and manuscripts, organized a democratic form of government, and made a treaty with ternis to suit himself. He also here discovered in Venice proof of criminal negotiations between General Pichegru on the Rhine with the Bourbons. He sent the facts to Paris, and Pichegru was replaced by General Hoche. Pichegru returned to Paris and became the President of the Five Hundred. At this crisis the Directory sent for Napoleon, and he dispatched Augereau to Paris, and the latter with his troops, on September 4, 1797, arrested the undesirable representatives, and Pichegru with 150 others were exiled.
After arranging his affairs in Italy, Napoleon installed himself at the castle of Montebello, near Milan, and was there joined by Josephine. After months of negotiations between France and Austria, the treaty was finally concluded and signed at Campo-Formio, October 3, 1797. By this treaty the Emperor yielded Flanders and the boundary of the Rhine, as well as the fortress of Mentz, to France. The several new republics of Lombardy were united under the name of the Cisalpine Republic. To indemnify Austria for the loss of Lombardy, Napoleon did not hesitate to cede Venice itself and the Italian provinces to the Emperor, while the Ionian Islands and Dalmatia were retained under French sovereignty. November 17th Napoleon left Milan and Italy, and paid a brief visit to Rastatt, where the Congress of the German powers had been assembled, and then proceeded to Paris, where he arrived December 5th. The Directory was unhappy and jealous. Napoleon neither asked their advice, accepted their suggestions, nor respected their desires. His plan was his own secret, and every move was with a view to the future, which he seemed to see with a clear vision. January 2, 1798, Napoleon appeared before the court of Luxembourg with the treaty of Campo-Formio. The multitude received him with the wildest demonstrations of enthusiasm. Here he made his first speech. He had often before or after battles addressed his soldiers in stirring words, but this was his first address before the French public. He was introduced by Talleyrand, and when he concluded his brief but vigorous and brilliant discourse the assembled concourse wildly shouted, "Vive Napoleon, Conqueror of Italy, Pacificator of Europe, and Savior of France." He was elected a member of the Institute, the distinguished literary establishment of the Capital, in place of Carnot, who had been exiled. He assumed the dress of a citizen instead of the uniform of a general. There was nothing of ostentation about him. He was economical, and while he might have amassed millions, he was comparatively poor. In spite of this the Directory was jealous and suspicious. They well knew his power and influence. They knew that the soldiery returning from Italy had sung and said through every town and village that it was time to get rid of the lawyers and make the "Little Corporal" King. When the motion was made in the Chambers to grant to Napoleon the estate of Chambord, it was lost, and this petty jealousy became more than ever conspicuous and significant to Napoleon, who secretly despised their authority.
The succeeding great scene in the Napoleonic drama was the proposed invasion of England, but Napoleon, after thorough investigation, said to Bourrienne, "It would be too hazardous. I will not undertake it. I will not risk on such a stake our beautiful France." His next thought was to inflict indirectly upon England a blow by a campaign in Egypt. The expedition was sanctioned by the Directory, who perhaps thought that in this dangerous climate they might forever be rid of Napoleon. The French army and magnificent fleet was assembled at Toulon, and among the invaders was a large corps of scientists and connoisseurs, who were to select the choicest antiquarian treasures of Egypt for the embellishment of the French Capital. He received his appointment April 12, 1798, but it was not until May 29th that he set sail. The reason for this delay is obvious. When Napoleon arrived at Toulon a squadron of English ships under Nelson was cruising in sight of the port. On the evening of May 19th a violent gale drove the English ships to sea, and so disabled some of them that Nelson was compelled to put into Sardinian ports to repair them.. Napoleon instantly ordered the troops to embark. His force consisted of 40,000 picked soldiers, and he had stimulated their eagerness by promising that each of them was to receive seven acres of land. He did not give the location of the land, but the soldiers knew him for a general who kept his promises. June 9th Napoleon reached Malta, and, being refused admission to the harbor for more than four of his ships, under the treaties which bound the Island, he attacked, and after a cannonade of two days, the place capitulated. In writing of this incident to his brother Joseph, he called it the strongest place in Europe. Nelson, in the meantime, was searching the coasts of Egypt for the fleet of Napoleon, but the latter eluded him. July 1st Napoleon reached Alexandria, and disembarked his troops during a gale. Many of his soldiers sank to eternal sleep during that disembarkation. He had be-fore him the task of conquering 2,500,000 people Turks, Copts, Arabs, and the fierce Mamelukes. Alexandria was soon subdued with terrific slaughter, and Napoleon raised the tri-color over the city's crumbling walls. Leaving 3,000 men to hold the city, he began on July 8th that terrible march across the burning desert toward Cairo. After a skirmish at Chebreiss, in which many of the enemy were slain, the main army of the Mamelukes, under Mourad Bey, was met with in sight of the pyramids. With wild cries the savage hosts advanced gallantly upon the French. "Soldiers," said