Lustre Ware

( Originally Published 1905 )

THERE is scarcely a china collector who does not number among his or her possessions at least one piece of lustre, which ware forms a group of its own in English pottery. All lustre ware may be divided into three classes copper, silver, and gold the first being the most common, least valuable, and least interesting. The process of making this ware was simple enough, consisting in dissolving the metals employed by chemicals and forming a solution which could either be applied by dipping or with a brush.

Who first invented, or rather applied, this method of metallic coating to English pottery is not known. Admirers of Wedgwood claim that he first used gold as early as 1776 for lustring picture frames. Other authorities give the merit of the discovery to John Hancock while employed by Spode, to whom he was apprenticed in 1769. Still others credit the firm of Gardiner & Stennys with the introduction of lustred pottery. Be this as it may, by 1770 R. Frank was making copper lustre ware at Brislington, near Bristol, England.

Wilson, in Staffordshire, was making it in 1785. Lustre ware of all three varieties was made at the Market Street Works, Longton, and was frequently marked with a " B " impressed in the body. The works were in operation at the same time that Wedgwood was working at Etruria, and the firm was originally Cyples, then became Cyples & Barlow, and then was conducted by Thomas Barlow alone.

Moore & Co. and Dixon & Co. were both at work in Sunderland by 1820, and produced much handsome ware. Lustre was also made at Leeds before 1800, in Preston Pans, at Dillwyn, where the famous Swansea gold and silver lustre was manufactured, and at many other pot works all over England.

The body of lustre ware is generally earthen, of a reddish colour and coarse texture, which sometimes de-tracts from the elegance of the shape of the vessel, though when copper lustre was at its best, about 1801, there was little criticism to be passed upon either its colour or the shapes it covered.

Some of the best examples of copper lustre approach more nearly to those elegant Hispano-Mauro specimens of the fifteenth century than any of the other varieties, and has a depth of colour that forcibly reminds one of the splendid old Italian ware. Since an article on lustre was published by me some years ago, I have received a number of letters from owners of pieces, written in a most earnest spirit. One declared that the so-called " silver lustre " was but a mock, and that he possessed specimens of the true silver lustre which was on glass, and another, a lady this time, gravely informs me that she owns a mug of copper lustre which came over in the Mayflower ! When I suggested that perhaps she had dated her mug a little too far back, she replied that she had been told that in 1805 the mug was considered very, very old, that family tradition was enough for her, and that declared the Mayflower as being the carrier which brought her piece to this country. If only Italian lustre was made as early, why then her mug was Italian. By the way, this mug, which is described as light as aluminum, has survived all these years without so much as a chip ! She speaks with some scorn of two marked pickle dishes by Wedgwood which belonged to her husband's family, but pins all her faith to this piece of copper lustre, and nothing will shake her. Family tradition is a power that cannot be gauged till you run counter to it in dating specimens.

In the choicer porcelains and higher class wares it is possible to find characteristics by which they can be distinguished. It is not so in the more common or peasant productions. Highly coloured and more or less crude wares which we quickly assign to England may have been made in Sweden, Denmark, or Belgium, or may even be traced as far south as Italy. Many pieces of lustre are also made in Germany and look so much like the English wares that they deceive all but the most expert. One seldom takes into account that potters travelled from one country to another with the methods which they had learned, and were able to produce in Denmark examples of pottery exactly like those which they had made in Staffordshire.

It is only necessary to trace the movements of a famous man like Billingsley, who was noted for the roses which he painted on china, and which during fifty years appeared on many celebrated English wares as he went from one factory to another. As with him so with less renowned potters, so that with unmarked pieces it is almost impossible to assign the place of manufacture.

