Veterinary Work With Dogs
( Originally Published Early 1900's )
DOGS—As might be anticipated, the dog is very much less liable to disease, and is far more exempted from injury than the horse ; and the sporting dog lives a healthier life than the over-domesticated creature that is pampered and limited in its movements to a short stroll beyond the drawing-room. So that when given good food and kept clean, the dog used for sport is comparatively free from serious disorders, though perhaps he incurs some risks that are inseparable from the work he is called upon to perform.
Wounds—These are not, as a rule, so serious in the dog as they generally are in the horse, because the intelligence of the former greatly assists in ensuring the position and quietude essential to the repair of injuries. The different kinds of wounds described as occurring in the horse are met with in the dog, and it is sometimes quite astonishing to find this animal recover rapidly, often without any assistance, from the gravest incised and lacerated wounds, which would be considered almost beyond repair in the larger animal. Perhaps the commonest wounds are those from the bites of other dogs,' and as these are punctured they are more troublesome to deal with than some of the other kinds ; moreover, they may be inflicted by rabid dogs or by those with foul mouths and teeth, which may lead to dangerous disease. With ordinary wounds very little, if any, treatment is needed, beyond keeping them clean, and this the dog's tongue will generally accomplish if the part is within reach. If any dressing is required it should be of a non-poisonous kind, such as solution of chinosol. Simple wounds can be painted over with collodion, friar's balsam, or solution of gutta percha, or an ointment of oxide of zinc, iodoform, or boracic may be employed ; but, when they are applied, the dog should wear a muzzle to prevent him licking them off, unless a bandage will answer the purpose. He must also be kept well muzzled When large wounds are in process of healing, as at a certain stage there is so much irritation that he would otherwise do great mischief to himself by tearing the part with his teeth. Large gaping wounds may be closed by stitches in the manner described for the horse, though it is to be observed that sutures rapidly ulcerate out in the dog. This may be obviated to some extent, however, by not bringing the sides of the wound too close together, so as to allow for the subsequent swelling, and the stitches themselves must not be very near the margin. In many cases the sides of the wound can be kept in apposition by glue or pitch plasters, or by bandages if the wound will permit. The wounds of dogs, if beyond reach of the tongue, and if the weather happens to be warm, are likely to become infested with maggots when not kept clean. These can be got rid of by washing the wound with solution of chinosol.
Fractures—Broken bones are very frequent in dogs, as they are much exposed to external violence ; but fortunately, owing to their comparatively small size and their intelligence, they may be easily handled, and the fractures can therefore be satisfactorily examined, set and fixed in the best position for repair, the animals themselves aiding in this by remaining patient and tranquil. Besides, repair is usually rapid, and constitutional disturbance rarely takes place.
Fractures of the skull are always serious. If the bones are depressed, so as to make pressure on the brain, they must be raised, and removed if necessary. The lower jaw is sometimes broken, but unless there is much displacement, little more is needed than taking away any splinters or loose teeth. Broken ribs are extremely rare, as these bones have long cartilages and are very elastic ; when this accident does occur, a wide bandage fastened tightly round the chest, and quiet, are all that is necessary. Fracture of the bones of the shoulder blade is dealt with by applying a pitch plaster to the skin over it, making it firmer by splints of pasteboard, while a starch bandage passed round the neck and fore-arm in a figure of 8 manner, and then round the body two or three times, keeps the shoulder immovable. The arm bone (humerus) and thigh bone (femur) are often broken, and until it is convenient to fix them properly, the leg should be firmly bound up with a handkerchief to prevent displacement. When all is ready, the broken bone is " set," by bringing the fractured ends together and keeping them in place by means of bandages and splints. If there is a wound extending to the fracture, it should not be covered by the retaining apparatus ; and if there is swelling, before reducing the fracture it is well to get rid of it by warm water fomentations. When bandaging, allowance must also be made for subsequent swelling, as the circulation in the part may be seriously hindered if the bandage is too tight. The splints may be of wood, cardboard, stiff leather, sheepskin, or gutta percha ; there is often advantage in having them of some material that will become pliable when steeped in warm water, as then they can be made to fit better ; otherwise they are liable to cause bruises or ulceration. Various substances are employed to stiffen the bandages and support the splints, and keep them in place ; these substances are usually solution of gum, pitch, starch, or plaster of Paris. The pitch is melted and applied at a moderate heat ; it is smeared over the skin or the bandage, as is also the gum ; the starch is dissolved in laundry fashion, the bandage soaked in it, and then rolled round the limb. The plaster of Paris bandage is generally preferred, and is prepared by spreading the gypsum in a dry condition over the ex-tended bandage, rolling this up, and then steeping it in water. The limb having been enveloped in a dry cotton bandage, that with the plaster in it is put on evenly above it ; when it becomes dry it forms a rigid case, so that no splints are required. When pitch is employed, it may be spread on basil leather, and pieces of this having been stuck on the skin inside and outside the limb, a long splint is placed outside, and held there by a bandage or broad tape. The entire limb may be kept immovable by a bandage encircling it and the body.
