Co-operation On The Foreign Mission Field
IT is against the dark background of the needs of heathenism that the real significance and the cost of the divided state of Christendom are most clearly revealed. The churches of Christ are definitely committed to the task of evangelizing 1,000,000,000 souls, massed in great centers of population, or widely scattered over vast tracts of territory, and spread over every zone from the icy coasts of the Esquimos to the tropic jungles of Africa and the frozen islands of the southernmost seas. The gospel of Christ must be interpreted into each language and racial temperament until every man upon the earth may hear the truth in the tongue to which he was born. The missionary must penetrate into tropical regions where existence is almost impossible for men reared in the temperate zone, prejudices must be removed, institutions must be organized, a new spiritual atmosphere must be created, and the great streams of racial development must be turned into new channels.
It is a titanic enterprise, the most stupendous undertaking that has ever appealed to the soul of man. Obviously it will tax the resources of the entire Church to the utmost. If all Christians every-where should join in cordial co-operation, marching together as one great army in a single campaign, so distributing their forces as to economize time, and effort, and money, minimize prejudice and opposition, and utilize, to the highest degree of efficiency, all the armament of Christendom, marshaling the combined resources of the Church with a superlative strategy, and meeting the solid front of heathenism with a united and unshaken vigor of attack, the most hopeful might even then despair at times and the stoutest hearts lose courage. Yet, among the obstacles that oppose the progress of the gospel of Christ among heathen peoples, one of the greatest is the lack of union among the forces that are en-gaged in the propaganda.
Not only must the missionaries meet the natural and inevitable prejudice that confronts a new and strange philosophy, and all the inertia of spiritual lethargy, but they must labor against the misunderstandings and confusion that they are themselves forced to introduce through the presentation of various and conflicting types of the religion which they seek to inculcate. It is not uncommon to-day for missionaries to be bidden by heathen folk first to reconcile their own differences before seeking to win converts to their faith, a situation sure to be more often met as, with the wider spread of Christianity, heathen opposition grows stronger and more intelligent. "Which is the bigger God," asked a chief in Africa, "the Presbyterian God, or the Baptist God, or the Methodist God?" "What is the answer," asks a friend of the missionary enterprise, "to the Japanese nobleman crossing the public square of Tokio, who, urged to become a Christian, sweeps his hand about the square where a score or more missionary agencies have their homes, and asks, ' Which Christianity?' " Is it any wonder that the heathen peoples stand dismayed upon the threshold of the temple of the new religion that claims the right to displace their ancestral faiths, at the multiplicity of varieties and the differences and divisions among those who already worship at its altars, and the diverse and often discordant voices that appeal from its pulpits? To which of these is their allegiance to be given, and whom must they believe? "The world will never be converted by a disunited church."1 At a conference of Christian workers recently held in China, a Chinese leader said, "In our town are four different translations of the Bible, and they cause great trouble by reason of their differences." A physician rose and re-marked, "I have just come from the sick-bed of a man who had had eleven native physicians who had each left a different prescription. The patient had not taken any one of them. I am for Christian unity."
It is inevitable that the causes responsible for the division of the Church into various bodies in Christian lands should fail to impress the minds of those of other races of so different a spiritual heritage and history. It is impossible that these should enter sympathetically into the struggles and sacrifices and toils which have been the price of spiritual freedom. They discern only the differences that have resulted, devoid of the glow and warmth borrowed from the circumstances of their origin and history, and the contemplation of them leaves the converts from heathenism unmoved and cold. No enthusiasm of loyalty unites the heart of the Chinaman to a denominational banner inscribed with the name of a geographical division of a territory remote from his own, and which has no meaning whatsoever when transported across the sea. It excites no pride in his heart to be a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, especially if the Chinese members of the Methodist Episcopal Church North are situated to the south of him. Bishop Thoburn has expressed the amusement, mingled with sadness, with which he heard an almost naked Hindu Christian assert that he was a "Scotch Presbyterian!"
