Definitions Of Various Sausages
( Originally Published Early 1900's )
Since definitions of various cuts of meat have been furnished, because they are of real interest to every meat retailer, he is naturally interested in definitions of various kinds of sausages. Therefore recipes and definitions have been furnished for the benefit of the meat retailer.
What is "dry sausage"? Dry sausage distinguishes itself from "fresh" or "domestic sausage" in several ways. One of the most important is that no cereal is used in the manufacture of first class dry sausage and more labor and time is spent in its manufacture.
As the name indicates, it is more or less dry, although fresh summer sausage is also sold out of smoke, that is, it is not allowed to dry but is sold in a soft condition. Summer sausage will keep for months under proper care.
Dry sausage is a very tempting delicatessen product. It is highly spiced and very appetizing. In Europe the people are more critical in their tastes than the people of this country and dry sausage has long held an important place in the every day meal of all classes.
The demand for dry sausage or summer sausage as it is more commonly called, is increasing every year and the sale is quite general throughout thé United States. This is readily explained by the fact that though a meat product, it has not an ounce of waste, requires no cooking or preparation with the exception of a few varieties, and will keep for months without ice. The housewife finds it very convenient to keep on hand for chance visitors or quick lunch boxes, picnics, camping, motor trips, etc.
Dry sausage should be hung in a cool, dry place during the summer and kept from freezing in the winter. If the casing becomes mouldy or sticky, it should be washed in luke warm water with salt and immediately hung up to dry. It will appear as bright and fresh as before. Mould does not harm dry sausage as it does not penetrate the casing.
Cervelat Sausage—Is very much relished by the German and the American people and all delicatessen trade. It is the best selling product in the dry sausage line. It is made of beef and pork, the best brands contain more pork than beef, chopped fine, delicately seasoned without garlic, stuffed in wide pork bungs, about 24 to 25 inches in length, smoked slowly and air dried. The best grades are made of lean beef chucks extra trimmed, free from fat or gristle, selected lean pork and solid fat backs. In the cheaper grades less expensive meat and less labor are used in their manufacture.
Gothaer Cervelat—Is made from the choicest selected pork. It is chopped extra fine and seasoned without garlic. It is stuffed in wide export hog bungs cut about 20 inches in length, smoked and air dried. Gothaer sausage is usually wrapped in tinfoil and yellow paper.
Thueringer Summer Sausage—Is made from nearly all beef, with just a small portion of pork added to it. It is chopped fine, seasoned without garlic and stuffed in wide sewed pork bungs about 28 inches in length. It is smoked but not air dried and is usually sold fresh out of the smoke. Thueringer summer sausage is very popular with the delicatessen trade.
Menage—Means household or domestic economy. It is a pork sausage made and specially seasoned for French and Italian trade. Stuffed in small ends of hog casings, air dried, and unsmoked.
Frisses—A coarsely ground, well seasoned sausage, stuffed in crinkly casings known as hog middles. Unsmoked and air dried.
Arles—In this the meat is cut coarsely It is very similar to Milan salami, and is usually stuffed in both beef and hog casings, from 16 to 20 inches long. Relished especially by French and Italians.
Sopressata—Very similar to Arles sausage—stuffed in crinkly hog casings, unsmoked and air dried. Preferred by Italians.
Bari Sopressata—Is the same as Sopressata, with the addition of Italian red pepper.
Mortadella—Is made up of a blending of pork, beef, cubes of fat and spices. It is chopped very fine so as to have a smooth texture, nicely seasoned, stuffed in beef bladders, twined and baked.
Sicilian Salami—Is made from selected materials properly seasoned (no garlic) with whole black peppers mixed through-out. It is packed in beef middles, twined, air-dried, and unsmoked.
Sausage In Oil—Is sausage, in either frankfurt, bologna or smoked sausage style, put up in white cottonseed oil, in tin containers. It is used extensively in the South, and when container is opened the sausage should always be covered with oil.
Sosera In Oil—Very similar to Sausage in Oil, except a little cereal is added It ordinarily comes in three styles—smoked links, sandwich links and round sosera.
Proscuitto—Is the Italian name for ham. Finest grade pork hams are dry salt cured, pressed long shank, unsmoked. It can be cured only in winter. Proscuitto has a sweet nut-like flavor and as it continues to dry, it increases in value. It is very thinly sliced from the side, and eaten uncooked.
Chorizo—Is primarily a Spanish sausage, but is also consider-ably in demand by the French, Italians, Cubans and Portuguese. It is made of pork, seasoned with imported sweet Spanish pepper, and stuffed in links about four inches long.
