( Originally Published 1881 )
A DELIGHTFUL impression is made upon the stranger, who, on a bright June day, enters the picturesque and charming city of Stockholm. Built partly upon eight islands, connected by bridges, in the short river which forms the outlet of Lake Millar, it possesses romantic features unlike those of any other capital.
The massive palace, the open squares, the museums, gardens, libraries, scientific institutions, schools, churches, statues, and bridges; its splendid quays, which form the finest feature of the city, and at which vessels are continually loading and unloading , the numerous miniature steamboats, which fill the office of omnibuses, carrying passengers to and fro, either from one island to another or to the mainland and the abundant evidences of good government and prosperity, all combine to make it one of the most attractive of European cities.
The lake is about seventy-five miles long, and studded with islands, over fourteen hundred in number, and its deep and indented shores are lined with towns, villages, hamlets, churches, ruins, chateaux, old castles, modern villas, farms, and meadows, alternating with huge masses of rock, wild and silent forests, and limpid rivers ; while its waters are ploughed hi steamers and sailing-vessels on their way to or from the sea. The Baltic winds its way through a clustering archipelago and a charming fjord marked by the characteristic features of Swedish scenery. The city covers a great deal of ground, on account of its squares, parks, wide quays, and water, the latter running swiftly between the islands. Many of the streets are narrow, without sidewalks, paved with cobble-stones, and badly drained, with gutters in the middle or at the sides in place of sewers; yet the town is clean. Most of the houses are high and stuccoed, not unlike those of old Paris; but some quarters are adorned by handsome residences. The sidewalks are so narrow, even in some of the leading thorough-fares, that the custom is to take the left, and if by chance on the wrong side of the street, to yield the right of way. The oldest quarter is built on the island of Stadsholmen,* where the royal palace towers far above the surrounding houses. This is an extensive and noble structure, containing a large library, many objects of curiosity, and a fine picture-gallery ; but in its neighborhood are found some of the ugliest and narrowest streets of Stockholm: there are very few handsome private city residences. The people rarely spend more than from a sixth to a tenth of their income for rent, and only a small number occupy houses of their own ; the majority live in apartments, as on the Continent, and only in the better houses is a concierge employed. As there are no names on the front-door to indicate the flat where the people reside, the stranger is often puzzled in the attempt to find the person upon whom he desires to call. The opera-house has a very fine orchestra that would do credit to London or Paris, Berlin or Vienna. The several theatres and other places of amusement are sometimes closed in summer. There are also several summer-gardens or parks; and to stroll in them, list ening to the music and looking at the crowd, is an unfailing source of pleasure.
Kungstradgarden is a very fine square, with large trees, and many varieties of flowers, and adorned by a beautiful fountain and bronze statues of Charles XII. and XIII. Berzelius Park is a charming spot, having a life-size statue of the great chemist in whose honor it is named. Strümparterren, ornamented with flowers and trees, is delightfully situated at the foot of the Norrbro Bridge, the stream running swiftly on either side.
The eight islands upon which the city is built are called Kungsholmen, Raid darholmen Helgeandsholmen, Stadsholmen, Skeppsholuieu, Kaetellliolmen, Stromsborg,and Djurgârden.
No stranger should fail to visit the hill called Mosebacke, the summit of which commands the finest view of the city and its surroundings.
There are several large hotels, with well furnished and comfortable rooms, and their charges are moderate. The most modern, the Grand Hotel, is not situated so pleasantly as the Rydberg, but is the only one that had an elevator and baths. Private houses rarely contain bath-rooms, and, as in most cities of Europe, people have to go to the public establishments for their ablutions, and the old-fashioned way of carrying water up was prevalent till lately.
As the stranger wanders through the streets, he notices numerous signs, upon which are written, "Rum for resande," which excites the astonishment of an American or English-man unacquainted with the language, who take these places to be rum shops; but they only announce "Rooms for travellers." The Swedes who come to the city on economical principles generally lodge in them.
The contrast of the business communities of Goteborg and Stockholm is very striking ; in the former the merchants at-tend strictly to their affairs during office hours, but in the latter the shopkeepers are often not found at their establishment during these hours; and many of them pass much time daily at the cafés.
Numbers of stores are kept by women, who manage their business exceedingly well, and are examples of thrift, supporting themselves and their families; in other cases the wives and daughters are helpmates to their husbands or fathers: in a word. unless wealthy, every member of a family helps in its support.