In an article on " Historic Pitchers," published in 1902, I showed the " Cornwallis jug," which is the most valuable piece of copper lustre known. Such a jug in perfect condition is worth $45, on account of its historical association, since in shape, size, and quality of ware it is in no wise superior to hundreds of other copper lustre pitchers. I know of but a scant dozen of these jugs in speaking of this Cornwallis pitcher the term " jug " seems more appropriate and of these two are imperfect, one having a bad crack and the other having lost its " foot " that is, the base on which it stands.

I have been criticised for placing the value of these jugs so high, but, for those of large size and perfect it is what the dealers ask. I have inquired in several shops where antiques are sold, and I find that this is the general figure in the large cities. No dealer will give such a sum, and you will do well if you can get half so much, for he too has his profit to make. Next in rarity and beauty come the perfectly plain copper jugs, fine and simple in form, and beautifully lustred inside and out. Some of these of different sizes are shown in Figure 217, and even in the photograph you can see their wonderful lustre. These old specimens have a deep-seated lustre, if it may be so expressed, while the modern reproductions are more on the surface, and seem to have a more metallic appearance than the old.

In the Figure 218 are shown seven copper lustre pitchers, embracing all the familiar types, showing the different styles of handles and the ways these were applied, the pitchers having a thumb rest and large pointed lip being the oldest. The best pitcher in this group is the one at the end at the left side, on which are white figures on a copper ground. This pitcher is similar in style to those made by Wedgwood, Wood & Caldwell, and other well-known potters.

The pitchers in Figure 219 show only their good shape and proportion in the photograph, for the broad band of decoration which passes about the upper part of the pitcher just below the handle is a splendid and unusual shade of olive green which does not " take " well.

These pitchers are unusually handsome, the shade of lustre being very deep and rich, and the harmony of that with the green very satisfying. They are of undoubted age, and are now at the Whipple House, Ipswich, Massachusetts, where are gathered so many relics of that interesting old town. The pitchers belonged to Aaron Jewett, janitor of the Old Court House from 1820 to 1850, and were used as water pitchers by the judges of the court during that time.

I do not doubt that this temperance beverage was an unfamiliar invader of these hospitable jugs until they came to do legal duty, for the usual liquid which poured from their generous lips was cider. It was not only to pewter vessels that the terms " gallonier, pottle pot, pot and little pot " were applied, but to pitchers which held respectively one gallon, two quarts, one quart, and one pint. The idea of temperance seems to have been one of the last to enter the minds of our forefathers on either side of the water.

These larger-sized pitchers were made for cider or beer, or some of the numerous decoctions which are compounded of these ingredients and several others, and then heated with a loggerhead.

Bowls, tea-sets, pepper pots, mugs, goblets, and very rarely coffee pots are found in copper lustre, a very handsome specimen of the latter being similar to the helmet-shaped teapot in another illustration (Figure 224).

Two correspondents, one in Mexico (where, she writes me, there is much old china to be picked up) and one in Virginia, own large gallon pitchers of plain copper lustre, very similar in shape to the largest pitcher shown.

The second period of copper lustre was about 1830, when the glaze was inferior, being filled with bubbles and little holes, showing that the pieces were hastily dipped and stood on their bases, where the glaze collected in drops. Since this time copper lustre has been made in quite a number of potteries, and modern lustre can be found easily in Canada, I understand. There seems to be little in the United States, for I have sought in dozens of' stores without coming across one pitcher. 'Whole tea-sets of a certain brilliant lustre, with a band of bright blue, have been offered me as " antiques," every line and its hard, brassy colour showing in an unmistakable fashion its recent manufacture.

There is a depth of colour, a smoothness of glaze, and a feel " to old lustre that is not easily mistaken. You will find the bottom of the object worn smooth, the polish dulled by wear in places, and the crudeness of the modern ware absent.

The two pitchers in the centre of Figure 217 are of a more modern type than those on the ends with large curved lip and familiar handle. Sometimes such jugs come with a cover also of the lustre, which fits into the neck of the pitcher, and has a square opening so that the liquid can be poured out without removing the lid. Such pieces are very rare. It is a misfortune that such a small quantity of lustre ware of any description was marked. Its age can only be guessed at.