Fractures of the other bones of the limbs are to be treated in a similar manner. Detached splinters of bone, if projecting through a wound, are to be removed by means of forceps, and the wound is itself to be dressed with chinosol. After a limb is set, there is often so muchirritation that the dog shows a disposition to tear off the bandages ; a muzzle should therefore be worn for some days. The splints and bandages should not be removed in less than a month. A dose of cathartic medicine is beneficial.
Dislocations—Dislocations readily take place in the limbs of dogs, especially if young, and are in some cases complicated with fracture. There should be no difficulty in discovering them, the lameness and distortion being significant, while the absence of crepitation distinguishes them from fractures. After reduction, which is effected by extension and judicious manipulation, the limb must be bandaged as in the case of fractures, and kept immovable for as long a time.
Diseases and Accidents to the Feet—Foot lameness in the dog is due to a variety of causes, and in order to discover these, a careful examination of the toes and pad is necessary. In addition to the lameness, the animal favours the limb in every way and frequently licks it.' There is also pain on manipulation. Thorns, pins, and other sharp foreign bodies are a frequent cause ; these should be sought for, removed, and the foot immersed in hot water or poulticed. When the foot is bruised or crushed, the same treatment will generally suffice. The pad is liable to over-wear from long travelling on hard, broken ground, and sometimes the pain is so great that the animal has difficulty in moving ; in some cases there may be actual inflammation and ulceration of the skin, with accompanying fever. This accident occurs more especially in sporting dogs which are not in condition when suddenly put to hard work ; they may also be due to frost-bite. When the feet are merely tender, resting them for a few days and bathing with milk and water, or solution of alum or sulphate of zinc, and wrapping them up in a piece of cloth, will set them right. In the more severe cases, fomentations with hot water and poultices will subdue the pain ; the poultices must be protected with a bandage or a laced boot made of cloth or soft leather, and the dog should wear a muzzle. In two or three days, astringent lotions—such as solution of alum or sulphate of zinc—may be applied. If an abscess forms, it must be opened and the resulting wound dressed with chinosol or iodoform. A long rest will be necessary to ensure recovery, and the dog may have to wear a boot for a considerable time afterwards. In such cases, a good but temporary protection to the skin is afforded by painting it with a solution of gutta percha. An eczematous condition of the skin between the toes is at times observed, redness, vesicles and moisture being the chief symptoms ; in these eases a similar eruption is generally noticed else-where. Powdering the inflamed skin with chinosol, oxide of zinc, or iodoform once or twice a day and keeping the feet dry, is the local treatment to be adopted, and it may be necessary to supplement this by the ad-ministration, morning and night, of a few drops (4 to to) of Fowler's solution of arsenic, given in milk or broth.