The rising spirit of nationalism in every Asiatic land finds no satisfaction in such artificial distinctions imported from abroad. It is as unjust as it is unwise to seek to impose upon these Eastern peoples distinctions and divisions which, however much they may mean to those among whom they originated, can never mean anything to them but the shibboleths of a strife in which they have had no share and can have no interest. The churches beyond the seas have not been won by the proclamation of our points of difference, but by the gospel that we hold in common. The native Christians of China who laid down their lives by the thousand in the dreadful days of the Boxer riots would not have died for a form of baptism, nor for a scheme of church polity, nor for a liturgy, nor for a theory of the validity of ecclesiastical orders; but they refused to trample upon the figure of a rude cross traced on the ground, though their lives were required as the alternative offered in exchange, lest they dishonor the Lord of Christendom! For the Christ of the Cross multitudes even dared to die! It is always the Saviour that attracts and unites, and human interpretations and obscurations of him that repel and divide. The only bond that holds the Oriental to the particular denomination in which he is enrolled is the fact that this denomination, rather than another, brought him to Christ.
As a matter of fact, the names of many of the denominations do not find corresponding terms in the languages of some of the lands to which they are carried into which they can be translated, and have to be taken over bodily by transliteration, and the distinctions which they convey are in many cases so foreign to the habits of thought of such peoples that they never grasp their true significance. The real evils from which the nations suffer are impurity, social inequality, and despair. The African and the Korean feel their need of the Christ as soon as they understand him, for only Christ can reveal the character of God and thus rebuke impurity; only Christ can teach the brotherhood of man and so redeem the outcast; and only Christ can lift the veil from the future and exchange hope for hopelessness. But they do not feel the need, nor discern the force of the fine distinctions of doctrines for which denominationalism stands. Why should the con-science of the new-born convert be burdened with a mass of Aberglaube which can neither save nor condemn?
Further, if it were not for the pressure exerted from the home lands, the native Christians among these far-away peoples would speedily unite. "We should have one united Chinese Church in China," said a native leader there, "but the Mandarins in America will not permit it." Dr. A. J. Brown refers to "the grim remark of an East Indian pastor that, 'were it not for the vigilance of the Western shepherds, the Indian sheep would some fine morning be all found in one fold.' " A Chinese clergyman,' the same author reports, in a union meeting of the churches about Nanking, arose and said, as he pointed in turn to several missionaries, "You are an American Presbyterian; and you can't help it, for you were brought up that way. You are a Canadian Methodist; and you can't help it, for you were brought up that way. You are an English Church-man; and you can't help it either, for you were brought up that way. But we are Chinese Christians, and we do not propose to permit you men from abroad to keep us apart." The new nationalism which is working like yeast in China and India to unify and energize these peoples, and which has al-ready done its work in Japan, is impatient with a foreign church imposed upon it from without. Where native churches have been well established, the missionaries soon find that they must learn to be content to be simply the advisers and guides of a Christian community determined to develop along lines characteristic of its own civilization, and in forms indigenous to it. And that such is the case every true missionary rejoices, for the hope of heathenism lies in the development of a truly native church, with an energy and an enthusiasm derived immediately from the one Lord of the Church. The anxiety of the missionary is only lest the churches of Asia should demand their freedom before they have developed a native leadership fitted to guide it.
"If we want to win the heathen world to Christ," said Phillips Brooks, after his missionary tour around the world, "we must not go to them as Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Methodists, or Baptists: we must go to them simply as Christians." Dr. John R. Mott said to the great Edinburgh Missionary Conference that the union of the Church would mean more than the doubling of the missionary force. The difficulties in the way of the unification of the forces upon missionary fields are great; but if the foregoing statement is true, every possible effort should be made to surmount them.
The denominations which have been instrumental in founding mission churches are not to blame for the introduction of their distinctive and divisive principles into missionary lands. Such was the inevitable consequence of the denominational system. Any other course would have been impossible a century ago. The noble ideal of the London Missionary Society, founded in 1795, and composed of Presbyterians, Independents, and members of the Church of England, failed because it was too far in advance of its times. It declared its design to be "not to send Presbyterianism, Episcopalianism, or any form of church government (about which there may be differences of opinion among serious persons), but the glorious gospel of the blessed God to the heathen, and that it shall be left (as it ought to be left) to the minds of the persons whom God may call to the fellowship of his Son from among them, to assume for themselves such form of church government as to them shall appear most agreeable to the word of God." Later, however, as the missionary enterprise grew in extent, the Episcopalians and the Presbyterians withdrew to form missionary organizations of their own. Nevertheless this broad conception may prove to have been prophetic of the missionary method yet to be, though in that age it was impossible.