While copper lustre never reached an advanced state in beauty and perfection, silver lustre, as it is familiarly called, deserves a front rank in English pottery. It is not so old a form of lustre as the copper, and probably dates from not earlier than 1785. The process of producing this lustre was by applying a deposit of metallic platinum to the surface of either pottery or porcelain. Platinum was first introduced into England from Spain about the year 1750, and its reductibility and the ease with which it could be deposited were early known to chemists.

John Hancock, who was born in 1757 and died in 1847, claims for himself the first use on pottery of this substance. In 1846 he wrote to the " Staffordshire Mercury " a letter concerning this subject, of which a portion is quoted. He says :

" In the notice of the death of Mr. John Booth, inserted in your last week's paper, it is stated that he was the inventor of lustre for earthenware. I beg to state that this is incorrect, as I was the original inventor of lustre, which is recorded in several works on Potting, and I first put it in practice at Mr. Spode's manufactory for Messrs. Daniel and Brown, and continued to make it long before Mr. Booth or any other person attempted to do so. . . . By inserting this you will oblige me, whose character, at the age of eighty-nine, is at stake."

In Shaw's " History of the Staffordshire Potteries," 1829, he states :

" The first maker of silver lustre properly so called, was John Gardiner, when employed by the late Mr. Wolfe of Stoke. Next were Mr. G. Sparkes of Slack Lane, Hanley, Mr. Horobin of Tunstall, and a person named Mr. John Ainsley, who introduced it at Lane End. Since 1804 it has been practised with varied success through the whole of the district."

In 1810 Peter Warburton, of the New Hall Pottery of Lane End, took out a patent for decorating china, porcelain, earthenware, and glass with native, pure, or adulterated gold, silver, platina, or other metals fluxed or lowered with lead or any other substance, which invention or new method leaves the metals after being burned in, in their metallic state."

Among the names which may be found on pieces of silver lustre are, " Warburton," with a heart impressed; " Wilson," " Bailey and Harvey," " Spode," " Wood," " Minton," "J. E. Wileman," "Harley," "Ralph Salt," this was the same man that made Staffordshire figures," Wood and Caldwell," the Mayer star, and the letter " R," which is supposed to stand for Ridgway. But by far the larger number are entirely unmarked.

The process of making silver lustre was a simple one. The ware, when glazed, was dipped into a bath containing platinic chloride and dilute spirits of tar. It was allowed to dry, and was then baked for eight to twelve hours in a kiln at 1,200 F., when the organic matter burned away, leaving a surface of metallic platinum, lustrous and fine. Sometimes the platinum was mixed with the materials of the glaze and applied directly, and those pieces which have the lightest and most silvery appearance were coated with oxide of platinum produced with sal ammoniac, and fired at a low heat.

Various bodies were used. Wedgwood chose a dark red clay, others a dead white porcelain, and I have seen also a yellowish body, and common gray clay. Originally the pieces, particularly tea-sets, bowls, and mugs, were lustred inside as well as out, for silver lustre was made for those who wished to own silver but could not afford it. In the course of time, when electroplating cheapened metal ware, and the lustre ware no longer deceived, the interior of vessels was coated with a white slip or porcelain glaze and the lustre was confined to the outside. This had the merit, also, of reducing the cost. The pottery body is of coloured earthenware, red or yellow, made very thick in such pieces as tea or coffee pots, to withstand the heat, while other pieces are nearly as delicate as porcelain.

The early patterns, besides being silvered within, are also quite plain in shape, the beautiful ornamentation with which many pieces are enriched being a later development. A choice specimen of plain silver lustre is shown in the fluted jug in Figure 220.

