Sausage And Bologna Making
( Originally Published Early 1900's )
The greatest percentage of sausage and bologna manufactured today is made by the meat packers and wholesale sausage manufacturers. It stands to reason that large sausage production, quantity buying, and specialization enables the large wholesale manufacturer to produce these products at a comparatively lower cost than the average retailer. Many retailers, however, find that there are times during the day, especially in the after-noon, when they have plenty of time to devote to the trimming of meats and to the making of sausage and bolognas.
There are times in many meat markets when accumulations of odds and ends do not always find a ready sale. In order that the retailer may dispose of these cuts to the best advantage and at a profit, the following formulas or retail sausage making should be of vital interest to all retail meat merchants.
It is not intended to go into sausage making in a lengthy detail for most meat markets are not equipped to manufacture this product as do the sausage manufacturers. Most shops have only a meat grinder and a small stuffing machine at their disposal. A few may have a silent cutter and a smoke house. Whatever the equipment, it is essential to have it in first class working order to make a good product. Plates and knives of meat grinders and silent cutters must always be sharp and in good cutting order, otherwise a poor product will be the result.
The formulas are given in 100-lb. quantities. The percentage of the different kinds of meat in each formula is also figured on that basis and therefore it is easy to figure the amount of meats used for any size batch.
All meats must be fresh and sweet. Never allow meats to accumulate until they become old and stale. At the end of the day assort and retrim all small pieces, remove the bones from the large pieces and keep beef and pork separated.
Cure or salt the beef or pork with 2% lbs. of salt and 2 oz. of saltpeter per 100 lbs. of meat.
Sugar should be omitted at the time of curing as it may start fermentation, if the coolers are not at low enough temperatures. The proper temperature to cure meats is 38 to 40° F.
Many retailers cannot keep their coolers at such a low temperature especially if they chill with ice, therefore a close watch on the meats is necessary. However, it should be noted that the higher the temperature the faster the meats will cure. Meats should not be overcured; undercuring is just as harmful. If the meats are undercured the sausage will turn gray. If overcured, the meats become "gassy" and lose their binding qualities and may become sour. The result will be a sausage full of water.
Smoking should be carefully done at not too high temperatures. Hang a thermometer in the smokehouse and keep the temperature at 130 to 140° F. for most sausages. Do not hang the sausage too close to the fire. It is not necessary to smoke the sausages hard if it is intended to color them afterwards. A light amber color is sufficient but they must be thoroughly dry and smooth; sausage free from wrinkles with a minimum shrinkage will be the result.
Sausage may be colored or uncolored as desired. Sausage color can be obtained from all supply houses. A small quantity is dissolved in cold water and then added to the cooking water in the kettle. Care must be exercised not to use too much. It all depends on the size of the 'kettle and the strength of color used. One oz. to 500 gallons of water is usually sufficient. If color is used, smoke the sausage lightly (a light amber color) but positively dry. If no color is used, it is necessary to smoke the sausage until a pronounced red-brown color is obtained.
The recipes and formulas given are those of popular sausages and bolognas. There are so many different kinds of bolognas that this subject in itself requires a volume to give all recipes, and therefore only recipes for the principal popular sausages and bolognas have been given.
75 lbs. cured lean beef trimmings.
25 lbs. fat pork trimmings.
Grind the beef trimmings through the 1/8-inch plate of the meat grinder and put in the silent cutter, adding spices. 6 oz. ground white pepper.
2 oz. ground nutmeg.
2 oz. ground coriander seed.
6-8 oz. granulated sugar.
Chop and add ice and water gradually up to 25-30 lbs. until it is chopped fine. The pork trimmings are also ground through the 1/8-inch plate and put in the chopper with the beef for another minute. Stuff in sheep or hog casings. Link 4 to 6 inches long. Place in smokehouse and smoke for 1 1/2 hours until the sausage is dry and the color right. Cook sausage for ten minutes at 160° F. Chill in cold water and hang in cooler.
Bologna is made in many varieties—round, long, large. Of course the better grades of meat are used in the better grades of sausage. Bologna is usually served cold, although it may be sliced and fried in bacon fat. This makes an excellent dish. It is necessary that this sausage be solid and so less water is used than in frankfurters.
Beef and pork are chopped fine and stuffed in beef rounds, middles, weasands, or bungs. They are smoked and cooked. 70 lbs. lean beef trimmings or chucks (cured).
30 lbs. pork trimmings moderately lean (cured) 1/2 fresh, 1/2 cured.
Grind the meat through the 1/8-inch plate of the meat grinder. Put beef trimmings in the silent cutter and add spices. 6 oz. ground white pepper
2 oz. ground nutmeg or mace
10 oz. ground allspice
1 oz. ground coriander seed
3-5 lbs. ground cereal.
Gradually add ice water up to 20 lbs. and chop about 3 minutes. Then add the pork and continue chopping for two more minutes. Five lbs. of cubed pork back fat mixed in after chopping adds considerable to the appearance of the sausage.
