Export Cuts Of Pork
( Originally Published Early 1900's )
The principal export cuts are Wiltshire sides, Cumberland sides, and regular long clears. Other export cuts which are not generally made are long ribs, Dublin middles, export short clears, export short fat backs, export pork loins, and English bellies.
Wiltshire Sides—This cut includes the ham, full side, and shoulder, all in one piece.
Cumberland Sides—This cut includes the side and shoulder in one piece, cut square on the ham end and leg cut off below knee joint.
Regular Long Clears—This cut comprises the side of a carcass with the ham off and the backbone, shoulder bones, and ribs out. The fore leg is cut off close to the breast and the aitch and breast bones cut down smooth with the face of the side.
Dublin Middles—This cut consists of a side with the ham off but the shoulder left on. The fore leg is cut down even with the breast. This cut is usually made from light weight hogs.
Long Ribs—This cut consists of the side with shoulder on and ham off. Fore leg is cut off close to breast and end next to ham cut square. Shoulder, ribs, neck bone, back bone, blade bone, and blood vein are removed and breast bone sawed or cut down smooth and even with the face of the side.
Export Short Clears—This cut includes the belly and back.
Export Short Fat Backs--This cut is the same as a domestic fat back, except that the tip of blade bone is taken out and the cut is trimmed smooth and square on all edges.
Export Pork Loins—This cut is the same as a heavy domestic loin, except that more fat is left on.
English Bellies—This cut consists of the side or middle, usually of a barrow hog with fat back and loin removed. Cut square on, both ends and has all ribs removed.
Two cuts of each of the above are obtained from a carcass, with the exception of rough short ribs (hard side) and rough short ribs (soft side). A rough short rib (hard side) includes the side and all of the backbone, and the remaining portion of the opposite side of the same carcass is the soft side. Hence only one of each can be made from a carcass.
Percentages of the carcass weight represented by the various cuts vary with the type of hog and with the slightly different methods of cutting used by different packers. These variations are included in the range of percentages in Table No. 37, in which both the range and average percentage are shown.
The relative market values of the various pork cuts and lard influence the trim of the cuts. This in turn causes a degree of variation in the yields.
The greatest variations in percentage yields, however, are due to different types of hogs. When tests are conducted, allowances should be made for all of these factors.
Milwaukee Butts—Same as Boston butts but has neck bone in. In great demand in Milwaukee and vicinity.
Pork Back Bones—Is the backbone of the hog and is sold for same purpose as spareribs.
Pork Neck Bones—Are bones made from neck and shoulder of the hog.
Neck Ribs—Usually contains three ribs, and is made up of the neck end of the sparerib.
Slip Bones—Are the end of the loins, having a fair-sized piece of lean left on, and the tenderloin in. Excellent for boiling and baking.
Pork Tails—Are what the name indicates, with about two inches of tail bone left on.
Pork Tenderloin—Is the lean, boneless piece of meat found next to the backbone in the lower part of the pork loin.
Blade Butt—Is the shoulder end of large pork loin, weighing ordinarily 3 to 8 lbs.
Hock—The part of the fore leg between the shoulder and knee joint; usually weighing from one-half to one and one-half lbs.
Knuckles—The part of the foot between the hock and what is known as commercial foot. It is really a small piece of foot containing a portion of lean meat. In big demand during fall and winter seasons.
Pork Feet—Are made up from the part of the carcass extending from the shoulder to the toe, and are divided into three parts known as commercial foot, hocks and knuckles.
Commercial Foot—The part extending from the toe to the knee.
Hog Heads—Are the heads just as cut from dressed hog, thoroughly scraped and cleaned. Two grades, namely : tongues in and tongues out. Used in retail markets and for sausage making.
Snouts—The snout part of the face. Used extensively by sausage manufacturers.
Pork Hearts—Used chiefly by fish hatcheries and sausage manufacturers.
Pork Livers—Also used widely for fish food, as well as sausage making purposes.
Pork Melts—Used for food purposes, and by fish hatcheries.