The tea-sets in Queen Anne patterns (see Figures 221, 222, and 223) and the two helmet teapots and the one with " pineapple " pattern shown in Figure 224 are extremely beautiful. Many such sets were cast in old silverware moulds, or modelled in flutings and beadings by hand, the numerous examples shown covering almost every variety of known pattern. In fact, they are al-most handsomer than silver, since the lustre takes a deeper shade, and is broken up into higher lights than is possible with even the most highly burnished silver. Not only were there tea-sets, but cups and saucers as well. The only one I ever saw was a delicate bit with flutings on the cup, which was of an early type, since it had no handle. It was in perfect condition and sold for ten dollars.

A perfectly plain cup and saucer this time, with a handle, can be seen in Figure 225. It is a beautiful and perfect piece, and with the other articles in the photograph belongs to a Mexican correspondent. The two lovely candlesticks are of silver lustre also, " Cupid Bound," and are not marked in any way. They are, however, very choice, the modelling of the figure being exquisite, and they are quite perfect, except that the lustre is a little mottled. In design they are quite as choice as the Wedgwood pair shown in another figure.

The largest piece of silver lustre which has come under my notice was an ewer and basin which I saw in the summer of 1903 at Salem, Massachusetts. It was of the diminutive size seen in the old blue toilet sets, tiny things, which seem to have satisfied our Colonial ancestors in whose estimation cleanliness does not seem to have come next to godliness.

Many people desire to have one or two pieces of silver lustre, but it is by no means easy to find, though many of the teapots shown in this article belong to a fortunate collector who has two thousand other teapots of every variety of pottery and porcelain to keep them company.

At the sale, in March, 1903, of the late Mr. Burritt's collection of pottery and porcelain when such phenomenal prices were obtained for " Old Blue," there were a few pieces of lustre sold also. The prices given for them seem large, but there were plenty of people willing and eager to take them at these figures. There were but two separate silver lustre teapots similar to the tall ones shown in this article. One of them, fluted, sold for $20. The other, plain, brought $18. A tea-set in fluted pattern, consisting of teapot, sugarbowl, and cream jug, brought $60. A silver lustre goblet sold for $11, a pepper box for $12, and a salt cellar, silver without and copper lustre within, cost the purchaser $14.

It must be borne in mind that these prices are unusual; no dealer will ever give them. Yet silver lustre seems to stand apart in value, for I have known a very choice teapot which had lost its spout to have the missing member replaced by one of plated silver and then sell for $15.

So far we have dealt only with plain silver lustre, or that cast in moulds.

There is another form of decoration for this variety of lustre which is uncommon and very beautiful. An example is given in Figure 226. I call this the second period, since the plain ware was evidently the first expression of the potter's ability to use this metal. All the shapes in which lustre ware was made pepper pots, tea-sets, jugs, bowls, two-handled cups, and cups and saucers are to be found in this decorated ware, which is called " resist " from the method of manu-facture. Birds and flowers are the subjects oftenest chosen, the patterns often being exceedingly intricate and elaborate.

The article to be decorated was first dipped into or covered with a white or cream-coloured slip, and upon this the pattern was. painted with an adhesive mixture which " resisted " the silver lustre when the pottery was dipped into it. All the surface not previously covered with this resistant mixture became covered with the lustre. The second firing (the first was to harden the covering of white slip) burnt away the resist mixture and fixed the silver lustre, and the pattern stands out in white.

Very rarely in this country, and not often in England, is this silver resist " decoration found in which the pattern shows canary-coloured instead of white. Such pieces command very high prices. At the Burritt sale, previously quoted, a silver lustre pitcher with " resist " pattern in white brought $47.50, the pitcher being nine inches high. The one pictured in Figure 226 is six inches tall, and although part of a collection in this country, was found in England.

What remains of a very beautiful tea-set of this resist ware is shown in Figure 227. It was part of a bridal outfit in 1825. None of the pieces are marked, but the ornamentation on the top of the teapot and sugar-box and the beauty of the " honeysuckle pattern " on the body of the pieces, all show it came from some high grade pottery. It is on white china, too, and the bottom of the saucer is left plain. The plate is one of a pair and is an extremely choice one. This, as with so many other antique treasures, may be found in New England, and, happily, is not for sale.

