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The Works Of Ruben

( Originally Published 1902 )



THE celebrated ' Descent from the Cross' is the central panel of a triptych painted by Rubens in 1612 as an altar-piece for the Guild of Arquebusiers at Antwerp.

" I need not describe this composition," writes Eugène Fromentin. " You could not mention one more popular as a work of art, or as a religious painting. Who does not remember the arrangement and the effect of the picture, —its great central light against a dark background, its distinct and massive divisions, and its grand masses ? The coloring is not rich, but it is full, well sustained, and calculated to be effective from a distance. It is composed of an almost black green, an absolute black, a rather dull red, and a white, all set side by side as frankly as four notes of such violence can be. The scene is grave and impressive. When we remember the murders with which the work of Rubens is bloody, the massacres, the torturing executioners, it is evident that here is noble suffering. Everything is as restrained, concise, and laconic as a page of Scripture. Here are neither gesticulations, nor cries, nor horrors, nor excessive tears; scarcely a sob bursts from the Virgin; the in-tensity of her suffering is expressed only by a gesture, by a face bathed in tears. The figure of the Magdalen is admirable ; it is incontestably the best piece of workmanship in the picture, the most delicate, the most personal, one of the best that Rubens ever created in his career, so fertile in the invention of female beauty. Moreover, it is the sole mundane grace with which he has embellished this austere picture.

"The Christ is one of the most beautiful figures that Rubens ever conceived. Pliant and almost meagre, it has an inexpressible slender grace, which gives it all the delicacy of nature, and all the distinction of a fine academic study. No one can forget the effect of that long body, with the small head fallen to one side, so livid and so limpid in its pallor, whence all pain has passed away. In what an exhausted attitude it glides along the winding-sheet, with what affectionate anguish it is received by the outstretched arms of the women. How heavy it is and how precious to bear ! "


RUBENS painted this picture of Christ on the cross between the two malefactors (sometimes called ' Le Coup de Lance,' or Lance Thrust') in the year 1620. In splendor of color, boldness of conception, and dramatic intensity it has never been surpassed, and is regarded by many as Rubens' masterpiece.

Longinus, the Roman officer, mounted on a gray horse, thrusts his lance into the Saviour's side. In the foreground stands the Virgin Mother, whom Mary, the wife of Cleophas, in vain endeavors to console. Behind, St. John leans against the cross of the penitent thief, bitterly weeping, while Mary Magdalen on her knees at the foot of the cross implores the Roman officer to spare the body of her master.

" In this picture," writes Michel, " Rubens attains a wonderful perfection in a department of painting in which he was habitually superior; that is, in the distribution of the lights. In spite of the complexity of the movements and the arabesque of outline, the silhouette of the whole is strong and simple. The picture draws you from afar, and then the beauties of its detail hold you enthralled,— above all, the poetic figure of the Magdalen, so ten-der, so beautiful, so touching in her despair, and in the effable gesture with which she endeavors to protect the sacred body from this last profanation."


EMILE MICHEL writes : "In Prince Liechtenstein's gallery there is a superb portrait of Rubens' two sons. A replica in the Dresden Gallery long passed as the original, but this is now considered to be a copy, though apparently made during the painter's lifetime and in his studio.

"Albert, the elder of the two boys, is dressed in a black costume slashed with white. Nicholas is dressed in brighter material,— gray breeches, a blue slashed jacket with yellow satin puffs and ribbons,— and plays with a captive goldfinch. The brilliance and harmony of the color, and the happy arrangement of the group, bear sufficient testimony to the pleasure Rubens took in painting the picture, which was about the year 1626."

" The arrangement is so natural, and so charmingly easy," writes Oscar Berggruen, "that in this respect few portraits in the world can be set beside it. The painting, which was entirely by the master's own hand, is so fresh and harmonious, so manifestly done from life, that Rubens rarely attained to such perfection as here."


ALTHOUGH critics differ in assigning a date to this triptych, it was probably painted after Rubens' return from England, at the order of the Archduchess of the Netherlands, in memory of her husband, who had been

dead ten years. "As this picture was a votive-offering," writes Berggruen, " it was necessary that it should contain the portraits of both the archduke and his wife. These figures are of life size, and both kneel, gazing toward the Virgin in the main composition. With the Archduke Albert is his patron, St. Albert, in the costume of a cardinal, who seems to be presenting him to the Madonna, while in the opposite panel St. Clara offers her protégée, the archduchess, a golden crown intertwined with roses. In the background of each side panel a majestic crimson curtain hung between marble columns gives the dominant touch of color.