Napoleon, "from the summit of yonder pyramids forty ages look down upon you." Then the battle began. The Mamelukes lost 2,000 killed, and in their flight hundreds were drowned in the Nile. The French lost about a score killed and six score wounded. On July 24th Cairo capitulated. All of Lower Egypt was in the hands of Napoleon. In a letter written immediately after this he expresses his desire to return to France, but only a week after his arrival at Cairo came the battle of Aboukir in which the French fleet was totally destroyed by Nelson's squadron. Although his designs had thus received a death-blow, Napoleon, when the news of the disaster to his fleet reached him, merely sighed and remarked, "To France the Fates have decreed the empire of the land to England, the sea." Napoleon remained in Cairo during the winter, and gave himself up to planning canals to connect the Mediterranean with the Red Sea. He also devoted much time to making laws and regulating internal affairs in Egypt. In February, with an army of 12,000, he marched into Syria, forced El-Arish to capitulate, then took Gaza, the ancient city of the Philistines, and advanced upon Jaffa, the Joppa of the Bible, arriving before its walls March 3d. The place was taken by assault, and 3,000 of its defenders were slain with arms in their hands, while thousands of others were massacred by the infuriated French soldiers, who for three hours continued to kill and pillage until stopped by their officers. Upward of 2,000 who were taken prisoners in one building were at Napoleon's orders taken out on the sands, formed into squares and shot down until not a living soul remained. For this wholesale slaughter Napoleon has been severely condemned, but his side of the incident is that these were part of the garrison which capitulated at El-Arish, and were liberated on giving their pledge to refrain from again taking up arms against the French. Napoleon now turned to Acre, renowned in the annals of the Crusades. March 19th the attack upon Acre began, but the task was hopeless from the first. The siege guns, while being transported by sea from Alexandria, fell into the hands of an English fleet under Sir Sidney Smith. After spending a month before Acre the battle of Mount Tabor took place. Kléber had been sent to cut off the arrival of 30,000 Turks from the mountains of Samaria, intended to rein-force Acre. Kléber was all but beaten when Napoleon, with fresh battalions, came to the rescue, and the Turks were signally defeated. After another month before Acre Napoleon gave up the effort. Disease was carrying off many of his troops, and on the awful march back to Jaffa hundreds lay down on the sands never again to rise. During this march his last horse was given up to the hospital train, and he walked beside his soldiers, cheering and comforting them,. The army reached Jaffa May 24th, and by the middle of June Napoleon was back in Cairo. In July he learned through intercepted messages that a force of 18,000 Turks had landed before Alexandria, and that the fleets of Russia, Turkey, and England were in the bay. Leaving Desaix in command at Cairo, with the bulk of the army he made forced, marches and reached Alexandria July 25th. The following day the most sanguinary battle of the Egyptian campaign was fought. In spite of the cannonading from the ships, the infantry under Napoleon and the invincible cavalry under Murat swept upon the Turks, and in the hand to hand struggle which followed 12,000 perished and 6,000 were taken prisoners. In August, after he had returned to Cairo, he received from Sir Sidney Smith a number of papers, which showed the disasters France had suffered during his absence, and this deter-mined him to hasten back to France. He left Egypt in charge of Kléber, and, accompanied by his favorite generals, reached France October 9, 1799. Napoleon did not find the France that he had left. Italy had practically been lost. On every border of the Republic the enemy hung, waiting for a favorable opportunity. Among the people there was alarm and discontent. Royalty was at conflict with extreme Republicanism, and between the two the Directory seemed to have lost both dignity and power. Napoleon took up his quarters in his old house in the Rue de la Victoire. He was conscious of the fact that the people were with him, but he had powerful enemies. Before he could hope to assume the reins of Government the Directory must be crushed, and the Council of the Ancients and that of the Five Hundred must be disposed of. In the Directory, besides the Royalists, Barras represented the Jacobins and Sieyès, the moderates or Republicans. Both of the latter sought to form an alliance with Napoleon, who favored the position of Sieyès as best suited to forward his designs. Napoleon's brother Lucien was President of the Council of the Five Hundred, and had the benefit of the coaching of the shrewd Talleyrand. November 8th the evidences of civil commotion became more distinct than ever. The dragoons, the officers of the national guard, and those of the garrison, had requested an interview with Napoleon, and he had named the following morning to receive them. At 6 o'clock on the morning of November 9th military bands led the way to Napoleon's humble home, and thousands of the populace gathered there. The Council of the Ancients assembled at 7 o'clock at the Tuileries. They decided that bold measures were required to save the Republic. They passed two motions, one to hold their sittings at the chateau Of St. Cloud outside of the Capital, and the other to give Napoleon supreme command of the military forces in and around Paris. The tidings were borne to Napoleon, and he hurried to the Tuileries to accept the charge. In the meantime the Directory