When we survey the missionary field to-day, it is evident that a new spirit of co-operation is flowing in everywhere like a flood. And something of what the character of that co-operation is to be when it is consummated is also becoming evident. It can-not come through compromise: it must come through comprehension. The distinctive convictions for which the various denominations stand can-not be cast aside like an outworn cloak without strain to conscience and consequent loss of spiritual power. But together with fidelity to distinctive principles there may and must be a new emphasis upon the things held in common as the essential and permanent message of the Church. It is not essential that churches should be organized upon the basis of their peculiarities. It is possible to create a more inclusive fellowship to which each company of believers shall bring its particular interpretation of the Christ and add it to the common store. "In essentials unity, in non-essentials liberty, and in all things charity" is the motto for a united Church at home and abroad. Toward such an ideal the forces upon the foreign field, impelled by an appalling need and by the genius of the peoples among whom they labor, are earnestly striving. A missionary leader, recently returned from a tour in China and Japan, reports that he met in conference five Christian professors in the Doshisha University who united in the expression of belief that, while the essence of Christianity is bound to prevail in Japan, Western ecclesiastical forms and institutions will not prevail there.
Meanwhile, as we wait for the realization of an ideal unity, there must be a larger measure of co-operation in the survey of unoccupied fields, a more strict division of territory among the missionary agencies, a freer exchange of members between all types of churches, and a closer affiliation of all forms of service where co-operation or union is already possible. In mission lands, as at home, federation will precede organic unity. There is not a Baptist and a Presbyterian materia medica, nor has any single denomination a monopoly of the multiplication table. Hospitals and medical schools are coming together everywhere, and in primary and secondary schools, wherever these can be administered more economically by uniting with other schools of a similar character of another denomination, consolidation is being promoted. In the higher schools and colleges, and even in theological seminaries, the same tendency is evident. The work of publication, in many centers, is accomplished for several denominations through a single agency. Thus is the way being cleared for the closer spiritual unity that shall clearly fulfil the prayer of our Lord.
The reports of the Continuation Committee Conferences in Asia, held in India, China, Korea, and Japan, under the direction of Dr. John R. Mott during 1912-1913, indicate the notable progress of recent years both in the growth of the spirit of Christian unity and in its practical exemplification upon the missionary field. In the official reports of each of the local conferences held at Madras, Bombay, Jubbulpore, Allahabad, and Calcutta, reference is made to the wide-spread desire on the part of the native Christians of India, especially among the better educated, "for the development of one united Indian Church." At the India National Conference in Calcutta the following minute was adopted:
"This Conference is of the opinion that there is undoubtedly a strong desire on the part of many of the leaders of the Indian Christian community for a comprehensive church organization adapted to the country. While the community as a whole, as might be expected from its origin and history, can-not be said to have shown any strong and wide-spread desire in this direction, neither can it be said that there is anything within the community itself which would militate against the realization of such an ideal. This Conference, therefore, considers that every facility should be afforded for the spread and development of this desire in the Indian community at large. While this Conference believes that the Indian Church should continue to receive and absorb every good influence which the Church of the West may impart to it, it also believes that in respect of forms and organization the Indian Church should have entire freedom to develop on such lines as will conduce to the most natural expression of the spiritual instincts of Indian Christians."
At each of the local conferences in India steps were taken for the organization of provincial Federal Councils, and at the National Conference it was recommended that there be formed a National Missionary Council of India, the objects of which were declared to be: (a) To co-operate with the provincial Councils in the carrying out of their objects;
(a) to be in communication with the Continuation Committee of the Edinburgh Missionary Conference regarding such matters as require consideration or action from the point of view of the Indian mission field as a whole; (c) to take into consideration such other questions affecting the entire missionary field as may seem to it desirable; (d) to make provision for the convening of an All-India Missionary Conference when such, in the opinion of the Council, is desirable.
Everywhere in India there is manifest a desire for the more active promotion of comity and co-operation through a more strict delimitation of territory, in the transfer of mission workers, and in the treatment of persons under discipline; and by the National Conference it was declared to be desirable "that spiritual hospitality be offered to persons of whatever denomination who may find themselves in an area in which the ministrations of their own communion are not procurable." Co-operation in all forms of education was advocated in every Conference, and all Christians everywhere are urged, in the words of the National Conference, "to be instant in believing prayer to the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ that he will vouchsafe speedily to accomplish his gracious purpose and hasten the day when the prayer of our Redeemer may be fulfilled, and all his people be perfected into one."