" In the composition of the central panel one may find a reminder of the style of grouping saints about the Madonna on her throne for which the Italian painters had such a predilection, and which they called a santa conversazione. The Madonna is seated in the centre, with four female saints grouped about her. St. Ildefonso on his knees before her fervently presses his lips to the chasuble which she has given him, while from the opening skies three cherubs descend with a crown.

" The artist has not confined himself crampingly close to the legend, which relates that St. Ildefonso, a bishop of Toledo in the seventh century, had stoutly defended the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception against the heretics who denied it. The Virgin, in gratitude, descended from heaven into the cathedral of her defender and presented him with a robe in which to conduct the service.

What gives this work its special value is its ineffable charm of color, —a beauty in this respect which the artist never surpassed, and which he has seldom equalled. The color is concentrated upon the Madonna — it is vivid, fresh, harmonious ; the light shining down from the opened heaven gilds and transforms the local tints upon the female saints and upon the bishop, while the angels float in a luminous ether which fills the upper part of the picture."

Rubens painted the Virgin, the saints, and the figures of the donors entirely with his own hand, and retouched the whole of the remainder, which his pupils had prepared from his sketches. The critics Michel, Kugler, Lübke, Viardot, Waagen, Springer, and Knackfuss all agree in considering this picture one of the most admirable of his works.


"FROM the day of his marriage with his second wife, Helena Fourment,

on the sixth of December, 1630," writes Paul Mantz, "a sort of St. Martin's summer began in Rubens' life, and seemed to lend to his heart and to his genius the impulse of another spring-time. Apparently, too, he was eager to share the delight he took in her with all the world, and she was for many years, and indeed, to the end of his life, continually in his mind and in his eyes. He never wearied of reproducing her young grace. The portraits of her are numberless.

" One of Rubens' first pictures of her, which was painted entirely by him-self in 1631 or 1632,—a souvenir of the honeymoon perhaps,—is this in the Hermitage Gallery, which shows us the young wife in all the bloom of her girlish youth. It is a masterpiece — exquisite, elegant, and fine. Her robe is of black satin, the bodice and lace sleeves adorned with lilac ribbons, and she wears a few fine jewels. The background is formed by a vaguely indicated landscape shrouded by sombre-colored stormy clouds touched at the base with the red of the setting sun, with only in the upper sky a hint of blue. All the important parts of the picture Rubens has painted with great care, especially the exquisite flesh tints of the face, neck, and breast, which, treated in a series of delicate white and ivory tones, glow in contrast with the black of the hat and gown."


"RUBENS' pictures in which children are represented playing with fruit and flowers are of extraordinary beauty," writes Dr. Waagen. "The finest of this class is probably that in the Munich Gallery, wherein seven children are dragging along an immense wreath of fruit. The children and fruit rival each other in luxuriance of form and richness and force of coloring." "The idea of this composition is charming," writes Max Rooses. " The children form a framework around the garland even fresher and more radiant than the fruit itself. The work is admirable for the solidity, the seriousness, and the richness of its painting. The flesh is firm, the outlines clear, the execution careful."

The date of the picture is probably 1615 or 1618. The garland of fruit is believed to have been painted by Rubens' pupil, Snyders.


"NOTHING is more characteristic of the dramatic turn of Rubens' mind," writes Dr. Waagen, "than his choice of subjects from the mythology of the Greeks and the works of the ancient poets ; and in nothing has he displayed more freedom, originality, and poetry than in the manner in which he has treated them. Amongst his numerous works of this class, Castor and Pollux carrying off Phoebe and Hilaira, the daughters of Leucippus, Prince of Messenia, may be placed first."

" With wonderful skill," writes Goeler von Ravensburg, "the four figures are so intertwined as to form a group as varied as it is uniform, singularly alive, and yet with no effect of unrest, constructed with the most consummate art, and yet apparently perfectly unconstrained and natural. The two maidens are beautiful of form; the two noble youths full of force and vigor, their calm strength forming a striking contrast to the desperate but futile struggles of their captives. It is true that in neither the forms nor in the characters of the heads is there any suggestion of the antique, but rather of Flemish models ; the beauty, the grandeur, and the entire freedom of the whole composition, however, place it on a plane with the best works of antique art."


