The Works Of Carpaccio
DESCRIPTIONS OF THE PLATES
'ST. VITALIS AND OTHER SAINTS' PLATE I
CARPACCIO painted this famous picture in the year 1514, for the Church of San Vitale, Venice, where it may still be seen in the choir of the church, behind the high altar.
According to the legend, St. Vitalis of Ravenna, who served in the army of the Roman Emperor Nero and was converted to Christianity by St. Peter, was tortured and buried alive, as a punishment for having cared for the body of a Christian martyr and given it honorable burial. In early paintings he is represented as a soldier, sometimes with a martyr's crown, and sometimes on horseback as in this picture by Carpaccio, where he is shown clad in armor and mounted on a white charger. St. Valeria, his wife, in red cloak and green robe and holding a martyr's palm, stands beside him. Near her is St. George with the standard of victory. On the other side are St. John the Baptist with a lamb, and St. James with book and staff, their long red mantles harmonizing with the landscape background beyond. Upon a balcony surmounting a high arched screen are the two sons of St. Vitalis—St. Gervasius and St. Protasius—attended by St. Peter with a book, and St. Andrew bearing a cross. One of Carpaccio's charming little angel-musicians is seated between them, and above, the Virgin and Child appear in glory.
Although not one of Carpaccio's greatest works, lacking, as Signor Molmenti has said, "the freshness and serenity of youthful inspiration," this altar-piece is interesting not only because of the original and somewhat curious arrangement of the different groups, but for the rich architectural details and the charming landscape seen between the open arches of the screen.
The picture measures over nineteen feet high by about eight feet wide. The figures are life-size.
SCENES FROM THE LEGEND OF ST. URSULA PLATES II, III, IV, AND V
ACCORDING to the legend of St. Ursula, a certain king of Brittany, whose name in the Italian version of the story was Mauro, had a beautiful and accomplished daughter called Ursula. Her hand was sought in marriage by numerous suitors, and among other aspirants was Conon, son of Agrippinus, King of England. Ambassadors from the English court were accordingly despatched to Brittany to present to King Mauro the proposal of their monarch that the princess should become the wife of his son. Now Ursula had determined to wed no one, in order that she might the more diligently devote herself to the service of religion; but in accordance with her father's wishes she consented to be affianced to the English prince on three conditions: first, that the King of England should give her as attendants eleven thousand virgins of noble birth; secondly, that before the proposed marriage three years should be allowed her and her companions in which to make a pilgrimage to Rome to visit certain shrines; and thirdly, that Prince Conon and his suite should become Christians.
With this reply the English ambassadors returned to their king, who at once agreed to accept all the conditions, and forthwith Prince Conon set out to pay the princess a visit before she should embark upon her pilgrimage.
In the course of time Ursula and her virgin attendants reached Rome, where they were welcomed by Pope Cyriacus, and joined by Prince Conon and his suite, who had arrived on the same day by a different route. Ursula now confided to her lover that it had been revealed to her in a dream that she and her companions were doomed to suffer martyrdom at Cologne, through which city they must pass on their return home. Warned of her impending fate, Prince Conon abandoned all hope of marriage with the princess, and kneeling by her side at the feet of Pope Cyriacus, received baptism at his hands, and assumed the name of Ethereus, to express the purity and regeneration of his soul.
The whole party then set out on their homeward journey, accompanied by the pope and several cardinals and bishops; but when they had proceeded as far as Cologne, they found themselves surrounded by the Huns, who were then laying siege to that city, and by whom they were all mercilessly put to death. Prince Conon was the first to die at the feet of his beloved princess. She herself was shot dead by the arrows of the heathen king of the Huns, and her spirit, with the spirits of all her virgin attendants and those of her betrothed husband and his companions, ascended into heaven and there received the reward of their martyrdom.
Such, in brief, is the legend of St. Ursula, a legend which before Carpaccio's famous paintings of its various scenes were executed had long been a favorite subject with early artists and had already inspired the delicate brush of the Flemish painter, Hans Memling, whose work, `The Shrine of St. Ursula,' in Bruges, had attained wide celebrity. Carpaccio's illustrations of the story bear a close affiliation with Memling's paintings, showing, as a recent critic has said, "how straight was the road that led in the fifteenth century from the canal cities of the North to the city of the lagoons on the Adriatic."