In mange the parasites sometimes burrow in the skin around the root of the toe nails, and cause much irritation, ulceration, and eventual loosening of the claws. This condition is usually troublesome to get rid of, and it may be needful to extract the claws before a radical cure can be effected. Chinosol ointment may be tried before this operation is adopted; it is certainly most useful after it. An ulcer is occasionally found beneath the claw, from which there is a slight discharge. This is caused by dirt, or the sand used on kennel floors, finding entrance between the skin and claw ; there is soreness and swelling around the horn. In many cases the claw must be extracted ; then the toe is poulticed for a day or two, and afterwards dressed with tincture of calendula or myrrh.
Over-grown Claws are more frequently seen in house than in sporting dogs, owing to their receiving insufficient exercise out of doors. The claw grows to such, a length that it curls backward and inward until it enters the pad, arid causes ulceration and intense pain. The claw must be shortened by wire nippers, pruning scissors, or a small triangular saw—though this last is not to he recommended. The foot is then to be poulticed, and the wound afterwards dressed for a few days with chinosol lotion, to be succeeded by solution of gotta percha.
Not infrequently parasites of different ]rinds—among them harvest mites—lodge between the toes, and cause the dog such great annoyance that he bites the skin severely. An examination will reveal the presence of these insects, and dressings with chinosol ointment will kill them.
Ticks—Sporting dogs are occasionally troubled with ticks on the surface of their body, which give rise to restlessness and local irritation. A good dressing with chinosol lotion or ointment will cause them to disappear, though they may also be removed by the fingers, or with scissors or forceps. Washing the dog in warm water to which a small quantity of chinosol or ammonia has been added will allay the irritation.
Burns and Scalds—These accidents are not very frequent with dogs. A very good application is the famous carron oil, which is a mixture of lime water and linseed oil in equal parts. Cotton wool is to be dipped in this and applied to the injured parts. A solution of picric acid—made by dissolving the acid in water until no more can be taken up—painted over the burnt place, which is then to be powdered with starch or wheat flour, is sometimes recommended, as is also bathing the part with a solution of baking soda, and afterwards dusting it with chalk, flour, starch, or kaolin.
Diseases of the Skin—These are comparatively few, but two or three of them are rather common.
Eczema—This is a special form of inflammation of the skin, largely due to constitutional causes, and is extremely difficult to get rid of in the great majority of cases. The skin is inflamed, more or less destitute of hair, and has a crop of vesicles on its surface or a moist discharge on its surface. Only a small portion may be affected, or the greater part of the body may be involved. There is not much itching. When local, if the disease is only slight, oxide of zinc powder may be dusted on the part, or kaolin if it is very moist ; should the surface be raw, chrysophanic ointment ought to be applied once or twice a day, the kaolin or zinc powder being put on afterwards. When the disease is very extensive there is a tendency to rub the skin, and the dog should there-fore wear a muzzle, or a broad collar round his neck. External treatment must be supplemented by internal medication. Fowler's solution of arsenic is usually pre-scribed in doses of from three to twenty drops twice daily ; the smaller quantity is given at the commencement, the dose being gradually increased up to the maximum, but for small dogs this should not exceed ten or twelve drops; it may be given in the food. As there is generally some debility, this medicament is often combined with tonics, and the following is a good formula :
Citrate of iron 2 drachms Acetate of potash 3 drachms Fowler's solution of arsenic 1 1/2 drachms Infusion of calumba 8 ounces.
One teaspoonful increasing up to one tablespoonful is to be given twice a day. This mixture should be continued for a considerable period—several months—though it is recommended that an interval of a week should be allowed between each quantity. It may also be necessary to give cod liver oil or malt extract. The food should be chiefly meat, and the dog ought to have abundant exercise.