THE large size of a picture," wrote Rubens in 1621, "gives us painters more courage to represent our ideas with the utmost freedom and semblance of reality. . . . I confess myself to be, by a natural instinct, bet-ter fitted to execute works of the largest size." "The correctness of this appreciation," says Henri Hymans, "he was very soon called upon to demonstrate most strikingly by a series of twenty-one pictures illustrating the life of Marie de Médicis, queen-mother of France. The series may be regarded as a poem in painting, and no person conversant with the literature of the time can fail to recognize that strange mixture of the sacred and the mythological in which the most admired authors of the seventeenth century delight. The sketches for all these paintings were made in the Antwerp studio, a numerous staff of distinguished collaborators being intrusted with the final execution. But the master himself spent much time in Paris, retouching the whole work, which was completed within less than four years."

The one of the series here reproduced represents the coronation of Marie de Médicis, which took place at St. Denis in May, 1610, and marked the zenith of her adventurous life. Arrayed in a royal mantle of blue lined with ermine and embroidered with lilies, the queen kneels while the Cardinal de Joyeuse crowns her. Beside her stands the Dauphin (afterwards Louis XIII.). The king himself observes the ceremony from a gallery, and in the back-ground stand the ambassadors of foreign powers. In the upper part of the picture are two allegorical figures, one of which bears a palm-branch, while the other scatters flowers and gold-pieces.

" This work," writes Max Rooses, "is truly superb and demonstrates Rubens' inimitable talent for depicting pageants. Imposing groups, the most iridescent colors, brilliant lights, rich garments, and noble personages,— the regal magnificence of the scene and of the occasion,— all become material for decorative effect, blending into an harmonious and splendidly imposing spectacle."


THE famous Emperor of Austria, Maximilian I., who was for twenty-six years ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, and who introduced important changes into the civil and military administration of Germany, waged the unsuccessful war against the Swiss confederacy which resulted in the latter's independence, and, with Henry VIII. of England, gained the brilliant ' Battle of the Spurs' against the French, died fifty-eight years before Rubens was born. This picture of him is therefore to be considered only as a pure work of art ; and as a luminous, dignified, decorative, and broad example of Rubens' later work. The Emperor, "clad in complete steel " em-bossed with golden ornaments, his morion set with gems, wound with a tri-colored turban and surmounted with a jewelled crown, his jerkin emblazoned with heraldic designs, makes truly an imposing and splendid figure. Behind him on the right is a red curtain, and on the left the blue sky covered with light clouds. The picture is entirely by Rubens' own hand, and was painted about 1635.


"NOWHERE is Rubens' genius more superb, nowhere is he more himself," writes Emile Michel, "than when he is expressing such furious and dramatic scenes as this. Nothing could be more thrilling. The sight of it stirs the blood and quickens the pulse. Men and beasts are here engaged in a furious and desperate battle. Wounded by hunters, two lions such as the master loved to paint (no thin and languid captives of the menagerie, but the free and terrible beasts of the desert, of sudden catlike leaps, muscles of steel, fearful jaws and claws) have turned at bay, and furiously attack the aggressors, while the latter, in mortal terror, thrust and pierce with lance and spear. It is a heart-stopping tumult,— rearing horses screaming with fear or pain, torn and bloody flesh, stretched sinews, faces distorted with effort, with terror, or the agony of death,— but beneath this apparent chaos we recognize the workings of a calm directing mind, which has foreseen and arranged every detail that could contribute to the full significance of the picture. On the right, where the main emphasis of the composition lies, strong values support the masses and concentrate the effect; skilfully distributed natural grays bring out the values of the scattered brighter tones; and the low horizon allows the turbulent silhouette to stand clear against the sky, greatly adding to the impression of the scene."


RUBENS painted upwards of fifteen hundred pictures. To print a full catalogue of them in the -present space would be a manifest impossibility, and only his more important works are mentioned below. The most complete list yet published is M. Max Rooses" L'Oeuvre de P. P. Rubens.'

