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The Study Of Literature
English Literature Of The 19th Century:
 Third Or Later Victorian Period

 William Ewart Gladstone

 John Morley

 Historical Literature Of The Later Victorian Period

 Edward Augustus Freeman

 James Anthony Froude

 Sir Henry Sumner Maine

 William Edward Hartpole Lecky

 James Bryce

 John Addington Symonds

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Sir Henry Sumner Maine

( Originally Published Early 1900's )

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Still another great writer in the historical field was Sir Henry Sumner Maine (1822-1888), whose special department was the development of law and the organization of society. Educated at Christ's Hospital and Cam-bridge, he graduated in 1844, and became Professor of Civil Law. In 1862 he was called to India to take part in legislative reform. On his return, in 187o, he was knighted and was appointed Professor of Jurisprudence at Oxford, and was made member of the Council for India. In 1877 he was chosen Master of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and Professor of International Law. Maine early under-took to correct the theory of organized society maintained by Blackstone. He showed in his "Ancient Law" (1861) that social institutions were developed by custom, and that society moves from status to contract, that is, from regarding everything as fixed by class usage to allowing special arrangements to be made by individuals. His views were supported by what he observed in India, as reported in his "Village Communities in the East and West" (1871), and were further developed in his "Early History of Institutions" (1875). His lucid style and fine literary power promoted the general acceptance of the new theory. His "Popular Government" (189o) is a severe arraignment of democratic institutions and tendencies.

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