The reports of the Conferences in China tell a similar story. "We recognize," declares the Canton Conference, "that the Chinese Church, both as regards her leaders and the majority of her membership, is strongly in favor of one Church, open to all Christians, and is making a more or less conscious effort to realize that aim. This does not mean that there will be a uniform statement of faith, or identity in forms of worship, or one central government, but that there will be an attempt to make this a truly Christian Church, which in all its constituent parts will comprehend the whole Christian life of the nation. . . . Our faith is in the guiding of the Holy Spirit, who will safeguard the essential liberty of the constituent parts of the Church. He, too, will enable us to share as a common possession the benefits of those varied attainments in truth, faith, and practice which each denomination holds as a sacred trust received by the grace of our one Lord. While, however, the Chinese Church should continue to receive and absorb every good influence which the Church of the West can impart, it should, in respect of forms and organization, have entire freedom to develop in accord with the most natural expression and largest cultivation of the spiritual instincts of Chinese Christians." The Shanghai Conference declared: "We can set before the Church in China no lower ideal than that of a manifest and organic unity. It should include all those within the Chinese nation who hold the truth of our Lord Jesus Christ. But this unity must be a result of spiritual growth rather than of outward organization. Organization should be expressive of the growth in unity of life."
There seems to have been general agreement in all the Conferences that the first step toward the organic unity desired is the federation of existing churches for mutual counsel and co-operation. "The differences which now characterize us," said the Shanghai Conference, "are not the results of wilful disobedience, and will doubtless disappear as we, by united counsel and work, understand each other better and attain to a fuller conformity to the mind of Christ. We believe that the way to unity will open as we patiently study the Scriptures, the past history of the Church, and the living experiences of the various present sections of the Church." The Conferences at Tsinan-fu, Peking, and Hankow expressed their convictions in practically identical terms. A National Conference on Faith and Order, a central Business Agency for all China, Boards of Arbitration for all China, fuller co-operation in all educational enter-prises are among the plans suggested for the correlation of all the forces in China engaged in missionary work, while from every one goes forth an earnest call for united intercession that the prayer of the Lord for the unity of his Church may be fulfilled.
Finally, the purpose of the Christians in China is summed up in the findings of the China National Conference at Shanghai in words whose significance can hardly be overestimated: "In order to do all that is possible to manifest the unity which already exists among all faithful Christians in China, and to present ourselves in the face of the great mass of Chinese non-Christian people as one brotherhood with one common name, this Conference suggests as the most suitable name for this purpose. . . 'The Christian Church in China." The Conference proceeds to recommend as steps toward a larger unity, the uniting of churches of similar ecclesiastical order; the organic union of churches which already enjoy intercommunion; federation, local and provincial, of all churches willing to co-operate in the extension of the kingdom of God; the formation of a National Council of the Churches; the fresh study by all Christians of the faith and order of those who differ from them, and intercession for the increase of the spirit of unity.
The Seoul Conference, conducted by the continuation Committee, recounts with gratitude the progress that has been made during the last decade in unifying and federating the work of the missions and churches in Korea: "The union hymn-book; a common name as applicable to most of the churches; the formation of a Federal Council of Evangelical Missions, and of an Educational Federation; union in the Severance Hospital Medical School, and in other educational institutions; co-operation in the Tract Society, the Bible Committee, and in other forms of work; the division of territory arranged among six of the principal missions and corresponding churches; the union of the work of four Presbyterian Missions into one Presbyterian Church; and the federation of the two Methodist missions, show that much has been accomplished." The belief is expressed that "all look forward to a closer degree of formal organization, whatever be the means through which the Spirit of God may lead."
Japan is not so far advanced in the direction of organic unity as are China and Korea; nor is the desire for a national church that shall include Christians of every name as evident as in India. "The tendency of Christianity in Japan at present," declared the Japan National Conference, "is toward the maintenance of separate churches, in their organization patterned after those in the West; but for the purpose of co-operation in work of common interest an organization has been formed which is known as the Federation of Churches in Japan. The Federation is composed of churches comprising four-fifths of the Protestant Christians in Japan, and there are indications that the churches comprising the remaining one-fifth may enter the organization in the near future. "It is the sincere hope and earnest prayer of every Christian man and woman," it was stated by the Tokio Conference, "that all the churches rep-resenting Christianity in Japan may come together and be made one in Christ, with one faith, one order, and one work; but we think it will be some time be-fore this high ideal can be realized."