I was surprised at the neatness of the apartments of the humbler class of shopkeepers and other people; all tried to keep up appearances, and' generally had some refreshment to offer, in the shape of a cup of coffee or glass of wine, to friends and visitors.
In Swedish or Norwegian, Herr corresponds to our word Sir, or Mr. ; Fr'', to Mrs., Madam, wife.
Young ladies of education are addressed as Froken ; formerly the term was applied only to daughters of noblemen.
There are three titles of nobility in Sweden : Grefve, earl,
being the highest; Grefvinna; countess; Friherre, baron; Friherrinna, baroness—the words baron and baroness are also used. The last grade of nobility has no title, and is addressed as Valborne Herr, or Fru.
In writing to an earl or countess, one should address-Hogvalborne Herr, or Hogvalborna Fru, with the name following: high—well-born, Herr Grefve, or Fru Grefvinna; and the same to the Friherre or Friherrinna. `
To other persons the title should always be prefixed, as Herr Doctor, Herr Professor, or that of any other civil or military grade. All the sons, as everywhere on the Continent, inherit the title of nobility of their father; and if the daughters of noblemen marry untitled gentlemen, they may add the title of their father to the name they assume. Strange to say, the word Marnsell, a corruption of the French Mademoiselle, and Madame, are used in addressing the people of the humbler class of society.
Jungfru is spoken to farmers' daughters and servant-girls. Flicka is the general word for girl ; tjenst flicka, servant-maid; drang, man-servant.
People of education address each other in the interrogative form, as, Will Herr A - go with us ? Does not Herr B think that it is very stormy?
The personal forai ni (you) is now getting more used.
Du ,(thou) is used among friends. When two gentlemen wish to use this term towards each other, they say, Skola vi lagga bort titlarna? (Shall we lay by our titles?) They stand with a glass of wine and say, "Skal brother," and empty the glass to the bottom, after which they say "thanks."
There is a tone among the ladies of Stockholm and Sweden which is perfectly charming. Not only are young ladies of title and wealth thoroughly educated, but they are also taught to cultivate simplicity of manner and dress, which is shown by them in after-life, and which gives them a most agreeable air of modesty and refinement. They wear but little jewellery, no matter what their station may be, and that of the simplest kind. Silk dresses are very seldom worn by them, and even then generally not before they come out in society.
The wearing of decorations is a little piece of vanity which is a prominent weakness among the Swedes, and, in fact, among all the nations in Europe except England. Military men are exceedingly fond of wearing their uniforms on all occasions. To an Englishman or an American, the first impression is that the country is under a despotic government; that the civil is, if not in name, in fact subordinate to the military power ; fortunately the land is not groaning under such a curse. Freedom of speech and of the press are untrammelled; the repeal or modification of any laws can be freely discussed, and they are so framed that the liberties of a citizen cannot be at the mercy of the king or any arbitrary power; there is no secret police except that required for malefactors. There is no freer people in Europe than the Scandinavians; no passports are required from any one, either coming to or going from the country.
The better class of people of the cities were in mourning, as a mark of respect to the deceased queen. This dress for ladies was black, with white collar and cuffs, and white ruche in front ; a white apron or short skirt is also worn, and the gloves must be black. Almost every gentleman had a black band on his hat, and black gloves and necktie, and many were in full mourning costume.
One of the most striking of the peculiarities of the city is the air of cheerfulness and contentment which marks the manners of its people. In the streets, acquaintances are continually saluting each other—gentlemen taking off their hats and making most graceful bows, their heads remaining uncovered while talking even to the humblest women.
Extreme politeness and amiability are national characteristics, and belong equally to all classes—the poor saluting the rich, and the rich the poor. Refinement of manner is seen even in the servant-maids: these are treated with consideration, and there exists a friendly feeling between them and their masters.
I was surprised, while meeting ladies of my acquaintance, not to receive the courtesy of recognition .from them ; but I learned that it was the invariable custom -for a gentleman to bow first, and I had been apparently rude without being aware of it.
The Swedes are very strict in the observance of etiquette ; the calls of a stranger are invariably returned the following day. As a nation they are the most polite people in Europe they are not very demonstrative, but will often go a great deal out of their way to render a stranger a service.