Carpaccio's pictures of the legend of St. Ursula were painted between the years 1490 and 1495 for the Scuola di Sant' Ursula, an institution in Venice devoted to the support and education of orphan girls. Taken collectively, these paintings, now in the Venice Academy, are the artist's greatest work. Individually, however, they are of varying merit. The finest among them, of which four examples are here reproduced, show us Carpaccio at his best —as the unsurpassed teller of legend and romance, the painter par excellence of the brilliant pageantry of Venice.
'THE ENGLISH AMBASSADORS BEFORE KING MAURO.' PLATE II
In the center of this picture, which is divided into three parts, we see Mauro, King of Brittany, seated among his courtiers, receiving the ambassadors of the English king, one of whom, clad in a rich robe of black and gold brocade, kneels before him and presents a letter from Agrippinus, asking the hand of Princess Ursula for his son. In the distance, bordering a canal, are Venetian buildings rendered in delicate tones of color. To the left of this scene, in a loggia of the palace, attendants in picturesque and bright-colored costumes are gathered, and to the right we see King Mauro, his robe of soft brownish yellow relieved by the white spread and mulberry-colored canopy of the bed beside which he is seated, discussing the proposed marriage with his daughter, who, as she stands before him in gown of grayish blue and bright red mantle, enumerates the conditions upon which she will consent to marry the English prince.
The picture is on canvas, and measures nine feet one inch high by about nineteen feet wide.
'RETURN OF THE AMBASSADORS TO ENGLAND.' PLATE III
Under a pavilion supported by marble columns the English king receives his ambassadors upon their return from Brittany. Although the scene is supposed to be laid in England, the whole character is distinctly Venetian, from the carefully detailed architecture to the various groups of people in picturesque costumes of richly brocaded tunics, bright red stockings and caps—even to the monkey which Carpaccio has placed on the steps of the king's pavilion and has humorously arrayed as a Venetian senator.
Elaborately as the details of the scene are carried out, they are all subordinated to the principal incident of the composition. "The sunlight effect under which the picture is painted," writes Sir Charles Eastlake, "the refined sense of color which it displays, and, above all, the genuine naturalism of the scene, combine to render this work one of the most attractive in the series."
The canvas is nearly ten feet high by seventeen feet wide.
'THE ENGLISH PRINCE TAKES LEAVE OF HIS FATHER.' PLATE IV
This picture, divided by a flagstaff into two parts, represents, on the left, the English king standing on a pier surrounded by his courtiers and bidding farewell to Prince Conon, who kneels before him to receive the paternal blessing before setting out to visit his affianced bride. The feudal castles with crenelated towers introduced in the background are intended to represent an English port, but are more suggestive of Italian architecture.
Immediately to the right of the flagstaff we see the landing of the prince in Brittany and his meeting with Ursula, while at the extreme right of the picture, the prince and princess kneel before King Mauro. Here again the architectural setting carries us to Venice, as do the brilliant costumes, elaborate in detail, and rich in their varying tones of red, the blue waters of the sea, in which ships of fantastic shape are anchored, and, above them all, the luminous Italian sky. Of the whole series, this canvas is the most pictorial and entertaining. It measures nine feet one inch high by twenty feet wide.
'THE DREAM OF ST. URSULA.' PLATE V
This picture, which measures about nine feet square, and is the most naïvely charming in the series, shows us the bedchamber of St. Ursula, who lies peacefully sleeping in her high four-post bedstead with its canopy and coverlet of red. Through a doorway on the right an angel enters in a flood of early morning light, bearing in his hand a palm, emblem of Ursula's future martyrdom.
In Mr. Ruskin's poetical description of this picture, unfortunately too long to be given here, each exquisitely rendered detail of the medieval room is noted—the arched windows, painted crimson around their edges, and partly open to the morning sky; the Greek vases on the sills, with a plant in each; the sage-green cloth that covers the lower part of the walls, white and bare above; the low reading-table with white fringed cover, and open book lying on it; the case of books near by; the small blue slippers of the princess be-side the bed; her crown placed on a ledge at the foot; and the little dog, which, though awake and vigilant, takes no notice of the entrance of the heavenly visitant.
"The other pictures of the series," writes Mrs. Oliphant, "may be more rich in incident and expression, and have a higher dramatic interest, but the sleep of Ursula is exquisite and goes to every heart."