It is in part, perhaps, because in China such great distances separate the mission stations from one another, that federation there has been upon inter-denominational rather than upon denominational lines, whereas in Japan the reverse has been the case; but it is evident that the sense of national unity that is spreading so widely, and impressing itself so deeply among all the peoples of the East, is making more definitely year by year, even in Japan, for a national Church that shall clearly set forth to the world the essential unity of all believers in Christ. That the problem of Christian unity is not so burning a question, as yet, in Africa arises from the lack of a common consciousness, such as is found in the East, among the scattered tribes of that great continent.
Already upon the mission fields, in individual in-stances, further advance toward the ideal of a united Church has been made than can be found anywhere among Western nations. The West China Missions Advisory Board, which publishes two monthlies, one in English and one in Chinese, has achieved actual union in certain educational enterprises, notably in a most successful union Middle School in Cheng-tu; and is definitely working toward the ideal of one Protestant Christian Church in West China, with a single declaration of faith as a common basis for church membership. Federation Councils are al-ready organized and at work in at least 12 of the 18 provinces of China. In the Philippine Islands the Evangelical Union, organized in 1901 for the purpose of securing comity and efficiency, has abundantly justified its existence, and the territory has been divided among the various societies working there, who are laboring together harmoniously toward a closer and more effective affiliation.' A large pro-portion of the missionary field has been now divided by agreement between the missionary agencies into similar spheres of influence and responsibility.
The remarkable intellectual awakening which the Orient is experiencing has emphasized the necessity for schools and colleges larger in number and in capacity, and of a higher grade than individual communions are able to furnish. Both economy and efficiency are demanding that denominational agencies shall unite in the establishment and support of secondary schools in the larger centers; and if the Christian college and university are not to relinquish the primacy which they have enjoyed hither-to, and to be surpassed in scholarship and equipment by the non-Christian institutions that are rising on every hand, denominations must combine their educational resources. In Peking the Methodist, Presbyterian, and English and American Congregational Boards are uniting in the development of a single university scheme with one union institution of each academic type.' With a similar statesmanship union universities are being developed in Tsinan-fu, Nanking, and Cheng-tu in China, and in strategic centers in other Asiatic lands. In China alone there are already about 30 educational institutions under interdenominational control.
More difficult are the problems attending theological education. In the home land theological seminaries of an interdenominational character are, for obvious reasons, exceedingly rare. On the foreign field, however, co-operation in even this form of education is being found practicable. Dr. A. J. Brown reports that "there are interdenominational theological seminaries or training-schools for Christian workers in Manila (Methodist and Presbyterian), Seoul (Northern and Southern Methodist; Northern, Southern, Australian, and Canadian Presbyterian), Peking (English and American Congregational, and American Presbyterian), Nanking (Northern and Southern Methodist, Northern and Southern Presbyterian, and Disciples), Shan-tung (English Baptist, and American Presbyterian), Bangalore (United Free Church of Scotland, Reformed Presbyterian Church of America, London Missionary Society, American Board, and Wesleyan Missionary Society), and Canton (English and American Congregationalists; American, Canadian, and New Zealand Presbyterians; English Wesleyans, and United Brethren). In Australia, the Moravians and the Presbyterians have agreed on a plan by which the former train missionaries for the mission to the aborigines of North Queensland, and the latter control and support them." "The experiment of union theological instruction," declares Dr. Brown, "begun about a dozen years ago, not without misgivings, has proved to be a signal success, and no difficulties whatever have emerged that are worth mentioning in comparison with the benefits that have accrued. Foreign missionaries have demonstrated that union in theological instruction is entirely practicable."