The last stage of silver lustre is shown in Figure 228, which gives a cake or fruit basket of gray pottery ornamented with a graceful pattern covered with the lustre. The combination of the gray and silver is very pretty, while the dancing figures modelled on the panels of the vases are graceful and full of motion. These pieces are probably between fifty and sixty years old, although ware like this was made some years earlier also.

A china merchant tells me that he used to sell pieces like this when he was first in business, about 1860. He had to work them off as best he could, since they were " old stock." The basket shown is nine inches high and eleven across the top. The lines showing dark on the base and the leaves and vines about the top are of the silver lustre, while the pendant bunches of grapes are covered with the brown enamel. To-day the basket is valued at $15. The day it was new it could be bought for one-fifth of that sum.

In Figure 229 is given a pair of candlesticks by Wedgwood, representing figures of Tritons. Many groups, busts of children, griffins, and figures such as the candlesticks, came from Wedgwood's potteries, quite a large proportion of them being modelled by the hand of the master himself. There is a note among his records of a payment made to 'William Bacon, one of the artists in his employ, for modelling a pair of Tritons in " broun earth." These candlesticks are such a pair, and in common with many other objects from the Wedgwood works were lustred. 1791 is given in Miss Metayard's " Life of Wedgwood as the date when silver lustre was first used in his potteries, and these Tritons are undoubtedly " Old Wedgwood," --i e., made before 1795, when Josiah Wedgwood died. They are a portion of the fine collection of pottery and porcelain which is on exhibition at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts.

There is a material known as " lead glass " which bears a resemblance to silver lustre, and which has been known to deceive the unwary. This lead glass is made today, and one of its uses is as a reflector behind bracket kerosene lamps. I have seen goblets of it, shaped like the old-fashioned communion cups, in several New England towns, and have never been able to trace their history, although their owners always assured me that they were at least one or two hundred years old !

For about seventy years that is, since about 1830 no important examples, nor any large quantity of silver lustre was made. Within the last three or four years, since the demand for such pieces has become marked, dishonest dealers have been found to both make and sell such forged examples. Even the novice can scarcely be deceived by these modern specimens. The colour of the lustre is dull and cloudy and darker than the bright white lustre of the old ware. Shapes are poor and no care is taken to render the specimens choice. Toby jugs, which are occasionally fitted with lids for teapots, large bowls, and goblets, and a crude pepper box in the form of a man in a cocked hat are the chief modern pieces. It is impossible to tell where this inferior modern stuff is made, but Belgium is said to be responsible for some of it. 'With a little care no one need be deceived by it.

Since the above was written I have seen other specimens of modern silver lustre which are being made in England. Among these new pieces may be found gourd and melon shaped teapots, and tea-sets with white china body and with spiral fluting. W. W. Slee of Leeds, who has in his employ a potter who used to work at the Old Leeds Pottery, is successfully turning out tea-sets, candlesticks, tobacco jars, and small figures. Most of these are from the old Leeds models and can easily deceive the unwary. The Wedgwood firm is also experimenting in this ware, and some of Mr. Slee's specimens in lightness surpass even the old ware. Experience alone can guide the collector, and if the same shape in good condition is found in a number of shops, it would be best to avoid it, as presumably modern.

A very choice collection of silver lustre, chiefly tea and coffee pots, is shown in Figure 230. They are only a portion of what this fortunate collector owns.

The third and last metallic lustre to be considered has been made, so far as can be ascertained, in England only. It is the gold lustre, more commonly known as " rose spotted," or " Sunderland lustre," and it is quite as rare and costly as the silver lustre. The effect is obtained by precipitating gold and then applying it to the pottery either in a pattern or in spots and blotches, which vary in one from a rose colour to a purplish tint, caused by the lustre being laid on thick or diluted.