The sociability of all classes is characteristic. Whole families and parties of friends are seen dining together at the restaurants in the suburbs of the city, or groups of pleasure-seekers amusing themselves in the parks. Merchants invite their acquaintances to spend the day at their picturesque and un-pretending villas, which overlook the waters of the lake or fjord ; and these are often the scene of simple and unostentatious merriment.
When a large company is invited to a dinner, the guests eat, either standing, or with their particular friends seat themselves at little tables in a cosy corner in some of the parlors, or on the piazzas. The hostess and her daughters do the honors with charming grace and simplicity, serving one, or urging another to come to the table, or to take something more. There is generally a little speech-making—the health of one or more of the company being proposed by the host. These dinners have the advantage of being comparatively informal.
It is the custom, at the end of a repast, for the honored guest, or for the person who stands highest in the social scale, to bow and propose the health of the host and hostess in a few words.
There is hardly any Swede, who has any claim to education, that does not speak at least one, and generally two foreign languages; and, if with time he has forgotten to speak them fluently, he can usually read and often write them. After the Russians, they are the best linguists in Europe.
Though the official correspondence is in French, and more persons in the higher circles speak that language better than others, I noticed that, among the rising generation, German and English were more studied.
Summer is the best season to visit the city. The month of June—especially the last two weeks—is the pleasantest time of the year, as many of the people have not yet gone into the country, and the inhabitants then make the most of the fine weather. Rich and poor pass their leisure hours in the open air, and in the afternoons and evenings the pleasure gardens and parks are thronged ; good bands of music play; and, while the strolling citizen or stranger listens, he may sit at little tables, where beer, coffee, soda-water, Swedish punch, and other refreshments are served. Whole families-father, mother, children, uncles, aunts, cousins, or friends-spend many of their evenings there. Every one is neatly dressed ; there is no roughness, and no vulgarity.
The breaking of the long winter opens the ice-blockade to the North ; and at first the docks are lively with the loading and unloading of vessels bound for the ports of the Baltic, the Gulf of Bothnia, St. Petersburg, Norway; Germany, England, and France. The navigation of the canals and lakes is resumed on the return of warm weather, and steamers leave daily for the towns on the southern and northern coasts, giving the tourist opportunity to go whither he likes.
The longest days in the south of Sweden have then come. The sun rises in Stockholm, from the 17th to the 21st of June, at 2.45 A.M., and sets on the first day at 9.16 P.M., and on the others at 9.17. For a number of days there is no darkness, and twilight for only about three hours. Then the days shorten one minute in the morning and one in the evening, till the end of July, on the last day of which the sun rises at 3.44, and sets at 8.27. In August the days shorten more rap-idly, and on the 31st the sun rises at 4.55 and sets at 7.4; on the 30th of September it rises at 6.3, and sets at 5.35.
The absence of night seems at first very strange. The quays where steamers lie are alive with business; vessels are loading and unloading; a large number of stevedores are putting the cargo on board of the boats. At 1 A.M. there is a sensible diminution in the number of promenaders on the streets; and by two o'clock only a few stragglers are to be seen. All the inhabitants are then fast asleep; the window-blinds are closed, and the shades and curtains carefully drawn down in order to exclude the light ; the town is silent. Now and then one can hear the voice of the watchmen from the churches crying the hour of the night—an old custom still prevalent ; policemen can be seen walking to and fro on their beats ; and the footsteps of a few soldiers going to relieve guard, re-sound strangely through the streets. On the quays, the custom-house officers are watching to see that no one defrauds the revenue, and there alone are signs of life visible the whole of the night.
The city has a population of 174,000, is in latitude 59° 21', and lies opposite the long, broad, fjord-like arm of the Baltic called Finskaviken (Finn Bay), which leads to St. Petersburg; and although situated thirty-five miles farther south than the capital of Russia, its climate is three or four degrees cooler in summer, and in winter six or eight degrees warmer. This difference is caused in summer by the winds blowing over the Baltic and Lake Malar, and in winter by the exposure of St.
Petersburg to the cold blasts from the land. It is very seldom that the thermometer in Stockholm rises above 88°, or in the coldest weather falls to 25° below zero. The warmest months are July and August, the average-temperature varying from 62° to 66°. The mean temperature of the year averages fro -41 to 43
The suburbs of the city constitute its great charm. Days may be spent in exploring the neighborhood by water and by land, the Iandscape being thoroughly Swedish and sylvan in character; on the shores of the fjords, bays, and islands are seen rocks alternating with clusters of oak, linden, elm, ash, poplar, alder, birch, fir, pine, and other trees, and every little spot of open land under cultivation. Small but fast iron steamers plough their way in every direction, taking people to or from their homes, or landing the pleasure-seekers or lovers of nature at some favorite spot of their selection.