suddenly awakened to the fact that a crisis was at hand. The following day Napoleon again addressed the Council of Ancients, and at the conclusion the majority cheered him. But a different reception awaited him in the Council of the Five Hundred. They were shouting, "Down with. the Dictator" and "Long live the Constitution." Lucien Bonaparte and the moderates of the Council in vain attempted to restore order. In the midst of the excitement, Napoleon entered, accompanied by four grenadiers. The grenadiers remained near the doors, while Napoleon approached into the center of the Council. A storm of protest arose. "Outlawry," they cried; "Drawn swords in the sanctuary of the laws," "Let him be proclaimed a traitor." Members rushed upon him. One of them, Arena, aimed a dagger at his throat. He was rescued by the grenadiers, and coming into the open air announced to his soldiers, "I offered them fame, and they met me with daggers." In the meantime the commotion in the Council increased. A sentence of outlawry was demanded against him. In vain his brother Lucien insisted upon the right to speak in behalf of his brother. Being refused, he indignantly flung off his insignia of office and left the place. Going out to the soldiery, he mounted a horse, and, as President of the Council, pronounced it dissolved, and ordered Napoleon to carry out the decree with force. A detachment of grenadiers entered the hall and drove the members out at the points of bayonets. Then Lucien Bonaparte collected the moderate members of the Council, and these, sitting as an assembly, came to an understanding with the Council of Ancients whereby both bodies adjourned to the middle of the following February. The whole authority of State, meantime, was deposed in a Provisional Consulate. The Consuls named were Napoleon. Sieyès, and Ducos. Napoleon went home, embraced Josephine and said, "To-morrow we sleep in the palace of the Luxembourg." The next morning he met with the Consuls, and his display of versatility and superiority of knowledge of the affairs of the Government was such that Sieyès, on returning to his house, remarked to Talleyrand and others who had assembled there,
"Gentlemen, I perceive that you have got a master.
Bonaparte can do, and will do, everything himself." The Consulate as originally organized did not last long. Through the promulgation of a new constitution, December 14th, Napoleon became Chief Consul, Cambaceres Second Consul, and Lebrun Third Consul. Napoleon was approaching dangerously near to a throne. The First Consul under the constitution was practically regent. He had absolute control of every department. The Conservative Senate, the Tribunate, and the Legislative Senate, which were created by the same constitution, were rather his assistants than a safeguard. There was no real check upon his authority. Toward the end of the year he moved into the Tuileries, and the splendor of his establishment there was little less magnificent than maintained by monarchs. He was called First Consul, and the Tuileries was given the more Republican name of Government Palace, but in fact he was King, and the Government Palace was his court. About this time Napoleon wrote a personal letter to King George III, of England, proposing peace between the two nations. Lord Grenville, England's Secretary of State, in reply wrote to Talleyrand that the King saw nothing in the new Government "which tends to make foreign powers regard it as either more stable, or more trustworthy, than the transitory forms it had supplanted." January 7th, three days after receiving this letter, Napoleon issued an edict creating an army of reserve, comprising the veterans and strengthened the service by 30,000 recruits. The preparations for a mighty struggle now went forward with amazing rapidity. On April 24th the campaign was begun. The army under Moreau crossed the Rhine at several points into Germany, and met with flattering successes. An army under General Masséna had advanced into Italy. It was not expected that Napoleon himself would take the field, but on May 9th he appeared suddenly at Geneva and took command of the army of reserve under Berthier. At this time Masséna was struggling vainly against the superior forces of Melas in Italy, and a few days later Napoleon, with his army in three divisions, crossed the Alps. Masséna had been besieged in Genoa since April 21st, but Napoleon, instead of going to his relief, as was expected, marched upon Milan and took possession of the city and the whole line of the Po and the Ticino. He then rapidly marched to Alessandria., which was occupied by Melas and the Austrians. Napoleon appeared before the town May 13th, and the following day the Austrians marched out and proceeded to Marengo. The battle of Marengo which followed appeared for a brief space to be an Austrian victory, and in fact Melas had retired to his tent to write dispatches telling of his success when a fortunate charge of Kellerman's cavalry and the appearance of Desaix, who had just returned from Egypt, with 6,000 men, turned the tide of battle and resulted in a crushing defeat for the Austrians. The concluding and decisive battle of the campaign was, how-ever, won on December 3d by Moreau, who signally defeated 70,000 Austrians under Archduke Charles, and placed the Austrian capital at the mercy of the French. Negotiations then began, and the treaty of Lunéville, February 9, 1801, was the result. England had now no ally in Europe, while France had secured the friend-ship of Denmark and Russia, and had made a treaty with the United States. Peace negotiations between England and France were finally concluded at Amiens March 27, 1802. In August of that year, to signalize the national regard for Napoleon in bringing