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Il Barbiere Di Siviglia

( Originally Published 1899 )

THE orchestra must be noticed throughout the work; it not only cleverly enlaces the themes, but it chatters and prattles with audacity, caprice, raillery, wit, and charm, sometimes with and sometimes about the characters. The overture originally belonged to Aureliano in Palmira (1814), and also did duty for Elisabetta regina d'Inghilterra (1815).

ACT I. — The curtain rises on a street in Seville with the cathedral in the distance and Dr. Bartolo's house, with a balcony, on the right.

Fiorello (bass), servant to Count Almaviva, with lantern in hand, ushers in a number of musicians, bidding them be quiet (Piano pianissimo).

Count Almaviva (tenor) enters, enveloped in a cloak. He asks Fiorello if the musicians are ready, and, when the latter have tuned their instruments, the Count sings a morning love-song beneath the balcony, Ecco eridente in ciello, a sentimental effusion, for which the strings (some-times pizzicato) and the guitar furnish accompaniments. There is no response. The Count asks Fiorello if he sees the lady, but the latter reminds him that day is advancing. Almaviva calls the musicians, gives a purse to Fiorello, for their reward, and dismisses them. They offer noisy thanks (Mille grazie, mio Signor). The Count and Fiorello call silence, fearing their behaviour will attract attention.

At last the turbulent creatures have departed. The Count walks about impatiently ; he will wait, for every morning she has come to breathe the fresh air from that window.

He sends Fiorello away to wait for him, and meditates on the power of love. Yes, this lady shall be his wife. At the sound of distant singing, he hides. A merry air is played by the orchestra and the singing is repeated. Presently Figaro (baritone), the Barber of Seville, comes tripping in with a guitar suspended from his neck. He sings his cavatina, Largo al factotum della citta. He is the factotum of the town, La, ran, la, la. Quick to the shop, for it is day. Ah, what a charming life, brimful of pleasure is that of a barber of quality (here the orchestra humorously agrees with him), Ah, bravo ! Figaro, bravo, bravissimo, bravo ! Certainly of all professions that of a barber is the best. Amongst his razors, combs, lancets, and scissors, he is always ready for customers. Sometimes, too, ladies and cavaliers want diplomatic service. Everybody wants him, matrons, maidens, old men, and gallants. " Where is my wig ? " " Quick, shave me ? " " I've such a headache ! " "Quick with this letter ! " "Everybody wants me ! Figaro, Figaro, Figaro ! For heaven's sake ! one at a time. I 'Il stand this clamour no longer ! Figaro here, Figaro there, Figaro high, Figaro low. I am the factotum of the town."

He boasts that his life is easy and full of amusement, that his pocket always has its doubloon, and that he aids everyone in Seville with her love-affairs. Now he really must go to the shop.

The Count stops him. They recognize each other. The Count bids Figaro be cautious ; he does not wish to be known here. However, he desires Figaro's services, for he saw on the Prado a lovely maiden with whom he fell in love. She is the daughter of a physician who has established himself in this house. For love of this beauty, he has left his home and family, and day and night he wanders near this balcony on the chance of seeing her.

Figaro laughs at the idea of Dr. Bartolo being the lady's father, but he encourages Almaviva to hope ; he is barber, botanist, surgeon, — everything in this house, and, as for the lady ! she is not the Doctor's daughter; she is his ward. Perhaps — But the balcony window opens.

Rosina (soprano) steps out, murmuring : " He has not come yet ! " She has a letter for the Count that she wants to drop. Dr. Bartolo (bass) her guardian, asks what she has in her hand.

"It is only a piece of music, an aria, called, Inutil Precauzione." The Count thinks her witty, Figaro says she's crafty ! Dr. Bartolo asks the meaning of it. It is from a new opera. Nonsense, there are no operas in these modern times. " Oh, how unlucky!" exclaims Rosina, " I have let it fall, will you please go and fetch it ? " As Dr. Bartolo leaves, she calls to Almaviva to make haste. The latter picks up the note, and when the old Doctor reaches the ground, it is gone. He is furious, and thinks Rosina has tricked him,—the cunning jade ! He orders her into the house, and declares that he will have that bal-cony walled up.

Rosina and Bartolo having disappeared, Figaro suggests that the Count read what is written. At the Count's request, Figaro opens the letter and reads :

" Your attentions have excited my curiosity; my guardian is going out; as soon as you see him leave, devise some ingenious plan to acquaint me with your name, circumstances, and intentions. I can never appear on the balcony without the attendance of my tyrant. Everything is arranged on my part for breaking my chains.

The unhappy ROSINA."

The Count promises himself the pleasure of breaking them.