'ST. STEPHEN DISPUTING WITH THE DOCTORS' PLATE VI
THIS picture, one of a series consisting of four canvases and an altârpanel, painted by Carpaccio between 1511 and 1515 for the Scuola di San Stefano at Venice, is now in the Brera Gallery, Milan. Of the other pictures of the series, all representing scenes from the life of St. Stephen, one is in the Louvre, one in the Berlin Gallery, and another in the Museum of Stuttgart. The fifth picture—the altar-panel—has disappeared.
In the painting reproduced in Plate vi Carpaccio has represented the youthful St. Stephen, in his deacon's habit of red embroidered with gold, disputing with the doctors of the law, who, dressed in brown, scarlet, and blue gowns, with black caps or white turbans on their heads, are grouped about him, some seated beneath an open portico supported by columns, others standing just outside. The canvas measures about four feet eight inches high by nearly six feet wide. The figures are about a quarter the size of life, the heads are well modeled, and the faces full of expression.
The architectural setting of the scene is especially well rendered. The various buildings, both European and oriental in character, are painted with all the care that Carpaccio invariably bestowed upon the architectural details of his pictures, which are here thrown into relief by a background of a charming Italian landscape with blue sky and light clouds.
'THE PRESENTATION IN THE TEMPLE' PLATE VII
THIS celebrated picture, Carpaccio's masterpiece, was painted in the year 1510 for the Church of San Giobbe, Venice. It is now in the Venice Academy, where it hangs near the great altar-piece by Giovanni Bellini painted for the same church (see Volume 1, Part 9, of this SERIES), and with which, though less golden in color, it may well be compared in grandeur of composition and beauty of conception.
The Virgin stands in an apsidal recess decorated with mosaics, bearing the Child Jesus in her arms and attended by two richly dressed young women, one of whom carries a basket containing doves. The Virgin's robe is pale crimson, her long mantle peacock blue, and a white linen veil covers her head. Opposite to her, in an attitude of deep reverence, is St. Simeon followed by two priests. He is clad in the garments of a bishop, with cope of gold and purple brocade bordered with a band on which various scenes from the Old Testament are exquisitely represented in feigned embroidery. On the marble steps leading to the recess are seated three golden-haired children in bright-hued robes.
"This is a very impressive work," writes Sir Charles Eastlake. "In the finely conceived and venerable head of Simeon we find united an expression of tenderness and dignity rarely realized by any painter of this period. The Infant Christ is exquisitely graceful. The Virgin's features, though beautiful, are less interesting than those of her nearest companion. Among the chief charms of the picture is the delightful trio of angels—one may almost call them celestial children, for they are wingless—which supplements and completes the composition. In every detail the sense of color is refined and harmonious, though time, and possibly the light in which it is hung, have imparted a somewhat gray tone to the picture.
'THE MEETING OF ST. JOACHIM AND ST. ANNA' PLATE VIII
IN this picture, painted in the year 1515 for the Church of San Francesco, at Treviso, and now in the Venice Academy, Carpaccio has represented the story, told in the Apocrypha, of the meeting of the parents of the Virgin before the Golden Gate. St. Anna's robe is blue with yellow sleeves, and she wears a long red mantle. St. Joachim is clad in a green robe, red tunic, and gray cloak embroidered with gold. At the right of the picture stands St. Ursula in a blue gown, yellow underskirt, and rose-colored mantle. A crown is placed upon her blond hair, and she holds a banner and a martyr's palm. St. Louis of France is on the left, in purple robe and mantle of blue and gold brocade with ermine cape.
"The action of the principal group is pathetic in motive," writes Sir Charles Eastlake, "notwithstanding the large and cumbrous folds in which the draperies are cast. The carefully detailed architecture of the background indicates a transition from medieval to Renaissance types. The painting, which is executed on panel, is distinguished by a smooth hard impasto, and by the use of rich but carefully gradationed colors. The facial shadows are light and transparent, while those which define the draperies are forcible to excess. The drawing of the hands throughout is refined and delicate."
Taine, giving less attention to the technical qualities of the work, was struck by the poetic beauty of the faces. "No more serene and peaceful countenances can be imagined," he writes. "St. Ursula, pale and gentle, her head slightly inclined to one side, is indeed a saint; all the candor, humility, and piety of the middle ages are expressed in her face and attitude."
The picture measures about six feet high by five and a half feet wide, and the principal figures are two-thirds the size of life.