about the pacification of Europe, the people of France voted on the question, "Shall Napoleon be First Consul for life." Naturally he was elected by an overwhelming majority. The year 1803 had scarcely been ushered in before fresh signs of trouble between France and England began to be visible.. By the treaty of Amiens, England was to yield up possession of Malta, but refused to comply with the . agreement. English newspapers assailed the character of Napoleon, and he protested, only to be coolly informed that his only redress was in the English courts. He finally did bring action against a royalist Frenchman who had settled in England, and was publishing a French paper in London. The editor was found guilty of libel, but his counsel, Sir James Mackintosh, delivered a tirade against the character of Napoleon, which was calculated to injure him much more than had the newspapers. England's refusal to give up Malta was based on an interview between Napoleon and Lord Whitworth in which Napoleon said : "Every gale that blows from England is burdened with enmity; your Government countenances Georges, Pichegru, and other infamous men who have sworn to assassinate me. Your journals slander me, and the redress I am offered is but adding mockery to insult. I could make myself master of Egypt to-morrow, if I pleased. Egypt, indeed, must, sooner or later, belong to France, but I have no wish to go to war for such a trivial object." The war was declared by England, May 15th. Before the proclamation reached Paris, according to the claims made by Napoleon, the English were already capturing French ships, and as a retaliatory measure he ordered the arrest of all English citizens in France. Napoleon sent troops into Hanover, the patrimonial possession of the King of England, and within ten days the French had captured i6,000 prisoners, taken 400 cannon and 30,000 muskets and 3,500 fine horses. By these successes Napoleon managed to maintain his armies without expense to France, and besides crippled England's commerce with many important points on the continent. In the meantime he was busy with his scheme of invasion. Troops numbering 160,000 were mustered in camps along the French and Dutch coasts. Soult, Ney, Davoust, and Victor were the generals selected to lead these armies. But England had 500 ships of war blockading ports and destroying shipping, and along her coasts were scattered camps of troops. Napoleon watched and waited for an opportunity to cross the channel in his flat-bottomed boats, either during such a calm that the English ships would be unable to move, or immediately after a storm, when they would be far out at sea. Early in 1804 a conspiracy against Napoleon was discovered. Count d'Artois was its leader, and carried on his operations from London. Pichegru and Moreau were involved, as were many others. Napoleons also suspected the complicity of the Duke d'Enghien, who lived at Ettenheim on German territory. Notwithstanding this, Napoleon sent dragoons to seize him, had him instantly tried in the night and shot at 2 o'clock in the morning. For this act Napoleon was everywhere severely condemned. Many of the conspirators against him were executed and others were exiled or imprisoned. One month after the execution of the Duke, it was proposed to make Napoleon Emperor. Carnot opposed it, but he was practically alone, and on May 18, 1804, the Senate unanimously passed the decree. He was given the right to name his successor. Congratulations came from all the rulers of Europe except England, Russia, and Sweden. Napoleon desired to leave nothing undone that would Make his power certain, and therefore sent for Fo Pius VII to come to Paris and crown him. The Pope consented, and Napoleon was crowned December 2, 1804. Titles, dress, and manners quickly became those of royalty. Ten years before, Napoleon was a captain in the army of the Republic. Originally a Corsican, he hated the French, yet became a republican and adopted the nation as his own. And now, that he had assumed a crown and held a monarch's scepter, he received homage from the same multitude that had but recently cried itself hoarse with "Vive la Republique." He was now invited to accept the iron crown of Charlemagne, worn by the Lombard Kings, and proceeded to Milan, where he was crowned May 26, 18o5. His title then became Emperor of the French and King of Italy. While at Milan, Napoleon received the first intimation that a coalition was forming against him. England, Russia, and Sweden had entered into a league with the avowed purposes of restoring the independence of Holland and Switzerland; to free the north of Germany from the presence of French troops; to procure the restoration of Piedmont to the King of Sardinia; and, finally, the evacuation of Italy by Napoleon. Until, by the attainment of these objects, the sway of France should be reduced to limits compatible with the independence of other European States, no peace was to be signed by any of the contracting Powers. Austria did not at first venture into the coalition, but on learning of Napoleon's crowning at Milan, at once threw 8o,000 troops into Bavaria, the ally of France, and tried to compel the Elector to join the coalition. In the meantime Napoleon was hastening from Milan to Paris, and arrived there in the latter part of July, 1805. An army was hastily sent forward and by strategy surrounded the Austrians, who capitulated without conditions of any kind. Meanwhile the Czar of Russia with 116,000 troops had advanced as far as Moravia. England sent 30,000 troops into Hanover to press upon the enemy from that quarter. Napoleon was joined by Ney's forces after their success in the Tyrol, by Murat, who had watched the retreat to Bohemia, and also by Augereau