Stuff in well-soaked beef middle casings about 18 inches long, Smoke for 1/2 hours until they are dry and the color desired. Cook 45 minutes at 155-160° F.
Chill in cold water and hang in the cooler.
Large bologna is the same as long bologna except that it is stuffed in beef bungs, smoked 2-3 hours and cooked 2 hours at 160 F. Shower this with cold water. When cool hang in the cooler.
Leona sausage is the same as large bolognas.
Ring bologna is the same as long bologna but is stuffed in beef round casings cut 16 inches long. It is smoked and cooked 30 minutes at 160 F.
Polish sausage is a coarse cut sausage with garlic flavor. 40 lbs. cured lean beef.
60 lbs. cured pork trimmings—% fat, % lean.
The cured beef is ground through the 1/8-inch plate of the meat grinder and chopped a short time in the silent cutter, adding about 15 lbs. ice, water and spices.
6 oz. ground white pepper
6 oz. sugar
10 oz. peeled garlic
1 oz. marjoram.
The pork trimmings are added whole and chopped for a few revolutions of the cutter (the pork must be cut coarse). If cereal is used add 3 to 5 lbs. Stuff in hog casings and link 10 inches long. Smoke the same as frankfurters. Cook 30 minutes at 155-160° F. Chill and hang in the cooler.
To make a pure all-pork sausage, strictly fresh, first-class pork trimmings are necessary.
60 lbs. regular pork trimmings
40 lbs. lean pork trimmings.
Grind the trimmings through the coarse plate and spread over with seasoning.
2 lbs. salt
6 oz. ground white pepper
2 oz. rubbed sage.
Grind all again through the %-inch plate. Put in the mixer and mix for two minutes, gradually adding ice water. Stuff in sheep or hog casings. Link 4 inches long. Put them in cooler as soon as finished. Cereal may be added if desired, 3-5 lbs. being sufficient.
Country Pork Sausage
One hundred lbs. of fat back pork trimmings ground through -inch plate of meat grinder. Season this with
2 lbs. salt
2 oz. rubbed sage
6 oz. ground white pepper.
Mix thoroughly by hand or mixing machine, adding 10 lbs. of shaved ice. Then grind all together through the 1/8-inch plate of the grinder. Do not mix again. Stuff in sheep casings or sell in bulk. Chill as soon as finished. This is a high-grade product.
Liver sausage is stuffed in medium prime hog bungs, also in rings or beef round casings. It is made as follows:
50 lbs. fresh pork livers
20 lbs. fresh pork snouts
20 lbs. fresh jowls or fat pork trimmings
10 lbs. fresh pork skins.
Cook pork snouts and skins for one hour. Pork liver and cooked meats are chopped in silent cutter, adding spices. 2 lbs. salt
5 oz. pepper
2 oz. nutmeg
2 oz. marjoram
1 oz. allspice
3-5 lbs. cereal
3 lbs. onions chopped fine.
Add the fat pork and chop for one minute longer. Ten lbs. of the soup in which the meats were cooked may be added. Stuff in hog bungs about 24 inches long. Cook for 1 1/2 hours at 160° F. Chill in ice cold water. When thoroughly chilled hang in cooler.
Smoked Liver Sausage
Same as above but smoked very slow at 80-90° F. until the sausage becomes dry.
Ring Liver Sausage
Same as above but stuffed in beef rounds casings cut 14 inches long. Cook 30-45 minutes at 160° F. Handle same as regular liver sausage.
SAUSAGE AND BOLOGNA 691
Braunschweiger Liver Sausage
Is a high-grade delicatessen product. Use
50 lbs. fresh pork liver
50 lbs. fresh pork jowls or fat pork trimmings.
Grind livers and pork trimmings through 1/8-inch plate of the grinder. Chop in the silent cutter after adding the spices. 2 lbs. cereal, if wanted
6 oz. pepper
2 oz. nutmeg
2 oz. marjoram
2 lbs. salt.
Chop fine 3 lbs. onions.
Then add pork and chop very fine. Stuff in large hog bungs about 25 inches long. Cook l/-2 hours at 160° F. Chill in cold water and hang in the cooler. Smoke if desired in cool smoke until casings are dry.
Sardellen Liver Sausage
Sardellen. is made the same as Braunschweiger with a little handful of sardellen or sardines added to it. May be smoked if the trade likes it.
Truffle Liver Sausage
Made the same as Braunschweiger except the truffles are chopped the size of a pea and salted and peeled pistachio nuts are added to the finely chopped meats. Handle in all respect the same as Braunschweiger.
Goose Liver Sausage
Goose liver sausage is the same as truffle sausage except that cubed goose livers are added to the meat and handled the same as truffle liver sausage.
Headcheese is made of coarse hand-cut pork, veal and beef. 50 lbs. pork snouts (cured)
45 lbs. cured beef or veal
5 lbs. cured pork skins.