Figaro informs Almaviva that Dr. Bartolo wishes to capture Rosina and all her future wealth. The door opens and Dr. Bartolo appears. He leaves instructions that no one but Don Basilio shall be admitted, and talks to himself as he passes across the street, saying he will hurry his marriage with Rosina ; in fact, he will conclude arrangements today.

This alarms Almaviva. He asks : " Who is Don Basilio ? " " An old hypocrite," Figaro replies. " An intriguing matchmaker; he teaches your lady music." The Count does not wish his name or rank known ; he would prefer to be loved for himself and not for wealth or title. Will Figaro aid him in winning her? " You can do this yourself," replies Figaro, " she is hiding behind the curtains. Sing a little ballad to her. Take my guitar ! " To the accompaniment of guitar and strings pizzicato, Se il mio nome, Lindoro sighs beneath the window; will the fair one confess a responsive flame of love ? Rosina answers in a very tender little phrase. Figaro tells him to go on. Lindoro can offer no treasure but a devoted heart ; he has neither riches nor honours to lay at her feet. Again Rosina replies : "If Rosina is so dear to him, why does not Lindoro ? " How vexatious ! Somebody evidently entered; Rosina has disappeared. The Count is most excited ; Figaro must help him enter that house. Figaro is somewhat indifferent. Ah ! the Count under-stands. Reward is offered, — any amount. Figaro is suddenly animated ; he feels great sympathy now with Signor Lindoro's cause and begins the famous duet, All' idea di quel metallo (Gold is the source of all invention). The Count wishes Figaro to devise a plan speedily. The Count must disguise himself as a soldier, a regiment is :arriving in Seville to-day. " Yes," Almaviva replies, "the Colonel is a friend of mine." By means of a billet, the Count can get a lodging at the Doctor's ; and in an ensemble of marvellously rapid phrases they applaud Figaro's sagacious invention. But Figaro has a still better idea. He must be a drunken soldier; Dr. Bartolo will not so soon distrust a man who is overcome with wine ; — here Figaro imitates the actions of an intoxicated person. This fresh suggestion is applauded in the same ensemble. Fare-well ! But stop ! Where can the Count find Figaro ? The Barber points down the street, his number is fifteen, the shop is on the left hand, up four steps, the door is painted white, there are five wigs in the window, and some fine pomatum, and a lantern hangs out for a sign. It can't be mistaken. Fortune smiles upon the Count ; will he certainly be Figaro's patron ? And will he remember that well-filled purse ? The Count is inspired with hope; Figaro already hears the clink of golden coin. He repeats the instructions for finding his shop, while the Count sings of how happy he will be if he can win his love. An ensemble follows : life will be blest if the one can win his love and the other his gold. Figaro enters the Doctor's house and Almaviva departs.

Fiorello steps forward. He is tired of waiting two hours for his master. He has been forgotten. It is always hard on a servant when his master turns sentimental and worships windows.

The scene changes to a room in Dr. Bartolo's house; Rosina is alone. She has a letter in her hand. The violins prepare us for her piquant cavatina, Una voce poco fΰ. Lindoro's voice has charmed her, but no one must know of it ; she vows that Lindoro shall be hers. The flutes and clarinets announce a pretty theme which she repeats, " Io sono docile." She will be meek and docile outwardly, but she will play a hundred tricks if she is thwarted, and be-come a very serpent. In this part of the aria, the orchestra first plays the merry and tricky, rippling, Mozartean figure which will be heard again when she sees the Count, and again in Act II.

Rosina wishes she could find a messenger to take this letter; but her tutor has a hundred eyes. Well, she'll seal it at any rate ! Her lover was talking to Figaro this morning. Now Figaro might be useful. Fortunately, Figaro enters. He greets her. Rosina is out of spirits. She grumbles at her imprisonment. Figaro has something to tell her. But Rosina hears her guardian's step. Figaro will wait : he has a message for her. Figaro hides, and peeps out from time to time. Dr. Bartolo enters, wondering where is that scamp Figaro. Has Rosina seen him ? Yes, she has talked with him ; he was most entertaining ! Then, with a saucy *remark, she goes. Bartolo thinks her saucy ways charming ; she is always flouting him, yet he adores her. Perhaps Berta or Ambrosius will know who put her up to this insolence. He calls them. They enter Berta, the housekeeper (mezzo soprano), replies by a sneeze, and his servant, Ambrosius, yawns. Dr. Bartolo sends them away impatiently. Don Basilio (bass) enters. Dr. Bartolo is glad to see him. He wants to be married to Rosina tomorrow. Dr. Basilio, bowing low, has called to tell him surprising news ; he has just seen Count Alma-viva near this spot. Perhaps he is the unknown gallant who is wooing Rosina ! Undoubtedly ! Well, this must be stopped. Basilio agrees ; he has an idea. Now, if a story were invented to put him in a bad light, in a few days the Count would leave the city. Dr. Bartolo hardly relishes a calumny. Don Basilio asks if Dr. Bartolo has ever traced its course. No, indeed, he has not. No ? Very well, then Don Basilio will tell him if he will listen. His aria, introduced by the strings and bassoon sotto voce, La calumnia, is one of the wittiest pieces of music ever written. We learn that calumny gradually rises from the gentle zephyr to the fury of the storm, and the instruments comment feelingly upon the words. Towards the end, the orchestra quotes a theme from Basilio's aria, La Vendetta, in Mozart's Nozze di Figaro?