ST. JEROME IN HIS STUDY' PLATE IX
BETWEEN the years 1502 and 1511 Carpaccio painted a series of pictures for the Church of San Giorgio degli Schiavoni (St. George of the Slavonians) belonging to the Scuola or Confraternity of St. George and St. Tryphonius, which had been established in Venice fifty years before by some charitable men of Dalmatia, of the Illyrian or Slavonic nation, for the relief of poor sailors and others of their own nationality.
Upon entering this little church we find ourselves in a rectangular room with walls wainscoted in dark wood. Above the wainscoting are nine pictures by Carpaccio, each about four feet and a half high, and all varying in width, representing seven scenes from the lives of St. Jerome, St. George, and St. Tryphonius, and two from sacred history. Such is the harmony of color produced by these paintings in the dim light of the church—a harmony of violet, rose, green, white, yellow, and ultramarine—that, as Mr. Ruskin has said, the effect is that of "soft evening sunshine, or glow from embers on the hearth; resolving itself into a kind of checkering, as of an eastern carpet of more than usually broken and sudden variegation."
The three paintings on the right of the entrance represent scenes from the life of St. Jerome. Born about the middle of the fourth century, this saint was celebrated for his piety and his learning; his Latin version of the Bible, known as the Vulgate, being alone sufficient to establish his fame as a scholar, and cause him to be regarded as the special patron of students of theology.
In the picture reproduced in Plate Ix, one of the finest and best preserved of the series, Carpaccio has given us one of the earliest examples of genre-painting. Clad in a white surplice and red gown, a dark brown cape covering his shoulders, St. Jerome is seated at his writing-table. All the appointments of the room-the Venetian furniture, elegant and graceful in form, the books and ornaments arranged on shelves, the manuscripts scattered over the floor, even the little white dog watching his master so intently—show that Carpaccio, as Signor Molmenti has observed, did not derive his inspiration from the mysticism of the middle ages, but, in a spirit characteristic of the Renaissance, has portrayed a scene taken from the actual world about him. "This realism," writes Symonds, "if the name can be applied to pictures so poetical as Carpaccio's, is not like the Florentine realism, hard and scientific. A natural feeling for grace and a sense of romance inspire the artist, and breathe from every figure that he paints."
"The picture of `St. Jerome in his Study,' writes Mr. Henry James, "is a pearl of sentiment, and I may add, without being fantastic, a ruby of color. It unites the most masterly finish with a kind of universal largeness of feeling, and he who has it well in memory will never hear the name of Carpaccio without a throb of almost personal affection."
'COMBAT OF ST. GEORGE AND THE DRAGON' PLATE X
THIS picture in the Church of San Giorgio degli Schiavoni, Venice (see the description of Plate ix), is an example of the painter's skill as a teller of legends and fairy-tales. It represents a scene from the life of St. George, who, so the story goes, delivered the land of Lybia from the ravages of a terrible dragon which had put to flight all who had ventured to attack it, and had destroyed many by its poisonous breath. To appease the hunger of this monster the people were obliged to provide it with two sheep daily, and when all the sheep had been consumed they drew lots and gave the dragon their children. Finally the lot fell upon the only daughter of the king of that country, who, in his grief, offered the half of his kingdom if his child might be spared the dreadful fate. His prayers and protestations were, however, in vain, and accordingly the princess, clothed in her royal robes, went forth to the sacrifice. As she stood in the place where the monster came each day for his victims, it happened that St. George passed that way, and upon learning from the princess the cause of her sorrow, offered himself as her champion to do battle with the dragon, which at that moment was seen approaching. Thereupon, making the sign of the cross, St. George rushed to the combat, and after a fierce struggle, vanquished the monster and led him dying into the city, where he agreed to kill him, on condition that the king and all the people would embrace Christianity.
The picture reproduced in Plate x represents the combat of St. George and the dragon. The saint in armor, mounted on a brown horse, and with his yellow hair floating in the breeze, rides full tilt at the dragon, transfixing him with his spear. The rescued princess, in long red mantle, stands at the right. The ground is strewn with the remains of former victims, and in the distance, near a blue sea, is seen an eastern city, its towers and minarets out-lined against the glow of a sunset sky. Much has been written in praise of this famous picture, most notably by Mr. Ruskin, whose excessive admiration for it and others of the series is poetically, but in no way critically, expressed in a supplement to his `St. Mark's Rest,' entitled `The Shrine of the Slaves.'