In Figure 231 is given a large gallon-sized rose-spotted jug, which relies on its good form and the delightful play of colour to make it pleasing. When I first saw this jug what a sad wreck it was! It did not have even the rudiments of a handle.

The collector who owns it now discovered it in Maine in a farmhouse, where in its dilapidated condition it had been consigned to the top shelf in the buttery.

When it was brought down the collector questioned what had become of the handle, and was answered, " It was thrown out." She spent an hour grubbing in dust and ashes trying to find it, but had to come away with the pitcher only. The present handle is a triumph of the restorer's art, and leads me to say that the despair of the collector of jugs is that person who insists on lifting these treasures by the handle. The person who " knows " always lifts a jug by placing one hand in the mouth of the jug and supporting the base with the other hand. This procedure shows the collector that he has nothing to fear, and is almost as welcome a sign as the grip " among Masons.

The second jug in Figure 231 is copper lustre, about fifty years old, and of German make. Notice how entirely it differs in shape, in style of handle, and base from any of the English pieces shown. It is of a beautiful deep coppery colour, undecorated, relying on its fine glaze for ornament.

Figure 232 shows a group of Sunderland pieces, all but one in proof condition, that is, absolutely perfect, and all of them are interesting. The largest of the four is a gallon-size cider jug, with a view in colours of Twymouth Haven on the side shown. On the opposite side is a ship, flanked by a sailor and a female figure, while below is the following verse:

" The sailor tossed on stormy seas,
Though far his bark may roam,
Still hears a voice in every breeze
That wakens thoughts of home ;

He thinks upon his distant friends,
His wife, his humble cot ;
And from his inmost heart ascends
The prayer: ' Forget me not!' "

The other pitcher has a picture in colours called the " Sailor's Farewell," with a verse which runs:

"Sweet, oh ! sweet, is that sensation,
Where two hearts in union meet,
But the pain of separation
Mingles bitter with the sweet."

I have found this sentimental verse on Sunderland ware only, but it does duty on punch-bowls as well as pitchers.

The little jug on feet is one of those specimens cast in a silverware mould and then lustred. It is made of coarse pottery, as a small chip on one foot shows.

Sunderland and Newcastle are usually classed together, and the earliest pot works at these places were opened between 1730 and 1740.

About 1755 Mr. Byers established works at New-castle, and in 1762 Messrs. Christopher Thompson and John Maling erected potteries near Sunderland at North Hylton.

In 1817 Messrs. Dawson, and also Messrs. Phillips, opened factories at Hylton-on-Tyne, and at Sunder-land and Southwick Messrs. Scott and Company built potteries in 1789, while the Moores built there in 1803. Early in the nineteenth century Dixon, Austin and Company had potteries in the neighbourhood of Sunderland. The pieces made at Newcastle often bear the names of Sewell and Donkin, or of Thomas Fell and Company.

The Newcastle and Sunderland pottery somewhat resembles Staffordshire ware, but is coarser and not so carefully finished. It has a decidedly yellowish colour, and nearly all of the subjects used for decoration have a nautical flavour, showing that they were chiefly used by sailors. There is something breezy, if rather coarse, about the drinking vessels of this ware, and we can imagine the sailors home from a cruise drinking from them and roaring out their choruses, and looking down into the mugs, so many of which had in their interiors a very naturalistic frog.

The most famous pattern ever made at these potteries was the great bridge over the Wear, begun in 1793 and finished in 1796. One of these jugs is shown in Figure 233. The other jug shown in this picture is the handsomest rose lustre jug I have ever seen. Even though the body of the pitcher is somewhat discoloured by, hard usage, the picture of the ruin comes out in great beauty, the shades varying from a deep crimson to a pale pink, while over the whole plays that lustrous iridescence characteristic of gold lustre. Or many jugs the patterns used were grotesque, crude in colour, and badly drawn. This design is quite charming.