As Don Basilio and Dr. Bartolo go out to draw up the contract, Figaro enters. He laughs at the idea of Rosina's being married to Dr. Bartolo. He will tell her. Rosina enters to hear the message. " Well, Signor Figaro ? " "Great news," he replies, "we are going to have confetti ! Your guardian is going to be your husband, he is closeted with your music-master now ; they are drawing-up the contract." Rosina will be a match for them ; she wants to hear about that gentleman with whom Figaro was talking this morning. He is Figaro's cousin who has come here to finish his studies ; he will never make his fortune ; he is too much in love. Rosina remarks she is rather interested in him. Figaro exclaims. Rosina wants to know if he doubts it, and also if his cousin's lady-love lives far from here; and if she is handsome. She is sixteen, has black hair, rosy cheeks, bright eyes, and a velvet hand. Rosina wants to know her name. Figaro spells it : R, o, Ro, s, i, si, Ro-si, n, a, na, Rosina ! Rosina gaily begins the duet, Dunque io son. How is she going to speak with Lindoro ? He is coming to see her. Rosina is afraid she will die with impatience ! Lindoro is waiting for some token of her affection. If she will send him a letter, he will come at once. Rosina has not the courage. Figaro tries to hearten her. No, she blushes to write ! Figaro insists. Rosina takes a letter from her pocket ; she has written one already. Figaro is amazed. Rosina sings that Fortune smiles upon her, and Figaro, taking up her musical theme, confesses himself beaten in cunning; the fair sex is unrivalled in craft !

On his departure, Rosina remarks that Figaro is such a kind creature ! Dr. Bartolo enters ; she must explain what Figaro was doing here. What did he talk about ? " Oh ! a number of trifles : fashions from France and the illness of his daughter, Marcellina," Rosina saucily replies. " I'll warrant he brought an answer to the letter sent from the window." "The window?" "That arietta of the Inutil Precauzione that you dropped from the balcony." Now how did ink get upon Rosina's finger ? Rosina burned her finger; she has always known that ink is good for burns. " Clever ! " remarks Dr. Bartolo. He counts the sheets of paper. There were six here this morning ! Rosina took one sheet ; she wanted it to wrap up some sweets for Marcellina. " Bravissima ! " says Dr. Bartolo. Now what about this pen ; it has been used ? Rosina took it to draw a flower on her tambour-work. Dr. Bartolo is furious; Rosina loses her temper. Dr. Bartolo will teach her how to speak to a doctor of his importance (11 un dottore della mia sorte ), he believes none of her excuses.

Was it not a joke ? Come, confess, and be friends. The orchestra scolds with him in the greatest excitement, but Rosina is unmoved. Very well, Rosina shall be locked in when Dr. Bartolo's duties take him abroad ! Dr. Bartolo is a doctor of importance and he will not bear ridicule. Perhaps Rosina will repent at her leisure ! On his exit, Rosina defies him and leaves.

Berta enters. She thought she heard voices. The Doctor is always vexing that poor girl. There is a knocking and a voice is calling. Berta opens the door and leaves.

The Count Almaviva enters, disguised as a drunken soldier, making a great noise, Ehi di casa, buona gente.

Dr. Bartolo enters to learn what is the matter. The finale, which begins at this point, is a model of vivacity and ingenuity. Nothing is more cleverly depicted than Dr. Bartolo's heavy vanity as Almaviva accosts him as Balordo and then Bertoldo, to which he replies pompously thrice. " Dr. Bartolo," and the orchestra is as emphatic as he is. To kill time, Almaviva jokes with Dr. Bartolo and wants to em-brace him. He shows him a paper — he is quartered here. Dr. Bartolo is dismayed. As Rosina enters, we hear the tricky phrase, slightly changed, heard during her aria, "Io sono docile."