"This St. George," write Vasari's recent editors, "rides straight out of the Seven Champions of Christendom; he is very famous among aesthetes and artists, and has been praised so highly that he has had perhaps a little more than his deserts. Rising in his stirrups, bending forward at the waist, painted as by one who knew how real knights at real joustings looked, and how they sat their horses, this flaxen-haired, black-armored hero is a most charming militant saint, but his horse, though it gallops with plenty of movement, is a hobby-horse after all, and to place the St. George on a par with the statue of Colleone or that of Gattamelata would be to mistake the nature of art criticism."
A LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL PAINTINGS BY CARPACCIO WITH THEIR PRESENT LOCATIONS
AUSTRIA. CAPODISTRIA, CATHEDRAL: Madonna, Child, and Saints—CAPODISTRIA, TOWN HALL: Entry of a Podestà—PIRANO, CHURCH OF ST. FRANCIS: Madonna, Child, and Saints—VIENNA, IMPERIAL GALLERY: Christ Adored by Angels; Communion of St. Jerome; Burial of St. Jerome—ENGLAND. HAIGH HALL, LORD CRAWFORD'S COLLECTION: Portrait of a Lady—LONDON, NATIONAL GALLERY: Madonna with Saints and Doge Giovanni Mocenigo—LONDON, MR. R. H. BENSON'S COLLECTION: A Saint Reading—FRANCE. CAEN, MUSEUM: Santa Conversazione (in part) — PARIS, LOUVRE: St. Stephen Preaching—GERMANY. BERLIN GALLERY: Madonna with St. Catherine and St. Jerome; Consecration of St. Stephen—FRANKFORT, STADEL INSTITUTE: Madonna and Infant St. John—STUTTGART, MUSEUM: Martyrdom of St. Stephen; Glory of St. Thomas—ITALY. FERRARA, CIVIC PICTURE GALLERY: Death of the Virgin—FLORENCE, UFFIZI GALLERY: Finding of the True Cross (a Fragment)— MILAN, BRERA GALLERY: St. Stephen Disputing with the Doctors; Presentation of the Virgin (in part); Marriage of the Virgin (in part)—POZZALE, CHURCH: Madonna and Saints-VENICE, ACADEMY: Meeting of St. Joachim and St. Anna ; The Presentation in the Temple ; Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand Christians; The Patriarch of Grado Healing a Madman; Institution of Pilgrimages to Jerusalem; NINE SCENES FROM THE LEGEND OF ST. URSULA: The English Ambassadors before King Mauro ; King Mauro Bids Farewell to the Ambassadors; Return of the Ambassadors to England ; The English Prince Takes Leave of his Father (Plate Iv); Pope Cyriacus Meets St. Ursula and her Virgins; The Dream of St. Ursula (Plate v); St. Ursula Arrives at Cologne; Martyrdom of St. Ursula; St. Ursula in Glory—VENICE, CORRER MUSEUM: Two Venetian Ladies; Visitation; Portrait of a Man—VENICE, DUCAL PALACE: Lion of St. Mark—VENICE, CHURCH OF SAN GIORGIO MAGGIORE: St. George and the Dragon—VENICE, CHURCH OF SAN GIORGIO DEGLI SCHIAVONI: St. Jerome in his Study ; Death of St. Jerome; St. Jerome and the Lion; Conversion of Matthew the Publican; Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane; St. Tryphonius Killing the Basilisk; King Aia and his Wife Baptized by St. George; Combat of St. George and the Dragon (Plate x) ; St. George Bringing the Dying Dragon into the City— VENICE, CHURCH OF SAN GIOVANNI E SAN PAOLO: Coronation of the Virgin—VENICE, LAYARD COLLECTION: St. Ursula with her Father; Assumption of the Virgin; Augustus and the Sibyl—VENICE, CHURCH OF SAN VITALE: St. Vitalis and other Saints (Plate I).
A LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL BOOKS AND MAGAZINE ARTICLES DEALING WITH CARPACCIO
ALEXANDRE, A. Histoire populaire de la peinture: école italienne. Paris  — ALLEN, G. Venice. London, 1898—BERENSON, B. Venetian Painters of the Renaissance. New York, 1897—BLANC, C. Histoire des peintres de toutes les écoles: école vénitienne. Paris, 1868 —BOSCHINI, M. La Carta del Navegar Pitoresco. Venice, 1660 —BOSCHINI, M. Descrizione di tutte le pubbliche pitture della Citta di Venezia, etc. Venice, 1753—BRINTON, S. The Renaissance in Italian Art. London, 1898—BURCKHARDT, J. Der Cicerone. Leipsic, 1898—CARTWRIGHT, J. Christ and His Mother in Italian Art. London, 1897 —CROWE, J. A., AND CAVALCASELLE, G. B. History of Painting in North Italy. London, 1871—EASTLAKE, C. L. Notes on Pictures in the Royal Gallery at Venice. London, 1888—FLAT, P. Les Premiers Vénitiens. Paris, 1899 —JAMESON, A. Sacred and Legendary Art. Boston, 1896—KÂROLY, K. The Paintings of Venice. London, 1895—KUGLER, F. T. Italian Schools of Painting. Revised by A. H. Layard. London, 1900—LAFENESTRE, G., AND RICHTENBERGER, E. La Peinture en Europe: Venise. Paris —LANZL, L. History of Painting in Italy. Trans. by T. Roscoe. London,1828 —LAROUSSE, P. A. Carpaccio (in Grand dictionnaire universel). Paris,1866-90 — MANTZ, P. Les Chefs-d' oeuvre de la peinture italienne. Paris, 1870— MOLMENTI,P. Carpaccio, son temps et son oeuvre. Venice,1893—MOLMENTI, P. La Patria di Carpaccio. Venice, 1893—MORELLI, G. Italian Painters. The Galleries of Munich and Dresden. Trans. by C. J. Ffoulkes. London, 1893—MUNTZ, E. Histoire de l'art pendant la Renaissance. Paris, 1889—OLIPHANT, M. O. W. Makers of Venice. London, 1888-PAULI, G. Venedig. Leipsic, 1900—PERATÉ, A. Carpaccio (in La Grande Encyclopédie). Paris  —RIDOLFI, C. Maraviglie dell' Arte. Venice, 1648—Rio, A. F. De Part chrétien. Paris, 1867—RUSKIN, J. Fors Clavigera. Orpington, 1872 —RUSKIN, J. Guide to the Pictures in the Academy at Venice. Venice, 1877 —RUSKIN, J. St. Mark's Rest (First and Second Supplements). Orpington, 1879 — SCHAEFFER, E. Die Frau in der venezianischen Malerei. Munich, 1899—STANCOVICH, P. Biografie degli uomini distinti dell' Istria. Trieste, 1828—STILLMAN, W. J. Old Italian Masters. New York, 1892—SYMONDS, J. A. Renaissance in Italy. London, 1897— TAINE, H. Voyage en Italie: Florence et Venise. Paris, 1866—VASARI, G. Lives of the Painters. New York, 1897 — WESSELY, J. E. Klassiker der Malerei. Leipsic, 1882 —ZANETTI, A. M. Della pittura veneziana. Venice, 1771.
ARCHIVIO STORICO DELL' ARTE, 1897: G. Ludwig; Vittore Carpaccio—ARCHIVIO VENETO, 1885 : F. Stefani; P. Molmenti, Il Carpaccio e il Tiepolo. 1887: B. C.; Autografi dei Carpaccio—L'ART, 1880: P. Molmenti; Les Tableaux de Carpaccio dans la Chapelle de Saint-Georges des Esclavons à Venise—L'ARTE, 1899: C. Loeser; I quadri italiani della Galleria di Stoccarda—ARTE E STORIA, 1883: G. Frizzoni; Una Escursione artistica a Capodistria. 1898: A. della Rovere; Vettore Scarpazzo, detto il Carpaccio—JAHRBUCH DER PREUSSISCHEN KUNSTSAMMLUNGEN, 1897: S. Colvin; Über einige Zeichnungen des Carpaccio in England—KUNSTFREUND, 1885: H. Thode; Ein Brief des Vit-tore Carpaccio—MAGAZINE OF ART, 1884: F. M. Robinson; Vittore Carpaccio.
( Originally Published 1903 )
Masters In Art - Vittore Carpaccio:
The Art Of Carpaccio
André Pératé 'La Grande Encyclopédie'
Bernhard Berenson 'Venetian Painters Of The Renaissance'
W. J. Stillman 'Old Italian Masters'
E. H. And E. W. Blashfield And A. A. Hopkins, Editors 'Vasari's Lives'
The Works Of Carpaccio