Mange—There are two forms of this disease in the dog, in one of which the insect lives on or in the surface of the skin (Sarcoptic scabies), and is easily destroyed. The parasite multiplies rapidly and soon spreads over the body, causing great irritation and congestion of the skin, with continuous itching. Consequently the dog is always scratching and biting itself; making the skin sore ; while the parasite, burrowing into the substance of this, causes the formation of vesicles or pustules, which break, discharge, and form small scabs. Various remedies havebeen prescribed, but chinosol ointment I have found as good as any. Some of the others areas follows : balsam of Peru, one part dissolved in alcohol four parts; or sub-limed sulphur and whale oil, of each sixteen parts, well mixed with one part each of mercurial ointment and oil of tar; or one ounce each of oil of tar and sulphur well mixed in a pint of common oil ; or lime and sulphur eight ounces, water three and a half pints, to be boiled until there is only one quart left ; or oil of tar, powdered sulphur, powdered oxide of zinc, of each one drachm, glycerine two drachms, lanolin one and a half ounces. Whatever application is selected, it is advisable first to wash the dog thoroughly with soft soap and warm water ; if the coat is long, it must be removed, and the dressing should be applied at least once again in two or three days, when the skin may be again washed. As the dog, in scratching itself, is likely to carry some of the parasites to the root of its claws, particular care should be observed in washing and dressing the toes, as well as every part of the skin elsewhere. The affected dog should be kept isolated from all others, and everything with which it has been in contact must be destroyed or thoroughly cleansed. It may be necessary to attend to the general health by giving tonic and laxative medicine, as well as good food and shelter.
The other form of the disease is known as "follicular mange," because the peculiar parasite that causes it is lodged deeply in the hair follicles of the skin ; and there-fore, though it is less contagious than sarcoptic mange, it is far more intractable to deal with. It usually commences in patches about the head, but soon extends to the body, and is most noticeable about the loins, sides, belly, and legs, to which it gives a very disagreeable appearance, as there is much suppuration, as well as a foul odour. At first the hair falls off in patches, upon which red spots appear ; from these comes serum, then pus and blood, which form scabs, among which are cracks and other sores. The dog soon becomes unwell and appears to suffer considerably, though the itching is not so intense as in the other form, so that the animal, instead of scratching, rather shakes himself ; but this may be from the pain, as he objects to have the affected parts handled, whereas, in sarcoptic mange, pleasure is manifested when the skin is rubbed. After a time, emaciation and debility are very marked, and the dog becomes such a loathsome object that he is usually destroyed before he succumbs to the effects of the malady. Treatment has often been unsuccessful, but this was probably because it has not been properly conducted, or was adopted when the disease was too far advanced. The hair should be removed as close to the skin as possible, and the treatment adopted may follow that recommended for ordinary mange. A solution of chinosol (1 to 100 or 150 of water) has proved effective. Another dressing is creosote and liquor potassae of half an ounce each, barley water eight ounces. Both of these dressings should be applied frequently, after the skin has been well cleaned by scrubbing with soda and hot water. Another dressing is olive oil fourteen parts, well shaken up with one part of creosote, and two parts of strong liquor potassae added ; this is to be applied every third or fourth day to all the affected parts, the dog having been washed a few hours before each dressing. As a rule the treatment has to be continued for a considerable period, during which the dog's strength must be maintained by good food, to which small doses of sulphur should be occasionally added. For bedding, red-pine shavings should he employed, in preference to anything else, and they ought to be renewed at least twice a week, the soiled shavings being burned. Pre-cautions should be taken against the disease extending to other dogs.
Lice, fleas, and other vermin of this kind, are got rid of by cleanliness of surroundings, washing the animals with soap and warm water, and dressing the skin with any of the simpler mange applications, especially chinosol solution.
Ringworm in two forms affects the dog, though rarely; both are due to a vegetable parasite. The ordinary form presents itself in circular and always increasing patches of baldness, in which are seen broken hairs and greyish scales or crusts. There is not much irritation of the skin, though the patches are reddened, and the dog does not appear to be seriously inconvenienced. Washing with soap and water, and painting over the places with tincture of iodine, or dressing with chinosol ointment or lotion, will readily effect a cure. The other form, known as "honeycomb ringworm," has yellow crusts of a cup shape, which join each other to constitute comparatively large masses possessing a peculiar smell. These crusts usually show themselves first on or about the head. In treating the disease, all the hair and crusts must be got rid of, the skin thoroughly washed, and dressed with one of the mange applications, glacial acetic acid, or solution of corrosive sublimate.