The most beautiful of the parks is the Djurgarden (Deer Park) ; there is nothing equal to it in Europe. It occupies an island about eighteen miles in circumference, and is adorned with villas, romantic drives, lovely walks, paths through glades, forests of magnificent trees, lakes, and masses of rock : some of the ancient oaks are superb. There are places of amuse ment, cafés, and restaurants, the most popular place of resort' being Hasselbacken, where great crowds dine every day. The park is easy of access from the city by small steamboats, which run at short intervals from Norrbro and other points, or by a short drive over a bridge, which lands you on its shores in a few minutes.
In this park is the small, charming, but unpretending palace of Rosendal, then the residence of the queen-dowager. This most delightful retreat is almost hidden from view by trees. Before this mansion stands a magnificent porphyry vase, made at the manufactory of Elfdal, in Dalecarlia. There are several other parks and palaces in the suburbs of the city.
Carlberg Park, with its grand linden, elm, and oak trees, is a favorite summer resort. The palace has been transformed into a military school.
Others are Marieberg, on the island of Kungsholmen, which has a high-school of artillery; Bellevy, almost opposite Raga, with magnificent trees ; the palace of the Ulriksdal, and its fine park. Drottningholm is the most imposing palace near the city, and is situated on the Lofon, one of the islands in the Malar. Svartsjô, Rosersberg,Rydboholm, and a sail down the fjord, and on the Malar, should not be missed. ,
What surprises the stranger is that at all the royal residences there are no fences or walls, soldiers or policemen. No one, ever thinks of plucking thé flowers ; visitors walk in .the grounds to the very doors and under the windows, even when the members of the royal family are at home—they are evidently not afraid of being shot at ; and if the family be absent, the public can visit any of the palaces, by simply asking one of the servants. There is so much freedom, and so few attend ants, that the plain and honest people, who do not understand etiquette, often make mistakes, and, entering the palaces, are surprised to find themselves face to face with royalty.
Villas and summer-residences are seen in every nook and corner of the rocky shores. The houses, with very few exceptions, are of wood, and kept carefully painted, surrounded of-ten by beds of bright flowers. Every such home has a landing-place, on which steamers can leave or take passengers, also a bathing and frequently a boat-house.
The only way of communication with many of these country places is by water. Little steamers have each their particular route, and go daily to and from the city, stopping at the different country-seats on their way. It was a source of never-failing pleasure, at my different visits to Stockholm, to make excursions on these boats. At every landing wives and children came to meet their husbands and fathers, and friends to greet friends, all appearing cheerful and happy, and welcoming each other as they returned from the city. Here was the mis-tress with her maid, returning from the market in Stockholm, with an enormous basket filled with provisions to last a week.
The land along the roads is under a high state of cultivation; and now and then you see a tobacco-field.
Sunday in Stockholm is observed by closing the stores and suspending business, and during church-time no places of refreshment are open ; but, as among other Protestant nations on the Continent of Europe, it is a day of recreation, when the toiler rests. After the morning service in the churches, the libraries and museums are thronged by the industrial classes, who have no other day for rest or intellectual improvement. The parks are crowded with the families of artisans and tradesmen—fathers and mothers taking part in the gambols of their children, and enjoying the summer days. These people are mostly of the working-class, or shopkeepers, who have no country-seats in which to spend their leisure hours, no watering-places to go to, nor money for luxuries, and who are glad when Sunday afternoon comes. After church in the morning, they go with their wives and children to breathe the pure and bracing air, which gives them new life before they return to the close factory rooms where they are employed for six days of the week. The refining influence of parks in every city has not, I think, been sufficiently appreciated; they do a great deal of good; many a man, instead of idling away the hours in drinking, would gladly go with his family to enjoy such innocent pleasure.
It is the height of selfishness for men who live in the country, or enjoy the comforts of life in the cities, or can absent themselves when they please for a holiday, to find fault with the working population because they go out on a Sunday to strengthen their body or improve their mind. I would like very much to put those who oppose such movements in the place of these poor people, and see how they would like a sojourn in a crowded and warm room in a tenement house, upon the walls of which the warm July sun shines all day.
