Definitions Of Casing
( Originally Published Early 1900's )
Sheep Casings—Are the small intestines of sheep, and are prepared by pulling free from the surrounding fat, then soaking in cool water overnight in order to loosen the mucous membranes, then scraping with a wooden knife to remove the membranes and slime. They are graded according to width, as wide, medium and narrow, put up into hanks of 90 to 110 yards and salted to preserve. Sheep casings are used as containers for frankfurters and vienna sausage, or "wieners," also for fancy pork sausage and bockwurst.
Hog Casings—Are the small intestines of the hog and are prepared for market by pulling free from the ruffle fat, soaking in cool water (one day in summer and two days in winter) in order to loosen the membranes and slime. They are then scraped, either by hand or machine, until thoroughly clean, and graded according to width, as narrows, mediums and wides. The casings are then measured into hundred yard hanks and salted with coarse salt and placed on racks for ten days to drain and cure. After that they are resalted with fine salt and packed info hardwood barrels. Hog casings are used in the manufacture of pork sausage, frankfurters, Polish sausage and Italian sausage.
Hog Stomachs—Are prepared by making a small cut in the fleshy end of the stomach so that it can be turned. The stomach should then be carefully scraped to remove all slime, chilled and salted. They are used for head cheese.
Beef Rounds—Are the small intestine or round gut of cattle. They are removed from the viscera after the paunch has been cut free, stripped, then put through the cleaning machine to remove surplus fat, turned again, and put through the machine to remove slime—or they may be scraped by hand. When the rounds are thoroughly clean they are divided into exports and domestics. The exports are free of nodules or pimples, whereas the domestics have these blemishes. The rounds are then graded into narrows, mediums and Avides, measured into sets of 100 feet, salted and packed into tierces. Rounds are used for ring bologna, knackwurst, ring liver sausage, Polish sausage, garlic sausage and holsteiner.
Beef Middles—Are the large intestines or straight gut of cattle. As soon as they are separated from the viscera they should be flooded with water to remove contents, then fatted closely. After fatting, the casing is turned and put through the machine to remove slime, chilled, salted, and measured into sets of 63 feet and packed into tierces. Beef middles are used for fresh and dry summer sausage or cervelat, long bologna and farmer sausage.
Beef Bungs—Are removed from viscera after the round gut has been taken off. They are immediately flushed and stripped of contents, carefully fatted, turned, and slimed. If the bungs contain any nodules or pimples they are carefully trimmed with a surgeon's shears. Beef bungs are used for ham bologna, mortadella, minced ham sausage, large bologna and lachshinken.
Beef Bladders—Are stripped of contents as soon as removed from the carcass, all excess fat trimmed from them, thoroughly washed, blown to full capacity and dried—or if they are to be packed in salt they should be turned after trimming, bleached in strong pickle over night, then drained and salted. Bladders are graded in three sizes, wides, mediums and smalls. They are used in making mortadella, minced ham sausage and pepperoni.
Beef Weasands—Are the windpipes of cattle. They are carefully trimmed, turned and slimed, then washed to thoroughly cleanse, blown to full capacity, and dried. Weasands are used for summer sausage and salami.
Hog Middles—Are the large intestines of the hog—also called the black gut, curly gut, or chitterling. These are prepared by stripping over a perforated pipe and flooded with cool water to thoroughly clean. All adhering fat is then removed. If they are to be sold as chitterlings, they are packed into boxes and removed to freezer; but if they are to be used as a sausage container they are measured into sets (9 feet constitute a set) and tied into bundles of five sets each, salted and packed into barrels or tierces. Hog middles are used for blood sausage, blood pudding, etc.
Hog Bungs—Are the colon of the hog and are carefully and thoroughly flushed as soon as they are cut free of the hog middle which they join. They are then trimmed of all surplus fat and adhering meat and graded according to size, as exports, large primes, medium primes, small primes and skips. Next they are chilled in ice water to remove all animal heat, salted and picked in bundles of ten bungs to the bundle, and placed in barrels. The large size bungs, exports, large primes and medium primes are used for fancy grades of summer sausage, cervelat, salami, milano, gothaer braunschweiger liver sausage and goose liver sausage. The smaller sizes are used for fresh cervelat and liver pudding.