Canker of the Ear—The skin lining the ear is not infrequently the seat of inflammation or ulceration, accompanied by a foul-smelling discharge ; there is generally much pain and irritation, as the dog usually carries the head to one side, is constantly shaking it, and shows great dread and agony when the ear is handled. Sometimes there is bleeding from the ear, and when treatment is long deferred large granulations (proud flesh) spring up and obliterate the passage leading to the internal ear; deafness is the consequence. This is commonly known as internal canker, and is most frequently witnessed in long-eared dogs, and especially in those which are liable to be wet—such as water dogs; though it is sometimes seen in over-fed dogs which do not get sufficient exercise, and particularly if their ears are allowed to become very dirty, or if soapy water is allowed to remain in them. For the earlier stage, washing out the ears and thoroughly drying them, then dressing with chinosol lotion, or with one made by adding ten grains sulphate of zinc to an ounce of water, or two drachms liquid acetate of lead to eight ounces of water, are very serviceable. When there is much discharge and ulceration, chinosol or iodoform powder should be dusted into the ear after using the lotion. Calamine ointment makes a good dressing. It is most essential, in endeavouring to effect a cure, to prevent the dog flapping the ears, and this may he best secured by causing the animal to wear a cap fastened round the head. I have always preferred a fine net, such as ladies wear their hair in, as it keeps the ears confined without heating them.
External canker is merely an injury to the outside of the ear or a slight eruption that soon becomes ulceration ; it-is usually towards the tip of the ear, and is most frequent in long-eared dogs. Either of the above lotions, or a weak solution of corrosive sublimate, should be applied frequently and the head-net worn. Sometimes a soft painful swelling appears suddenly inside the ears of certain dogs, and the pain causes them to keep continually shaking the head, which makes the swelling still larger. It is produced by injury, and the tumour contains blood, a portion of which may be in the form of a clot. An opening or long slit should be made in the lowest or most de-pendent part, so that all the contents will drain away, and, to keep the wound open, the edges may be touched with caustic, or a piece of lint inserted for a short time. The interior should be dressed with chinosol lotion, and the dog made to wear the head-net until the part is healed.
Distemper—The most serious, as it is the most common disease to which dogs are exposed, is that known as "distemper," which, attacking all varieties, is most fatal to well-bred, delicate dogs, and especially to puppies. It is a most infectious and contagious fever, being due to a microbe, and can be communicated not only by actual contact of healthy with diseased dogs, but by means of almost every conceivable medium—even through the air for a certain distance. It is maintained and spread solely by the microbe, and cannot be spontaneously developed ; though bad or improper food and insanitary conditions may favour its reception and extension. Some personsbelieve that every dog should have it, and dogs are often exposed to the contagion purposely, in order that they may acquire it and so have done with it. This is a great mistake, as there is no necessity whatever for a dog to have such a dangerous and damaging disease; on the contrary, everything should be done to avert it. There is no doubt, however, that if a dog gets the disease and recovers, he generally enjoys immunity from another attack, as is the case in several other specific fevers; but this rule does not always hold good, for I have known of dogs being infected twice. The malady would appear to be special to the canine species, as I am not aware of its having been conveyed to any others. It is such a serious disease, and is so often fatal or followed by grave sequele, as well as accompanied in many cases with troublesome complications, that on an outbreak the advice of an ex-pert should be obtained. The symptoms are generally those of catarrh ; in from one to two weeks after exposure to infection, there is discharge from the nose and eyes, which are inflamed; shivering, sneezing, and cough ; fever, listlessness, and depression, with the loss of appetite and much thirst—sometimes there is vomiting. The animal seeks warmth, and does not care to move. There is a tendency to constipation, though in young