The city is the centre of several large private and corporate banking establishments. The most important is the Riks banken, under the control of the Diet; then the Stockholm's Enskilda Bank—the latter founded in 1859. The managing director, Herr, to whom I am indebted for many acts of kindness, and whose friendship I appreciate highly, is acknowledged to be one of the ablest financiers of the country. He represents Stockholm in the Diet, as a member of the first chamber. His life has been as remarkable as that of any man in the New World. The son of a Lutheran bishop, as a boy he went before the mast, and sailed three years under the American flag. When a very young man, he had bought in New York Harper's " Family Library," which lie keeps care-fully, and showed me with great pride at one of his entertainments, remarking that he had bought it out of his hard savings. He is very much interested in American affairs, and in politics places himself among the Liberals and Reform Party. He was among the first, if not the first, in the three Scandinavian kingdoms who drew the public attention to the necessity of going over to a gold standard. As early as 1853, he tried also to further the adoption of the metric system of weights and measures. He also inaugurated the employment of females in a bank over which he is a director; and several ladies hold very responsible positions ; he thought that the field of occupation for women ought to be extended, and said that in many cases, by their education, they were not so subject to temptation as men.
The capital of Sweden is not only a city of pleasure and commerce, but also a great seat of learning and science. The museums, hospitals, scientific institutions, numerous schools, and the general spread of education have attracted to it a highly intellectual, refined, and delightful society, which contributes to make the city one of the pleasantest in Europe. Professors, doctors, rich merchants, persons engaged in every branch of art, science, and literature, men of leisure, and high officials, unite in themselves the finest qualities of the people, and are always ready to serve those who are drawn to the capital.
The Academy of Sciences is a large building of no architectural pretensions, but possesses a very fine library and an extensive collection, the mineralogical and geological part of which ranks among the finest in Europe, while the botanical and zoological specimens are also very valuable. Among the rare curiosities are numbers of aërolites of all sizes, one of which is the largest yet found; it was discovered by Professor Nordenskiold, whose explorations in the North have been so valuable to science, and weighs over forty-nine thousand pounds. In one of the rooms, where the regular meetings of the academy take place, now often presided over by the king, there are hung upon the walls the portraits of former academicians, some of whom have left imperishable names in the annals of science; among them are those of Linnaeus and Berzelius. The Carolin Institute has a library, chemical laboratory, and valuable collections ; the Technological Institute is another public building, which no stranger should fail to visit. The Landtbruks Akademien (Agricultural Academy) is an institution having a farm, where experiments in agriculture are made. The Seminarium, a college in which ladies are instructed in the higher branches of knowledge, is a splendid nursery from which to recruit the ranks of public and private teachers; the professors of the Academy of Sciences deliver regular courses of lectures in this institution and other schools; the Observatory, the schools, and the hospital are also worthy of careful inspection. The National Museum, a very fine building, contains a gallery of good paintings and statuary, and a valuable collection of coins, mostly found in Sweden, some of which are very rare ; also gold and other ornaments of great antiquity, and implements belonging to the stone, bronze, and iron ages. A very interesting part of the exhibition is the historical collection of old garments: there is a shirt which the great Gustavus Adolphus wore at the battle of Lutzen, the dark spots showing where the blood of the hero stained the garment ; also, the costume of Charles XII. and his felt hat, with a hole made by the bullet that killed him while all alone in the trenches making military observations before Fredrikshald ; and the domino worn by Gustavus III. when he was murdered; besides an interesting array of shields, helmets, and other warlike paraphernalia, each of which has its history.
There are numerous churches, but none of them have any architectural pretension. The most interesting is the Riddarholmen church, with an iron spire over three hundred feet in height. This church is dear to the Swedes, and is used only as a mausoleum : within its walls are buried some of Sweden's greatest heroes ; here is the tomb of Gustavus Adolphus, the hero of the Thirty-years' War, the champion of Protestant-ism. With what profound respect I stood before that tomb! Upon his sarcophagus are written the words "Moriens trumphavit;" by his side lie the remains of his queen, Maria Eleonora. This church also contains the tombs of Charles X. and Charles XI., and their consorts; of Charles XII.; and of several heroes of the above-named war. The floor is covered with slabs, under which lie the remains of many great men, whose names are world-wide, and have shed glory on Swedish history. The Riddarhus is interesting only on account of its historical association ; it was formerly the house where the nobles held their sessions as one of the four bodies constituting the Diet; it is adorned with a large number of shields, bearing the arms of Swedish nobles, many families of whom are now extinct.