with fresh reserves from France. Then began the march upon the Austrian capital November 7 Francis fled from the unprotected city, and November 13, Napoleon entered and seized the supplies and arms stored there in great quantities. Instead of remaining in Vienna and giving the enemy an opportunity to further concentrate their forces, Napoleon marched forward and met the allied army, December 2, on the field of Austerlitz. When the sun rose that win-ter morning the confident Russians and the finely drilled Austrians advanced upon the French with no misgivings of defeat. The first onset was made upon Napoleon's right, which he had made to appear extremely weak, while really he had a formidable force, both of horse and foot concealed behind the convent of Raygern, some distance to the rear of the French right. The Russians fell into the trap and were suddenly overwhelmed. The move left a gap in the Russian center, into which Soult at once plunged, and soon the tide of slaughter was carried to every part of the allied armies. During the rout that followed one whole division of Russians was crossing a frozen lake, when the French artillery fired round shot at the ice and broke it up, engulfing, it is said, 6,000 men. In a letter written the following day Napoleon says he fancies that he can still hear the cries of the wretches, "whom it was impossible to save." This is a peculiar passage, inasmuch as eye-witnesses have related that the firing upon the ice was done at Napoleon's express orders, with the sole purpose of drowning the Russians. In this battle the Russians lost 20,000 and the Austrians 6,000. Napoleon took 40,000 prisoners, including 40 Generals. His own loss Napoleon gives as 900 slain, with double that number wounded. In this same letter, he states that his health is good, notwithstanding that he has "slept in the open air for a week." The morning after the battle, Francis of Austria met Napoleon, and after a' two hours' conference, it was agreed that the Russians might with-draw after a pledge not to again resume hostilities against the French. A treaty with Austria was signed December 15 at Presburg, and one with Prussia at Vienna December 27. The opening months of 18o6 were occupied in efforts on the part of Napoleon to reaching some definite understanding with England and Russia. The Confederation of the Rhine was also formed, in which some of the smaller German States came under the protectorate of France. The negotiations with Russia and England failed, and now suddenly a new coalition was formed in which Prussia took the place formerly occupied by Austria. A Prussian army of 200,000 took the field, invaded Saxony, and compelled that State to become an ally. Napoleon pursued the same line of tactics used against the Austrians the previous year. He sent his armies to cut off the rear of the Prussians, and then sent a proposal of peace to the King. Receiving no reply, decisive steps were taken. In a fierce battle at Saalfeld, the Prussians under Prince Louis were defeated. Naumburg and its magazine was blown up, and the Prince received a mortal wound. October 14, the contending armies met in decisive conflict at Jena and Auerstädt, and 20,000 Prussians were killed or taken prisoners. Napoleon then took up the march to Berlin and entered the town October 27.
With a remnant of his army the King of Prussia fled to the frontier of Poland, and there met Alexander of Russia advancing with an army to come to his assistance. The campaign of the winter which followed was a terrible one for the French troops. Through bitter cold and driving snowstorms, they marched 400 miles to Warsaw and invested the city, November 28. The next great battle of this campaign was on the field of Eylau, February 7, 1807. Each side lost heavily, and while the Russians retired to Konigsberg, Napoleon retreated to the Vistula. Offers of peace by Napoleon were rejected. After remaining in winter quarters upon the Vistula, in the spring he received supplies and reinforcements from France. With 300,000 men he renewed the campaign. May 26 the town of Dantzic capitulated after a siege of 51 days. June 14, the anniversary of Marengo, the deciding battle was fought opposite the town of Friedland. The Russians were so completely beaten that the Czar began to think of peace, and on June 25 the two rulers met on a raft moored in the River Niemen, near the town of Tilsit. They had a long conversation, to which no person was a witness ; both established themselves in Tilsit and lived there as old friends for three weeks, until peace was signed July 8, 1807. Prussia was compelled to accept harsh terms, but Russia was treated like a friend instead of an enemy. Napoleon returned to Paris July 27, and was received with the greatest enthusiasm. In 1808, Napoleon, having come to the conclusion that Portugal and Spain were necessary to him, dispatched Junot to Lisbon with an army, which arrived there November 30. The royal family fled aboard ships and sailed for Brazil. In the same year, French troops were poured into Spain and placed under command of Murat, who took up his march to Madrid. King Charles abdicated, and Ferdinand, the heir apparent, was placed upon the throne, but Napoleon soon induced him to also abdicate, and made Joseph Bonaparte, already King of Naples, ruler of Spain. Soon, however, the entire nation revolted. King Joseph was compelled to flee for his life, and French garrisons were overcome and massacred. Napoleon, with several formidable armies, at once entered Spain, and the enemy faded away before his advance as the dew before the morning sun. Success followed success, until on December 4, after a stern resistance, Spain capitulated. Leaving Soult to wipe out the last vestiges of the