dogs there is often diarrhoea, the faeces being streaked with blood. The loss of condition is rapid, and extreme debility soon becomes manifest, especially if diarrhoea with ulceration of the bowels sets in. The nervous system only too frequently participates in the disorder, and this is shown by the occurrence of epileptic fits and convulsions or paralysis. In the course of the disease, in very many cases, the front of the eye (cornea) undergoes ulceration. There is often a pustular skin eruption. The complications are bronchitis, pneumonia, or liver disorder. The disease runs its course in two or three weeks, and little can be done to shorten this period ; the chief thing to be observed is to nurse and maintain the strength of the patient most carefully. Cleanliness must be attended to, and at the same time the dog must be kept warm and comfortable; the diet should be meat broth or beef tea, egg, or finely chopped raw meat, and if it is not taken voluntarily, the animal must be fed with it. Small quantities of brandy must be given at short intervals ; or three to five grain doses of quinine in a tablespoonful of port wine. The nose and eyes are to be kept clean by gently sponging them with warm water and milk ; for the eyes, two or three drops of a lotion of sulphate of zinc may be dropped into them after cleaning them.
When recovery is taking place, from twenty to forty drops of tincture of gentian may be given three or four times a day.
But, as may be readily understood, prevention of distemper is all-important, and it is to be remembered that it is one of those scourges which can be completely extirpated by preventive measures. These are : keeping the diseased, or those which have been in contact with them, rigidly isolated until all danger of communicating the infection has passed away ; disinfecting or destroying everything which has been in actual contact with or in proximity to the diseased, and not allowing people who have been with them to go near healthy dogs. The greatest cleanliness possible should be strictly observed. As dog shows are largely instrumental in extending the malady, every care should be taken to prevent infected dogs gaining admission to these, and sanitary measures likely to be efficacious in averting infection ought to be scrupulously adopted.
Rheumatism is not infrequent among dogs, especially sporting ones, and is due to exposure to cold and damp, particularly in their dwellings. It is most prevalent during the winter and spring. It may be acute or chronic—most frequently the latter, and though the joints may be involved, it is generally the muscles which are the seat of inflammation.
In the acute form there are all the signs of fever, with those of pain in the affected part. Should this be in the loins, constituting "lumbago," there is stiffness in the hind extremities, and often the animal walks as it partially paralysed, though he is averse from movement ; the back is arched, and so painful on manipulation that the creature whines or screams ; while the abdomen feels hot and is tender on pressure. Constipation is a constant symptom. When the muscles of the shoulders are affected—" kennel lameness " or " chest founder "—the pain is as great on movement or in handling, while the lameness is of course limited to the fore limbs. When the joints are affected, they are swollen, painful, and hot. In chronic rheumatism there is no fever, but the joints are enlarged and make a clicking sound on movement ; the animal is stiff, and often whines and howls, especially at night.
Dogs affected with rheumatism should he kept dry, warm, and comfortable. In acute rheumatism a dose of purgative medicine must be administered, and the bowels afterwards kept rather relaxed. Warm water fomentations of the affected part, and, after well drying it, rubbing in a liniment made up of equal parts of belladonna, camphor, and capsicum liniments, or the acetic acid liniment pre-scribed for rheumatism in the horse, night and morning, will allay the pain and stiffness. When the fever runs high, the following mixture has been recommended in doses of a teaspoonful to a tablespoonful, according to the size of the dog, every six hours : salicylate of soda four drachms, tincture of colchicum three drachms, acetate of potass two drachms, bicarbonate of soda one drachm, water six ounces. In chronic rheumatism the above liniments may be employed, and in the food may be given from three to eight drops of Fowler's solution of arsenic daily for one or two weeks at a time. Careful attention must be paid to the diet.