Cook meats in enough water for 1% hours (not too soft, how-ever, just long enough so the meat may be pierced with the index finger with a slight effort). Cut up the meats with a knife.
692 - MEAT AND CUTTING METHODS
Mix in about 15-20 lbs. of soup stock in which the meats were cooked and add 5 lbs. finely ground pork skins. Season with enough salt to taste and
4 oz. ground white pepper
1 oz. ground caraway seed
1 oz. ground marjoram
1 oz. grated onions.
Stuff by hand in hog stomachs and cook 1 1/2 hours. Put on a table in cooler, with a board and press lightly. Put a weight on top of the board, if necessary.
Minced Luncheon Specialty, or Minced Ham
This is rarely made of ham. It is a mixture of beef and pork. Method:
50 lbs. lean beef cured
25 lbs. lean pork cured
25 lbs. fat pork cured.
Chop the beef fine, then add the pork, 20 lbs. of ice, water and spices (6 oz. ground pepper or nutmeg). A few revolutions of the bowl is sufficient. It must not be chopped as fine as bologna. Stuff in dried beef bladders which have been soaked in lukewarm water for 4 hours to make them pliable. Rope lengthwise and crosswise with heavy twine. Smoke 3 hours until the casings are dry. Cook 3 to 5 hours, according to the size of the bladders, at 150° to 155° F. Shower with cold water and hang in cooler.
Baked Meat Loaf
Baked meat loaf is a ready-to-eat meat that saves a great deal of time when a quick meal is desired. Method :
75 lbs. lean cured beef
25 lbs. pork trimmings.
Grind beef through 1/8-inch plate, chop in silent cutter, adding 10 lbs. of cracker meal and 25 lbs. of ice and water. Season with 6 oz. ground pepper, 2 oz. nutmeg. Then add pork trimmings and chop very fine. Pack solid in 6-inch bread pans and bake in a medium hot oven until well brown. Veal may be used in-stead of beef, if desired.
Pressed Cooked Corned Beef
Trimmed beef flanks are cured in sweet pickle brine (regular corned beef brine). When fully cured cook very tender and remove skin, cartilage and surplus fat. Do not cut up the meat, but pull apart and sprinkle a little granulated gelatine over the meat. Mix well and pack solid in muslin cloth bags. Place on boards in cooler. Put another board over the top and press by putting on a weight. This work must be done while the meat is still hot. In the morning the meat will be a hard, solid piece that slices well—and is a very good seller.
New England Ham Sausage, or Pressed Ham
This sausage is very tasty. It is made of lean pork, ham or shoulder trimmings. The meats are cut about the size of an egg and dry cured with 3 lbs. of salt, 3 ozs. saltpeter, and 1 lb. of sugar per 100 lbs. of meat. If the cooler temperature cannot be kept at or below 38° F., it is better to omit the sugar. This meat should be cured within 15 days. Method:
90 lbs. dry-cured ham trimmings
10 lbs. lean, cured beef chucks.
Grind through %-inch plate of meat grinder. Put all the ground meat in the mixer, adding very little water. Mix until the mass becomes a tacky binding dough. Stuff in beef bung cap end, about 14-inch long. Stuff solidly, avoiding air pockets, and rope the sausage closely with seine twine, about 1 inch apart. Puncture the casings to expel any air left in the sausage. Smoke four hours and then cook four hours at 155° to 160° F. Shower with cold water and hang in cooler.
Berliner sausage is similar to New England Ham Sausage. It is made of cheaper meats.
30 lbs. cured beef chucks
35 lbs. dry-cured lean pork trimmings
35 lbs. dry-cured pork cheek meat.
Handle the same as New England Ham Sausage.
Knackwurst or Knoblauch Sausage (Garlic Sausage)
The same meats are used as in Frankfurts. In fact, use the same frankfurter dough. Mix in a small portion of cubed fat back and flavor with garlic. Stuff in beef rounds and tie with twine 4 inches apart. Smoke a light color, cook 30 minutes at 155° to 160° F. Shower with cold water and hang in cooler.
Directions for Making Fine Corned Beef
7 lbs. salt
2 oz. saltpeter
2 lbs. granulated sugar
5 gals. cold water.
This is sufficient for curing 100 Ibs. of meat.
In summer, if the temperature of the cooler cannot be kept down to 40° F., use 1 lb. of sugar to 5 gallons of water.
In the winter, when the temperature is low, 2 lbs. of sugar to 5 gallons of water should always be used. The sugar must be pure granulated cane sugar.
It requires 10-to 20 days to cure plates and briskets. The rump takes a little longer, depending entirely upon the strength of the curing pickle.
Corned beef should be sold fully cured as it does not have the proper flavor unless it is cured all the way through. Many people like garlic flavor in corned beef, so a few kernels of peeled and minced garlic, tied in a cloth bag can be added to the brine which contains the corned beef.