At the opening or closing of the Swedish Diet the stranger will see in the audience all classes of people represented, from the simple servant-girl, with her handkerchief over her head, to the high-born and rich of the land. The king generally, unless prevented by sickness, opens and closes the Diet in person. This is done with much formality, accompanied by a mummery of olden time which makes the Swedes laugh. The sovereign is surrounded by the knights of the Order of Seraphim, founded long ago, dressed in what appeared to me most grotesque costumes.
The public schools are numerous, and education is compulsory. The number of children in Stockholm of school age (from seven to fourteen years), according to the census of 1870, was 16,843.
Number attending school every day 12,849
Of the whole number of 15,162 actual scholars, 5194 paid for their schooling, 2313 paid for part of it only, and 7655 paid nothing—this last class attending the people's school ( folkskolan) ; and the city paid for education 185,795.38 kronor, or 24.26 ore for each child. There were 208 male and female teachers, with an average of 38.8 children to each; the average age of the scholars was 10 years. Of the 7655 free pupils on the roll, 99.9 per cent. were instructed in Christianity, the Swedish language, arithmetic, and writing; 62.6 per cent. were taught, besides, history and geography; 57.6 per cent., natural history ; 52.7 per cent., drawing; 9 per cent., geometry ; 56 per cent., singing and gymnastics. Among the girls, 2180 were instructed in sewing, etc. The absentees from school at one time or another were only 9.6 per cent.: with sufficient reason, 3,2 per cent. ; without reason, of 1 per cent. ; on account of illness, 4 per cent. ; for poverty, 1 per cent. So, during the year, those who had missed school at one, time amounted to only 721 children. This speaks well for the people, and for the enforcement of the school-laws.
There is another class of schools, called Rôgre Elementarl(iroverk (High Elementary), in which the dead and foreign languages are taught, together with the advanced branches of science, and in which students are also prepared, if they desire, to enter the universities. A small sum is paid by them for instruction but if one be unable to pay, he is instructed gratuitously. Numerous gymnasium halls are attached to these schools for exercise.
The Slöjdskolan is an industrial free school, in which the students are instructed in the practical branches of mathematics; geometrical construction ; ornamental, spherical, linear, and free-hand drawing ; mechanical engineering; general architecture; engraving; modelling; painting; lithography; papier-maché work ; the Swedish, French, English, and German languages, and book-keeping ; the pupils are chiefly working men and women. This splendid school, which does so much credit to Stockholm, was attended in 1871 by 1765 pupils, 992 of whom were males and 773 females. Besides the evening classes, there are also day classes ; but these are only for females, who are each charged a fee of fifty ore per month. They receive special instruction in drawing, painting, modelling in clay and wax, Parian work, lithography, wood and cop per engraving, perspective art, calligraphy, japanning, paper-work, book-keeping, arithmetic, geometry, French, English, and German. These classes were attended by 791 pupils, making a grand total of 2556 scholars in this institution. It is a pleasure to walk through its numerous halls, and observe the humble but intelligent men and women, whose energies seem to be bent upon their own improvement. This school is open from the 1st of October to the 1st of May.
One of the most important institutions is the Kongliga Gymnastiska Central Institntet (Royal Gymnastic Central Institute), which ought to be introduced into every country. Its purpose is to develop gymnastics practically, and to educate medical students and instructors in calisthenics for all the schools, and to put under treatment the sick who require physical exercise; the cures effected under this training are often remarkable. Anatomy is also studied, in order to obtain a knowledge of the muscular system. The average number in attendance is about 1500, the majority being school children.
A free Academy of Fine Arts provides instruction in painting, sculpture, architecture, etc. A Royal Academy of Music gives free instruction in music and singing ; the number of its students being about 250, of whom one-half are females.
These statistics speak well for Stockholm and its inhabitants, and many of its institutions might be copied with advantage in other countries. No land is nearer its decadence than that which in its pride. refuses to accept the improvements and inventions of other countries because they are not its own, or which teaches its people from childhood that they stand fore-most, and that the world must follow their lead.