Catarrh—This differs from distemper in being non-infectious, unaccompanied by prostration and high fever, and usually in rapid recovery under suitable treatment. There is sneezing, a watery discharge from the eyes and nose, with dulness, and perhaps slight cough. The body should be kept comfortable and dry ; the food nourishing, and small doses of any, stimulant—such as brandy or whisky, a tea- to a table-spoonful—two or three times a day.
Sore Throat. Laryngitis—These disorders are sometimes noted in dogs, and are denoted by a hard or soft cough, which is very persistent; difficulty in swallowing, with extended head, and pain on manipulation of the throat. When acute, there is generally some fever. The animal should be kept warm in a moist atmosphere, the throat fomented with warm water, or rubbed with camphorated or other stimulating liniment, and covered with cotton wool and flannel. As swallowing is difficult, an electuary, composed of one drachm of chlorate of potass rubbed up in an ounce of honey, a little of which is to be placed frequently on the tongue, is useful in allaying the irritation.
Bronchitis—This may be the result of neglected catarrh, a complication of distemper, or it may occur independently of other diseases. It is sometimes caused by parasites. If acute, there is frequent cough, which may be dry or moist; fever, loss of appetite, attempts as if to vomit, rattling in the throat, quickened breathing, pulse increased in frequency, and debility. The dog should be kept warm in an equable temperature, with plenty of fresh air ; the food must be good and easily digested, with small doses of stimulants frequently. Warm linseed-meal poultices should also be applied to the chest, and the vapour of hot water, to which a small quantity of eucalyptus oil has been added, inhaled. Doses of laxative medicine should be given at intervals.
Chronic Bronchitis is often seen in old dogs, and especially those which have been over-fed and under-exercised. It much resembles asthma in man, and is generally accompanied or preceded by indigestion. The chief symptom is a harassing cough, that comes on in paroxysms, and the breathlessness is so distressing that the animal looks as if about to succumb. However, after coughing for some time, a frothy mucus is expectorated and relief follows. Exertion develops these attacks.
Little can be done in the way o cure, except in diet, which should be given in small quantities and frequently, and laxative medicine occasionally. Tonics, in the form of arsenious acid and quinine, are sometimes advantageous.
Inflammation of the Lungs—This is very often a sequel or accompaniment of bronchitis, and demands similar treatment ; but as it is a very serious disease, and demands special skill in order to bring about restoration to health, a veterinary surgeon should be called in to undertake this task. The same may be said with regard to pleurisy, which nearly always complicates pneumonia.
Jaundice is sometimes a complication of other disorders, but in all cases the liver is disordered in its functions, or may itself be the seat of disease. The skin and eyes and mouth are tinged yellow, as is the urine ; there are signs of sickness, and constipation is noted. After a time there is wasting and general unhealthiness ; the right side of the body and the belly are enlarged, and the breathing becomes affected. If the liver itself is diseased, a warm linseed meal poultice may be applied over it. A half grain opium and calomel pill should be given, together with a dose of castor oil, to be followed by dilute nitro-hydrochloric acid in ten to fifteen drop doses every three or four hours. The diet should be light, and plenty of exercise is often beneficial.
Rabies—Until this formidable disease is finally eradicated, every one possessing dogs should know its early symptoms, so as to be on their guard against it. Usually the earliest signs are changes in manner and habit. The dog is ill-tempered and aggressive, particularly towards other dogs ; he seeks retirement, or wanders away from home ; his appetite is depraved, and he has a tendency to gnaw wood-work and swallow all kinds of foreign matter; he snaps at imaginary objects, and there is a peculiar alteration in his voice when he barks or howls ; he has no dread of water, though he may be unable to swallow it ; at a certain stage of the disease, in some cases, the muscles of the lower jaw become paralysed and the mouth remains open, while the eyes appear to squint; saliva often dribbles from the mouth; the gait is slouching. In countries in which the disease exists, and especially when it is prevalent, any change in the usual habits or manners of the dog as above described, should at once excite suspicion, and cause the animal to be at least carefully secured until his condition can be assuredly determined.