Hispanosa—Is the same as Chorizos, with beef substituted for pork in the formula.
Bobbio—This is a high grade salami, made of pork trimmings with some beef added. Seasoned and put up similar to Genoa salami, and is very popular with Italians.
Coppa—Choice calla butt, closely trimmed, sweet pickled, stuffed in casings and dried. It is seasoned very slightly with a touch of garlic. Very tasty.
German Salami—German salami as the name would imply, is a German sausage. The meat is chopped somewhat coarser than summer or cervelat sausage and shows a reasonable amount of fat. It is composed of beef and pork, and is flavored with spices and garlic, smoked and air dried. The cheaper grades are sold directly out of smoke. German salami is stuffed in beef middles, average about 14 inches in length, and wound with twine.
Italian Salami, Milan Sausage—Italian salami is made of pork with a small amount of beef. It is chopped coarser than cervelat, highly seasoned with spices and flavored with garlic to suit the Italian trade. It is stuffed in pork bungs averaging 24 inches in length and then closely wound with twine. It is air dried but not smoked.
Frisses Salami—Frisses salami is made the same as Italian salami but stuffed in pork middles which are curly shaped casings. It is air dried but not smoked.
D'Arles—D'Arles is similar to Italian salami in regard to meat and seasoning. It is chopped coarser, stuffed in pork bungs about 18 inches long and is air dried but not smoked. It is greatly relished by the French and Italian people.
Genoa Salami—Genoa salami is prepared with the finest grade of pork. It is seasoned and made according to the tastes of the people of northern Italy. The sausage is stuffed in straight pork casings about 16 to 18 inches in length. It is closely wound with twine both lengthwise and crosswise and is air dried. Genoa salami is very attractive in appearance.
Lyons Sausage—Lyons sausage is a French sausage, and is made from lean pork, although small portions of lean beef may be added. Lyons sausage is chopped very fine and small pieces of fat are mixed in after chopping. It is highly seasoned with a small portion of garlic added. The sausage is stuffed in pork bungs, air dried but not smoked. It is usually wrapped in tin-foil. Lyons sausage is one of the highest price sausages made.
Pepperoni—This sausage is made principally of pork with a small quantity of beef, chopped coarse, stuffed in pork casings in pairs about 12 inches long. It is seasoned with red pepper and other spices to suit the Italian trade. This sausage is air dried and unsmoked.
Holsteiner—Is made of about equal parts of pork and beef, chopped coarse, stuffed in beef rounds casings, smoked and well dried. Holsteiner is popular with the German, French and Italian trade.
Farmer—Farmer sausage is made about the same as Holsteiner as to ingredients, but stuffed in beef middle casings about 16 inches in length. It is smoked but may be unsmoked and air dried.
Swedish—Swedish sausage or Goteborg consists of 75% beef and 25% pork. The meat is chopped coarser than cervelat. It is stuffed in beef middle casings and smoked hard. In appearance it is similar to Farmer sausage. Swedish sausage is popular with the Swedish and Norwegian trade.
Landjaeger—Is made from beef and a small quantity of pork. It is highly seasoned and stuffed in hog casings. It is linked in pairs about 6 inches in length and pressed flat on all sides to give the sausage a square appearance. It is heavily smoked and dried and is popular with the German people and the Swiss trade.
Capicolli—Is made from boneless pork shoulder butts, trimmed lean and mildly cured. It is seasoned with cayenne and pimiento peppers. Stuffed in beef bungs smoked and dried. Owing to the cayenne pepper, it is very spicy. Sweet Capicolli is made by omitting the cayenne pepper and substituting sweeter spices.
Boneless Pork Butts—Boneless pork butts in casings are similar to Capicolli in appearance but are prepared without spices, smoked and dried.
Boneless Picnics—Calla butt cured and smoked, and put up in beef bungs.
Boneless Picnics (cottage brand)—A calla butt cured and smoked and put up in paper wrappers. Especially good for boiled pork.
Loin Roll—Is made up of boneless pork loins, cured in sweet pickle, tied with white cord to retain shape, and smoked and pressed in a cylinder.
Lachschinken—Is made of boneless pork loins, all excess fat being trimmed off, and cured in mild sweet pickle. Two loins are faced and stuffed in larger beef bungs, smoked and twined.
Austrian Pork Sausage—Made from selected pork trimmings stuffed in hog casings. linked about 4 inches apart. It is smoked, seasonèd with garlic and caraway seeds.
Italian Pork Sausage—A well seasoned, smoked or unsmoked pork sausage made for Italian trade.