insurrection, Napoleon, with the utmost speed, hurried back to Paris. The reason for this sudden move was that he had received information that Austria and England, taking advantage of his absence, were about to invade France from the north. He reached the capital January 22, and in the meantime Joseph once more ascended the throne. Austria took the leadership in the war of 1809 by declaring hostilities April 6. Napoleon hastened to Strasburg. April 13 he moved against Archduke Charles, whose army was composed of 180,000 men. April 20 a fierce battle was fought at Abensberg, and the following day a battle at Landshut, in which the Austrians lost 9,000 men, thirty guns and all their stores. The Archduke concentrated his forces and gave battle to the French at Eckmühl. The conflict lasted from 2 in the afternoon until dark, and the Austrians were driven from the field with terrible losses. Charles retreated to Ratisbon, where he made a last stand, and was again defeated. He then retreated into Bohemia, and Napoleon again entered Vienna, May 13. The final battle was fought at Wagram July 6. Five days later an armistice was signed at Znaim. The treaty with Austria was finally signed October 14 at Schönbrunn, and by this act Austria lost 45,000 square miles of territory and 4,000,000 population. On his return to Paris, Napoleon for the first time broached to Josephine the necessity of divorce. They were childless, and Napoleon pointed out the desire of the whole nation that he should have an heir, and it was necessary besides that he should by marriage connect himself with one of the great reigning powers and thus establish the security of France. It was a cruel and crushing blow to the devoted and gentle Josephine, and Napoleon suffered as well, but he placed his destiny and France above the love of Josephine, and locked his heart against his own inclinations. The formal separation took place December 15. March 10, 1810, Berthier, representing Napoleon, received at Vienna the hand of Princess Marie Louise as the bride of Napoleon. She was 18, he was 40. March 20, 1811, she bore a son, and another of Napoleon's ambitions had been gratified. Negotiations with England, looking toward peace, however, failed utterly. That nation refused to recognize Joseph as King of Spain, and the open hostility between the two nations continued. Russia also suddenly became the enemy of France. England's influence and pressure from abroad and his own nobility caused Czar Alexander, in spite of the treaty of Tilsit, to declare war against France in April, 1812. With 600,000 French, Italian, and German troops Napoleon now began the wonderful invasion of Russia. June 24 his forces began crossing the Niemen, and four days later he entered Vilna, the capital of Russian Poland, which had been evacuated at his approach. While waiting for supplies, Napoleon attempted to open negotiations with Alexander, but his offers were rejected. It was not until July 16 that he left Vilna.
As he proceeded the Russian plan of defense was made plain to him. The country had been laid entirely waste. Not a vestige of anything that could serve an army remained. Villages were burned and supplies destroyed, the people proceeding with the Russian army and becoming a part of it. The hostile armies met September 7 near the village of Borodino. It was a victory for Napoleon, although he lost 30,000 men. The loss of the Russians was 50,000. September 14 the armies of Napoleon entered Moscow. The great city was found to be practically deserted. On the night of the day of occupation fires started in various parts of town. They were with difficulty extinguished. The following day and evening fresh fires broke out and spread in every direction until the whole city was destroyed. Twice between this time and the retreat, Napoleon attempted to open negotiations with Alexander, but was met with silence. Autumn came, and on October 13, three weeks earlier than at any previous recorded period, snow fell and struck terror to the hearts of the soldiers. Famine and disease had wrought havoc among the troops. On October 18 the army left Moscow and proceeded south-ward. During the march, bands of Cossacks hung on the outskirts, and whenever opportunity offered, cut off detached companies or plundered baggage. History does not contain so pitiful or so disastrous a retreat as this. Smolensk was reached November 9. On that terrible march 90,000 soldiers died. It was not until December 6 that a bare remnant of the magnificent army which had advanced into Russia reached Vilna, more dead than alive. The campaign had cost Napoleon half a million lives. He hastened to France to again organize an army. Nearly every family in France mourned some friend or relative lost in Russia, yet the magic of Napoleon's name caused them to again enter cheerfully upon the work. Arsenals were kept busy, sup-plies were raised, and soldiers flocked by the thousands to his standard. Within a few weeks he had an army of 350,000 men. But at this time the populace of Prussia began to show signs of rising to throw off the hated yoke imposed by Napoleon. Six years had elapsed since Jena, and Prussia had recovered from the blow. All of the German States except Saxony entered into a coalition against the French. England furnished gold, and Sweden sent 35,000 men. Spain had not yet been pacified, and Napoleon's troops there were kept busy. Alexander marched from Russia with an army and joined the allies. April 15, 1813, Napoleon started out with his army of youthful and fresh enthusiasts. The first clash was on May 2, near Lützen. A large force of the allied armies fell upon the French, and the battle was waged for eight hours. At the end of that time Napoleon was left victor of