In the field of medical education, co-operation between denominations is more easily secured. There are no diseases, not even spiritual diseases, peculiar to particular denominations. Sanitation and hygiene are the handmaids of the most diverse theologies, and in the sick-room or by the bedside of the dying, "distinctive principles" are out of place. In China, in particular, union medical schools and hospitals are multiplying. The largest and most widely known of these is the Union Medical College in Peking, in which the London Missionary Society, the American Presbyterian Mission, the American Board, Peking University (Methodist), the Lon-don Medical Missionary Association, and the Church of England Mission cooperate. At Han-kow, Nanking, Canton, and Shan-tung similar institutions are either established or in process of organization.' In the Philippine Islands Baptists and Presbyterians are uniting in the management of the best hospital in the territory.
It is possible that this is to be the crowning contribution of Eastern Christianity to the West, the rich return of the Orient for the labors and treasures expended by the churches of the Occident upon the other side of the globe, an example of Christian unity such as shall provide the strongest stimulus ever given to the unification of Christian forces at home. Already the necessities of the foreign missionary enterprise and the spirit of unity upon mission fields have drawn the agencies of the churches at home into close co-operation. The greatest obstacle to unity on the foreign field has always been disunity among the churches at the home base. The China National Conference, to which reference has been made, adopted a resolution which the churches of America would do well to heed: "Inasmuch as cooperation between the missionary bodies working on the field is rendered almost impossible without the sanction of the Home Boards, this Conference recommends that the China Continuation Committee endeavor to bring about a greater measure of co-operation between the Mission Boards at home." Thus do the children admonish their parents!
A large measure of unity among the agencies of the denominations at home has, however, already been secured. For 20 years the representatives of all foreign missionary organizations in America have met in annual conference to consider such questions as comity, co-operation, the forces needed for the evangelization of the world, the division of territory, the place of the native Church, the relations of missionaries to the native populations, and, indeed, all questions of a common interest. Similar conferences have lately been organized in Great Britain and Ireland and in Germany. The Laymen's Missionary Movement, the Missionary Education Movement, and the Missionary Volunteer Movement are all of them organizations of an interdenominational character whose object it is, not to send out missionaries, but to foster missionary interest and to spread missionary information throughout all denominations.
There is no service in which Christians can engage that can draw them together in a fellowship so strong as does the missionary cause. Here men meet on a level higher than their denominational divisions and find themselves at one. Upon the platform of the evangelization of the world all Christians can stand together, and there they feel most keenly the bonds that unite them. The Laymen's Missionary Movement in America has brought the men of the churches together as no organization with a smaller or less inspiring purpose could possibly have done. The great Missionary Conference held in Edinburgh in 1910, the seventh of a series of such conferences, interdenominational and international, that date back to 1854, might well be called "Ecumenical," for it was the nearest approach to an all-inclusive gathering that Protestantism has ever seen. No other cause could have called together so representative a body. And the Continuation Committee, appointed by the Conference to carry out the lines of work projected by it, is perhaps the mightiest single influence in the world to-day making for co-operation and unity among the forces of Christendom. For 13 years the Missionary Education Movement, controlled by a board chosen by American home and foreign missionary societies in co-operation, has been providing text-books for mission study classes and other literature of a high order for the use of all denominations in common, and hundreds of thousands have gained a new knowledge of the missionary enterprise through its activities. The necessities of the missionary cause furnish the mightiest argument for Christian co-operation and unity that the Church has ever faced.
Thus still another illustration is furnished of the truth, that it is in service performed together, and not in the discussion of their points of difference, that Christians of every name and type are discovering how wide and deep is the measure of unity that already exists among them, and how far-reaching are the possibilities of a union still more real and strong. "There has never been a time," truly says the Committee on Foreign Missions of the Federal Council, "since the German Reformation, when various de-nominations were so closely engaged in co-operative measures for promoting the kingdom of Jesus Christ among the nations. There has never been a period since the beginning of modern missions when denominational differences were so minimized and the great fundamental truths of our blessed religion were so universally emphasized, and we advance together for the conquest of the world for Christ. More and more the united front of Christianity is presented to the united opposition of Islam and paganism, and only when this union is practically complete may one expect to achieve the victory sought."
( Originally Published 1915 )
The Union Of Christian Forces:
The Expense And Waste Of Christian Disunion
The New Testament Ideal Of Christian Unity And What Became Of It
The Passing Of The Sectarian Spirit
The Growth Of The Spirit Of Christian Unity
Christian Unity Through Federation
The Union Of Christian Forces In Country And Village
Co-operation In Home Missions
Co-operation On The Foreign Mission Field
Organic Church Unity
The Basis Of Organic Unity