AUSTRIA. PRAGUE, COUNT NOSTITZ' S COLLECTION: Portrait of Spinola — VIENNA, IMPERIAL GALLERY: St. Ambrose and Theodosius; Miracles of St. Frances Xavier; Miracles of St. Ignatius Loyola; St. Ildefonso Receiving a Chasuble from the Virgin Head of Medusa; Offering to Venus; Four Quarters of the Globe; The Pelisse; Portrait of Rubens Infant Jesus and St. John; Cymon and Iphigenia; Emperor Maximilian I. Charles the Bold—VIENNA, LIECHTENSTEIN GALLERY: Erichthonius in his Cradle; Life of Decius Mus (series of six pictures); Rubens' Sons (Plate III); Six Portraits; Sketches for Henry IV. Gallery--VIENNA, ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS: Boreas and Orithyes; Tigress and her Young—BELGIUM. ALOST, CHURCH OF ST. Roch: St. Roch Praying for the Plague-stricken —ANTWERP MUSEUM: The Crucifixion (Plate II); Adoration of the Magi; Communion of St. Francis; Education of the Virgin; 'Christ à la Paille' —ANTWERP, CATHEDRAL: Descent from the Cross (Plate I); Elevation of the Cross; Assumption of the Virgin—ANTWERP, CHURCH OF ST. JACQUES: Virgin and Saints—BRUSSELS MUSEUM: Adoration of the Magi; Ascent of Calvary; Martyrdom of St. Liévin; Portraits of Jean and Jacqueline de Cordes—BRUSSELS, ROYAL PALACE: Miracles of St. Benedict; St. Theresa—GHENT, CHURCH OF ST. BAVON: Conversion of St. Bavon—MECHLIN, CHURCH OF NOTRE DAME: Miraculous Draught of Fishes—MECHLIN, CHURCH OF ST. JEAN: Adoration of the Magi—DENMARK. COPENHAGEN MUSEUM: Portrait of Yrsselius—ENGLAND. COBHAM HALL, EARL OF DARNLEY'S COLLECTION: Thomyris and Cyrus—CORSHAM COURT, LORD METHUEN'S COLLECTION: Wolf and Fox HUM—LONDON, NATIONAL GALLERY: Conversion of St. Bavon; Rape of the Sabines; 'Chapeau de Paille;' Autumn Landscape; Judgment of Paris—LONDON, WHITEHALL: Apotheosis of James I. —LONDON, GROSVENOR HOUSE: Abraham and Melchizedek; Israelites in the Wilderness; Evangelists—LONDON, BUCKINGHAM PALACE: St. George; The Farm—OSTERLEY PARK, EARL OF JERSEY'S COLLECTION: Apotheosis of Buckingham —WARWICK CASTLE: Portrait of the Earl of Arundel — WINDSOR CASTLE: Portraits of Rubens and Isabella Brant; Winter Scene— FRANCE. BORDEAUX MUSEUM: Martyrdom of St. Just—GRENOBLE MUSEUM: St. Gregory with Other Saints—LILLE MUSEUM: Descent from the Cross; Death of Mary Magdalen—LILLE, CHURCH OF ST. CATHERINE: Martyrdom of St. Catherine—LILLE, CHURCH OF THE MADELEINE: Ado-ration of the Shepherds—NANCY MUSEUM: Transfiguration—PARIS, LOUVRE: Lot's Flight; Adoration of the Magi; Crucifixion; Thomyris and Cyrus; Kermesse; Portrait of Helena Fourment; A Tournament; Life of Marie de Médicis, a Series of Twenty-one Paintings, including the Coronation of Marie de Médicis Landscapes—PARIS, BARON ALPHONSE DE ROTHSCHILD'S COLLECTION: Portrait of Helena Fourment; Rubens, Helena Fourment, and their Child—PARIS, BARON EDMOND DE ROTHSCHILD'S COLLECTION: Plenty; Portraits of Clara Fourment and her Husband—PARIS, KANN COLLECTION: The Boar of Calydon; Sketch for Martyrdom of St. Liévin—VALENCIENNES MUSEUM: St. Stephen—GERMANY. BERLIN GALLERY: Raising of Lazarus; St. Sebastian; St. Cecilia; Neptune and Amphitrite; Perseus and Andromeda; Diana Hunting; Child of Rubens —CASSEL GALLERY: Flight into Egypt; Hero Crowned by Victory; Jupiter and Calisto; Diana Hunting; Virgin and Saints—DRESDEN, ROYAL GALLERY: St. Jerome; Drunken Hercules; Boar Hunt; Old Woman with Brazier; Several Portraits—MUNICH GALLERY: Battle of the Amazons; Castor and Pollux and the Daughters of Leucippus Diana Sleeping; Faun and Satyr; Procession of Silenus; Fall of the Rebel Angels; Fall of the Damned; Two Pictures of the Last Judgment; Samson and Delilah; Defeat of Sennacherib; Susanna and the Elders; Christ and Repentant Sinners; Massacre of the Innocents; St. Christopher and the Hermit; The Dying Seneca; Children with Gar-land of Fruit (Plate VI); Rubens and Isabella Brant; Walk in the Garden; Four Portraits of Helena Fourment; Portrait of a Scholar; Portrait of Doctor van Thulden; A Lion Hunt The Rainbow; Cows in a Landscape; Sketches for the Médicis Pictures—HOLLAND. AMSTERDAM, RYKS MUSEUM: Portrait of Helena Fourment—THE HAGUE, GALLERY: Adam and Eve; Michel Ophovius—ITALY. FLORENCE, PITTI PALACE: Holy Family with the Cradle; St. Francis; The Horrors of War; The Philosophers; Re-turn from the Fields—FLORENCE, UFFIZI GALLERY: Venus and Adonis; Portrait of Isabella Brant; Two Portraits of Rubens; Battle of Ivry; Entry of Henry IV. into Paris—GENOA, Rosso PALACE: Love and Wine—GENOA, CHURCH OF ST. AMBROGIO: Miracles of St. Ignatius Loyola; Circumcision— MILAN, BRERA GALLERY: Last Supper—ROME, CAPITOLINE GALLERY: Romulus and Remus—RUSSIA. ST. PETERSBURG, HERMITAGE GALLERY: Herod's Banquet; Christ in the House of Simon; Descent from the Cross; Virgin and Child; Perseus and Andromeda; Venus and Adonis; Bacchanal; Bacchus; Portrait of Helena Fourment Portrait of Longueval; Sketches for Triumphal Entry of Archduke Ferdinand into Antwerp—SPAIN. MADRID, THE PRADO: Adoration of the Magi; Repose in Egypt; Twelve Apostles; Sketches for the Triumph of the Eucharist; Diana and Calisto; Three Graces; Nymphs with Cornucopia; Garden of Love; Rudolph of Hapsburg and the Priest; Dance of Villagers; Nymphs and Satyrs; Judgment of Paris; Portrait of Marie de Médicis—SWEDEN. STOCKHOLM MUSEUM: Susanna and the Elders; Three Graces—UNITED STATES. BOSTON, ART MUSEUM: Portrait of Isabella Brant; Marriage of St. Catherine—CHICAGO, ART INSTITUTE: Portrait of Spinola—NEW YORK, METROPOLITAN MUSEUM: Return from Egypt; Susanna and the Elders; Portrait of a Man; Pyramus and Thisbe.