the field, but his own losses had been so great that he could not afford to pursue the enemy. May 21 and 22 the second sanguinary conflict of this campaign was fought near Bautzen. Napoleon lost 15,000 men, the allies, 10,000. The army of the allies then retreated into upper Silesia and Napoleon advanced to Breslau. Austria at this point offered to mediate, and an armistice was declared. At this crisis came news from Spain of the defeat of the French there, the Duke of Wellington having won several victories. August 1o, Austria signed the alliance, offensive and defensive, with Russia and Prussia, and the war against Napoleon from this quarter was renewed. Austria sent 100,000 men into the field, bringing the total number of the allied troops close to 500,000. Napoleon was posted at Dresden, where his magazine was located. On August 25 the allied armies began to bombard Dresden. After two days of fighting the allies retreated, but the strength of Napoleon was all but exhausted. Now the King of Bavaria was forced to join the allies, and the King of Westphalia was forced by a revolution to flee for his life. Troubles were fast gathering around Napoleon. He had 100,000 troops with which to contend against five times that number. Already his star was leaving the glorious zenith and approaching a dismal horizon. France responded to an urgent appeal by for-warding 16o,000 conscripts, and Napoleon now pro-posed to march on Berlin and compel the enemy to defend their cities. But his generals opposed the enterprise. He then marched to Leipsic to make a final stand. The allied armies soon confronted him, and on the morning of September 16, at daybreak, a battle began which continued from dawn to dark for three successive days, when Napoleon finally determined to retreat. He marched his troops through the town and began the crossing of the two bridges which span the Pleisse. One of the bridges broke down, and the task of getting all the army across one bridge was hopeless. When daylight came and the enemy discovered the move made by Napoleon, an assault was made upon the town. The soldier who had been stationed to blow up the bridge when all had crossed, in the confusion started his train too soon and killed many of his comrades. This act also caused 25,000 troops who had not yet crossed the bridge to fall prisoners to the allies. Napoleon's total loss was 50,000. He continued his retreat to Paris, where he arrived November 5. Wellington had driven the French out of Spain and was already on French soil. The situation was now desperate. On every side France was threatened with invasion. January 25, 1814, Napoleon, having raised fresh armies, again proceeded to the front. Two days later and only 100 miles from Paris, he met a force of Blucher's Cossacks. The French were victorious and the next day attacked the castle of Brienne, occupied by 6o,000 Russians. Napoleon's force numbered but 20,000. He gained a victory, but his enemies were crowding him on every side. He was now willing to negotiate for peace, and that, too, on the humbling terms that France should give up the territory taken from other nations and return to its original limits. But during February, with two armies marching upon Paris, Napoleon moved with such rapidity that in nine days he gained seven victories, made nine marches in the depth of winter, and drove out or frightened away two armies, each larger than his own. His wonderful success during this brief period led Napoleon to believe that his star was again in the ascendency, and when again the negotiations for peace were opened he refused to sign an armistice on the terms previously proposed. Napoleon now marched northward against Blücher, and on March 7 gave him battle at Craonne. The Prussians could not withstand the attacks of the French, and retired to the stronghold of Laon. Here on March 10 Napoleon marched up the mist-covered slopes to receive a resistless storm of iron hail from behind the terrace walls, which sheltered the entrenched foe. Napoleon was compelled to retire, and the following day retreated to Chavignon, leaving behind him on those bloody heights, 10,000 men and 30 cannon. He began to strengthen his position at Soissons, when the tidings came to him that Rheims had been captured by St. Priest, a French emigrant, with a corps of Russians. After a hurried march Napoleon attacked at midnight and retook the place, St. Priest being among the killed. But the end was fast approaching. Napoleon, like a lion at bay, knew not which way to turn or which of his enemies to attack first. There was always the danger that while engaged with one foe, others might march upon Paris. He finally determined to remain in the rear of the invading armies and by the terror of his name and by marching and countermarching and repeated attacks, distract their attention from Paris and cause them to turn back upon him until he could receive succor from his garrisons on the Rhine. Generals Marmont and Mortier were meanwhile to dispute the advance of the enemy. In Paris terror and confusion reigned. The enemy steadily advanced, each day drawing nearer to the Capital. Marmont and Mortier bravely but fruitlessly resisted up to the very walls of Paris. March 3o was a day of death and ruin. From the heights a constant cannonade was poured into the streets, and officers who came out with flags of truce to beg for a cessation of hostilities were shot on their approach. At 5 o'clock in the afternoon the capitulation was signed. When Napoleon arrived he found him-self too late. After the first desperate resolve to still push into Paris, he calmly sent Caulaincourt there to accept such terms as might be offered, and retired to the old castle of Fontainebleau and quietly sought his