Worms—Dogs are perhaps more infested with worms than any other of the domestic animals, a circumstance due to their habits. The bowel worms are of two kinds —tape and round worms. The tape worms are flat, as their name implies, and they are in segments or joints, each of which can have an independent existence and propagate, as it contains male and female generative organs ; these segments are cast off at a certain stage of development, and expelled from the body of the dog, to be taken up by some other creature and become a parasite in it. There are several kinds of tape worm, but their description would be of little value to the amateur. They are all more or less injurious to the animal infested with them, and though in all cases the signs of injury may not be equally apparent, yet it is desirable in every instance of such infestation to destroy these parasites as soon as they are detected. They, in the majority of cases, cause general unthriftiness, depraved appetite, bowel derangement, indigestion, convulsions, and in young dogs they retard growth. Perhaps the best remedy for all tapeworms is areca nut in doses of from half a drachm to two drachms, according to the size of the dog. Or half a drachm of this powder and the same -quantity of liquid extract of male fern in combination, mixed in an ounce of milk, makes an effective dose. After this has been given, a dose of purgative medicine—castor oil is safe and convenient—should be administered. The fluid male fern can be given alone, and it is to be had in capsules, which are convenient for administration. Oil of turpentine, in doses of from one to three drachms mixed with three or four times the quantity of oil or milk, is a handy and prompt remedy.
Round worms are not so injurious as tapeworms, but they often cause flinch annoyance; in puppies they frequently give rise to convulsions and death. Santo-nine, in doses of from two to ten grains, mixed up in a full dose of castor oil, generally causes their expulsion. The oil of turpentine, as above, is also useful in this direction. Tonic medicine—the best of which is, perhaps, powdered sulphate of iron in two to four grain doses given in milk twice a day for four or five days—should be given afterwards.
Poisoning—Dogs are frequently poisoned accidentally or maliciously, and if remedies are at hand, death may be averted.
Strychnine is frequently the poison from which they suffer, and if the dose has been large, death from general convulsions, in the form of intense cramp, is not long delayed. If sulphate of zinc is at hand, a dose of from ten to thirty grains may be given as an emetic in a wine-glassful of water if the poison has been quite recently swallowed. When the spasms have set in, the dog should be kept partially under the influence of chloroform, which is administered by inhalation, a small quantity at a time being placed on cotton wool, which is held close to the dog's nose ; the dog is placed on his chest and held in that position. The treatment must be continued until the spasms have subsided ; then extract of belladonna—eight to ten grains in solution—can be administered by the mouth. Hydrocyanic acid, in minute doses—ten drops in water—may be given occasionally.
Apomorphin administered hypodermically, in one-eighth of a grain dose, has also been given to induce immediate vomiting, followed by the inhalation of half a drachm of nitrate of amyl at short intervals ; this was succeeded by two draughts of chloral hydrate in solution, ten grains in each draught, an hour elapsing before each dose. Recovery has resulted from this treatment.
Carbolic acid is sometimes a cause of poisoning, either when absorbed through the skin or taken in by the mouth. It produces great depression, heart failure, and convulsions. Its presence is indicated by its odour. Stimulants and douching with cold water until the convulsions cease, have been recommended.
Arsenic, antimony, corrosive sublimate, and other mineral poisons, are sometimes taken by or given to dogs, and if the quantity is sufficiently large they induce severe vomiting, diarrhoea, and inflammation of the bowels, with blood-tinged faeces. Until the nature of the poison can be ascertained a suitable antidote cannot be given ; but, in the meantime, some relief may be afforded by giving the poisoned animals plenty of milk or white of egg, or both combined. An emetic of sulphate of zinc may be given immediately after the poison is taken, if that opportunity be afforded. For arsenic the best antidote is freshly prepared peroxide of iron. For antimony, strong boiled tea infusion has been recommended, the dose being a small cupful.