BAES, E. A. Séjour de Rubens et de Van Dyck en Italie. (Brussels, 1878)—BIE, C. DE. Gulden Cabinet. (Antwerp, 1662)-BODE, W. Die fürstlich Liechtensteinsche Galerie. (Vienna, 1896)— CALVERT, G. H:. Life of Rubens. (Boston, 1876)- DELACROIX, E. Journal. (Paris, 1895)—EXNEN, L. ber den Geburtsort des Rubens. (Cologne, 1861) —FROMENTIN, E. Les Maîtres d'autrefois. (Paris, 1876)—GACHARD, L. P. Histoire politique et diplomatique de Rubens. (Brussels, 1877) —GACHET, E. Lettres inédites de Rubens. (Brussels, 1840)—HAMERTON, P. G. Art Essays. (New York, 1880)—HOUBRAKEN, A. De groote Schouburgh der Nederlandsche Kunstschilders en Schilderessen. (Amsterdam, 1718-19)—HUET, C. B. The Land of Rubens. (London, 1888) —HYMANS, H. Lucas Vorstermann. (Brussels, 1893)—KETT, C. W. Rubens. (New York, 1879)—KINKEL, J. G. Rubens. (Basle, 1874) —KLOSE, C. L. Rubens im Wirkungskreise des Staatsmannes. (Leipsic, 1856)—KNACKFUSS, H. Rubens. (Leipsic, 1897) —LAFENESTRE, G., and RICHTENBERGER, E. La Belgique. (Paris, 1896) —LEMCKE, C. Rubens [In Dohme's Kunst und Künstler, etc.] (Leipsic, 1877)—MICHEL, E. Rubens: his Life, his Work, and his Time: Trans. by Elizabeth Lee. (London, 1899)—MICHIELS, J. A. X. Rubens et l'école d'Anvers. (Paris, 1854)—MONTÉGUT, E. Les Pays-Bas. (Paris, 1869)—PILES, R. DE. Dissertation sur les ouvrages des plus fameux peintres, and La Vie de Rubens. (Paris, 1681)—RAVENSBURG, G. VON. Rubens und die Antike. (Jena, 1882) —REYNOLDS, SIR J. Journey to Flanders and Holland [In his Works]. (London, 180I)—RoosES, M. Geschichte der Malerschule Antwerpens, etc. (Munich, 1889)—ROOSES, M. L'OEuvre de Rubens. (Antwerp, 1886-92)—ROSENBERG, A. Rubensbriefe. (Leipsic, 1881)—RUBENS-BULLETIJN. (Antwerp, 1882—90) —RUELENS, C. Correspondance de Rubens, etc. (Antwerp, 1887—98) —SANDRART, J. VON. Academia nobilissimæ artis pictorie. (Nuremberg, 1683) —SAINSBURY, W. N. Original Unpublished Papers, etc. (London, 1859)—SMITH, J. Catalogue Raisonné. (London, 1830)—TAINE, H. A. Philosophie de l'art dans les Pays-Bas. (Paris, 1883)—VAN DYCK, J. C. Old Dutch and Flemish Masters. (New York, 1895)—WAAGEN, G. F. Kunstwerke und Künstler in England und Paris. (Berlin, 1839)—WAAGEN, G. F. Rubens : his Life and Genius: Trans. by R. R. Noel. (London, 1840)—VÉRON, E., and others. Rubens, sa vie et ses oeuvres. (Paris, 1880).