Another arrangement of the Wear Bridge pattern is shown in Figure 234. This has the Bridge under the lip also, but opposite to the usual verse is a mariner's compass, flags, and nautical emblems. This is also a gallon pitcher, and has considerable lustre decoration on it.

There is another class of pitchers and punch-bowls which, while they hardly come under the designation Lustre, have more or less of this decoration on them. The chief claim to interest these articles have is that many of them are more or less historic, and show scenes in our early history, or portraits of our heroes. The monument jug in Figure 235 is a sample of one style, and is a famous pitcher. It has a portrait of Washington, a design of Fame weeping beside his tomb, and several inscriptions on it. Lustre bands are at top and bottom, a pattern in lustre also surrounds the top, and even the handle has its band also. The pitchers with this design come in twelve and ten inch sizes, and are valuable specimens to own. Many variations were made of this theme; sometimes there was one portrait only, sometimes there were two, but there was always some lustre decoration.

Masonic devices were also favourite ones for jugs and mugs, some being dated as early as 1795, which, of course, adds to their value. A group of these much sought pieces is given in Figure 236, largely of Staffordshire ware, and the fine old punch-bowl in the centre has the well-known face of Franklin, surmounted by his fur cap. The English potter did not hesitate to perpetuate disastrous defeats to the British army and navy, provided these articles met with a ready sale in America, which was the best foreign market open to the potter.

Even when no other symbol told of our prowess the eagle screamed from many a piece, like the nice old Castleford pitcher, with pink lustre decoration, shown in Figure 237. I find many pieces with the eagle in various attitudes, sometimes grasping the thunderbolts, sometimes with the thirteen stars above or below him, but this is the only example which I have met in which he is bearing the olive branch. On the front of this jug is a beautiful monogram, also in lustre of a fine pink shade, and, judging from its excellent condition; it was carefully used. It has the pitted surface which was always to be found in Castleford ware, and a raised border surrounds the top, composed of leaves and flowers and star-like medallions.

There are hunting and guild pitchers with lustre bands on them, and frequently with borders as well, more or less ornate. On them are also scenes and devices in black or brown print, and the makers seemed to rely on the lustre bands to brighten them up.

There is much pottery and porcelain to be found here which is decorated with black or brown printed scenes, and set off with either bands of lustre or little leafy sprig decoration. Such ware is called " New Hall," and was made at Shelton, in Staffordshire, be-fore 1825, when the works closed. Many owners of tea-sets like the cup and saucer in Figure 238 call them " New Hall " also, although the entire decoration is in lustre.

Very pretty and graceful all such sets are plain lustred decoration or with the prints. A favourite design in the printed ware is a mother reclining on a sofa and playing battledore and shuttlecock with a little girl. This picture is shown in the article on pitchers previously, mentioned.

Figure 239 gives two more very handsome pitchers. The one on the left is called " Nautilus pattern, and the design is painted on in rose lustre. The pitcher is marked " Wood," impressed. This Wood was one of the famous English potters who made so much of the " Old Blue," which is now eagerly sought. The name " Wood " alone was used as a mark between 1800 and 1818, when the sons were admitted to partnership and the signature was "E. Wood & Sons," or "E. W. & S."

The other pitcher has the main design about the body in colours, all the small details being rose lustre as well as the bands and vine designs about the top and base.

Eleven of the jugs shown belong to one collection, the indefatigable owner of which spares not herself in searching both this country and Europe. The most ex-pensive pitcher of the eleven was the large one showing Twymouth Haven, bought in Maine, for which $6 was paid.

The cheapest was the little one on four legs shown in the same picture. This was bought for a quarter. All the others came in between these two extremes, even the beautiful silver lustre " resist " jug, with its graceful design of tulips and leaf pattern.

I mention these prices to encourage would-be col-lectors and to show how much can be done by one who has time, some money and, most important of all, " china luck " a quality born with its possessor, next to impossible to acquire.

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