bed and rest. At that moment the triumphal procession of the allies was moving through the Paris boulevards, 50,000 troops of many nations, surrounding the victorious monarchs and princes. From the mighty throng of excited Frenchmen arose the shouts of acclamation which always greets the victor. But many groups were silent, and many hearts were filled with grief. The allied sovereigns demanded the abdication of Napoleon, and this he penned April 4 and sent to them. It contained no conditions whatever in behalf of Napoleon, and Alexander of Russia expressed surprise at this, and at the meeting of the sovereigns proposed that Napoleon retain his title with the sovereignty of the Island of Elba. The allies consented and fixed upon Napoleon a pension of 6,000,000 francs annually, to be paid by France. April 11 Napoleon signed his acceptance of the terms offered, on April 20 bade fare-well to the Old Guard, and departed, accompanied by four commissioners, representing each of the four great Powers which had brought about his downfall, to the harbor of Fréjus, where on the 28th he embarked on the British frigate Undaunted, and was carried to Elba. He landed on the solitary island May 3, 1814, under a salute from the battery at Porto Ferrajo. The allied Powers placed upon the throne of France, Louis XVIII, brother of the slain monarch. He had been an exile in England. Everything having to the minds of the sovereigns been satisfactorily arranged, the French prisoners of war, between 200,000 and 300,000 of them, were released from German fortresses and, returning to France, found everything changed. On learning what had happened, their invariable answer was, "It would not have taken place if we had been here." February 27, 1815, without the slightest intimation of the startling events that were about to take place reaching the out-side world, Napoleon embarked from Elba with the thousand soldiers who had accompanied him there, and on March i reached Cannes. As soon as he touched French soil, soldiers began flocking to his standard. From city to city the swelling and irresistible tide rolled on toward Paris, and on the evening of March 20, Napoleon entered Paris and was borne on the shoulders of Parisians to the Tuileries, from which the aged and gouty Louis had but a few hours previously fled.The world was electrified, and once again the great nations began to prepare for war. It was in vain that Napoleon attempted to negotiate, showing as his reasons for returning that the promises made him had not been kept. His pension had not been paid, his wife and his son were detained in Austria, and finally, the nation desired him to once again assume the scepter. But the Powers had determined that he must be utterly crushed, and preparation went forward, with the result that in two months all was in readiness for the final fatal struggle. With daylight, June 12, Napoleon left Paris to join his army and march against his enemies. Two days later he reviewed at Avesnes all his available troops, numbering 135,000 men. He was pitted against Blücher with 100,000 men and Wellington with 76,000. For a few days there was considerable maneuvering, some skirmishes, a few minor battles, and two of importance, Quatre Bras and Ligny, until finally, June 18, 1815, came the shock which was felt around the world, the battle of Waterloo. At the outset neither of the armies had their full forces upon the field. Blücher was some distance away from Wellington's army, and a splendid division of Napoleon's force under Grouchy was in pursuit of a division of Prussians. At 11 o'clock the engagement began. Slowly it extended as one division after another entered into the conflict, until across the wide plain for nearly two miles, the fearful struggle raged. At a moment when Wellington's columns began to waver, Blücher came upon the field with 60,000 men and Napolcon sent his last troops, the Old Guard, into the fray. Grouchy and his troops, had they arrived at this juncture, might have changed the whole future history of Europe. Finally, at 4 o'clock, the battle ended. The French army was no more. In fragments it was flying for safety, pursued by relentless Prussians. Napoleon seeing that all was lost hastened to Paris. Wellington and Blücher lost about 22,000 men, Napoleon over 30,000. June 22 Napoleon wrote his second abdication and sent it to the Chambers. This was the end of Napoleon's "hundred days." He decided to embark for the United States, and for that purpose went to Roche-fort, only to be informed that English warships were watching every vessel to see that he did not escape. Finally, after various means of escape had been tried, he determined to claim the protection of England, and July 15 was received aboard the Bellerophon. But England did not receive him as a guest. Instead he was made a prisoner and transported to the Island of St. Helena, where he landed October 16. In this desolate and cheerless spot he was surrounded by sentinels and guards, whose duty it was to see that he did not again escape. For five years he was a prisoner at St. Helena, and died there, May 5, 1821, of cancer of the stomach, from which he had suffered for several years. His body was dressed as in life and he was buried in a quiet spot which he had himself selected. In 184o the remains of Napoleon were, by permission of the English Government, removed to France. From the mouth of the Seine to Paris a funeral cortège was formed of twelve steamers. The banks of the stream were crowded with spectators, and all Paris participated in the services over Napoleon's ashes, which, according to his early wishes, at last found a place of repose "on the banks of the Seine," though in a magnificent catafalque in the Church of the Invalides.