ART, 1877: Rubens (A. J. Wauters). 1877: Les Dessins de Rubens au British Museum (J. Comyns Carr) —BLACKWOOD' S MAGAZINE, 1847: Was Rubens a Colorist? —EDINBURGH REVIEW, 1863: Contributions to the Life of Rubens (C. Dempster)-_ FRASER'S MAGAZINE, 1858: Visit to the Château of Rubens—GAZETTE DES BEAUX-ARTS, 1866: Rubens en Italie et en Espagne (A. Baschet). 1867: Rubens à la cour de Vincent Ier (A. Baschet). 1868: Rubens à Gênes (A. Baschet). 1881-85: Rubens (P. Mantz)—GRAPHISCHEN KUNSTE, 1880: Rubens' mythologische Darstellungen (M. Rooses)—HARPER'S MAGAZINE, 1877: Rubens (E. Mason)—INTERNATIONAL REVIEW, 1879: Rubens (P. G. Hamerton)—JOURNAL DES BEAUX-ARTS, 1877: Fêtes Anversoises du troisième centenaire de Rubens—NATION, 1899: Michel's Rubens (K. Cox)—NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW, 1900: The Picture Gallery of the Hermitage (C. Phillips)—PORTFOLIO, 1898: Rubens (R. A. M. Stevenson)—REVUE DES DEUX MONDES, 1897: Les Missions diplomatiques de Rubens (E. Michel)—TEMPLE BAR, 1874: Rubens and Van Dyck in England—TINSLEY's MAGAZINE, 1877: The Rubens Fête at Antwerp (J. E. Ritchie) — ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR BILDENDE KUNST, 1877: Rubens (A. Woltmann). 1880: Rubens und der Kardinal Infant Ferdinand (C. Justi). 1887: Das Dreifaltigkeitsbild von Rubens in der Bibliothek, zu Mantua (C. v. Lützow). 1894-96: Rubens (A. Rosenberg). 1897: Ein wiedererkanntes Bild von Rubens (C. v. Lützow).

Peter Paul Rubens:
Peter Paul Rubens - 1577-1640

The Art Of Rubens

The Works Of Ruben

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