She is amazed to see a soldier here. She comes forward on tiptoe. Her lover tells her softly he is Lindoro ! Rosina is alarmed. Dr. Bartolo orders her to her room. The drunken soldier says he will follow her. The soldier insists upon going to his quarters. Dr. Bartolo is exempt from lodging soldiers ; he will show him his paper in a minute. As he goes to his writing-desk, Lindoro tries to speak with Rosina ; but Dr. Bartolo now comes forward. As he is reading the document aloud, the Count disrespectfully tosses it in the air; he will remain here anyhow ! Dr. Bartolo orders him to leave, or he will have to use his stick. The soldier considers this a challenge. To the theme he sang on his entrance, he begins, " Dunque lei," and while he is preparing to attack Bartolo he shows a letter to Rosina and tells her to throw down her handkerchief. Then he drops the letter and she drops her hand-kerchief upon it. Lindoro picks both up together and hands them to her, but Dr. Bartolo wishes to know what it is. Rosina says it is the washing-list. He tears it from her hand. Rosina has, indeed, quickly substituted the washing-list for her lover's note.

Basilio and Berta enter. Dr. Bartolo is confused. Rosina calls herself abused and wretched ; Don Basilio says nothing but " sol mi, fa, ra ; " the Count threatens Dr. Bartolo ; and Rosina calls for help.

Figaro enters with his basin under his arm : " What is the uproar ? " He begs the Count " to be prudent." The soldier insults Dr. Bartolo, and Dr. Bartolo retorts. Now the soldier threatens his life. As everything is in the greatest confusion, a knocking is heard. There is a moment of silence and the effect of the chorus, La forza aprite qua, falls gratefully upon the ear after the deluge of little notes that have just been heard.

An officer enters with soldiers to learn the reason of the the trouble. Explanations follow Bartolo says it was this disorderly soldier; Figaro, that he came in to quell the tumult ; the Count, that Dr. Bartolo refused to allow him to enter his lodgings ; and Rosina begs them to forgive the poor soldier, who has had too much wine. The officer arrests the soldier, but is taken aside and informed of his rank. The astonished officer apologizes. He orders the guards to arrest the Doctor instead : he may explain at headquarters.

Bartolo is petrified with astonishment, and Figaro laughs at his wooden attitude. The soldiers will not listen to Dr. Bartolo's explanations, and all agree that confusion and madness reign over everything. Upon their chorus, Mi par d'esser colla testa, the curtain falls.

AcT II. — The curtain rises upon Dr. Bartolo's drawing-room, containing a piano. Dr. Bartolo is discovered.

His recitative, Ma vedi, from which we learn he has made inquiries about the soldier and believes him to have been sent by Count Almaviva, is interrupted by a knocking.

The Count enters, disguised as a music master. His salutation, peace and happiness, Pace e gioja, is several times repeated. Dr. Bartolo scrutinizes him intently, but cannot remember where he has seen him before; he thanks him for his wishes in this duet, and begs him take his departure, wondering why his house is open to knaves and nuisances. In reply to his questionings, the Count says he is Don Alonzo, a professor of music and a pupil of Don Basilio, who is ill and has sent him here. The Doctor will go at once to see his friend. " Oh, no, there is no need," Don Alonzo interrupts. Bartolo tells him to speak louder. Don Alonzo mentions Count Almaviva. Now Dr. Bartolo bids him speak in a whisper. Don Alonzo shows Dr. Bartolo a letter in Rosina's handwriting which he found in Count Almaviva's lodgings. He suggests that Dr. Bartolo permit him to see Rosina, he will persuade her that her lover left it with another lady-love. Rosina will believe him faithless. Dr. Bartolo embraces him : " Why, this is calumny of the school of Don Basilio ! " Certainly he will call Rosina. Almaviva remarks that he had to invent that fiction in order to see Rosina again ; he will explain it to her. Dr. Bartolo brings in Rosina, introducing Don Alonzo, who has come to give her a music-lesson. Rosina cries out on recognizing her lover. Dr. Bartolo asks what is the matter ? Rosina has sprained her instep. "What shall the song be ? " Don Alonzo asks. Rosina will sing something from the Inutil Precauzione. She is always talking about that, Dr. Bartolo remarks. Don Alonzo seats himself at the piano. [As the trio for this music-lesson was lost, Rosina has always been permitted to interpolate any songs or musical numbers she may please. It is usual for her to accompany herself for one number.]

After this interlude, Rosina sings an aria, Contro un cor che accende amore," in which she begs Lindoro to take pity on her woes ; he answers that love will befriend them, and begs her to confide in him. " A delightful voice," the music-master says, turning to Dr. Bartolo. Rosina thanks him for his opinion, and Dr. Bartolo says : "Yes, it is a delightful voice, but the air was tiresome. Music in my day was quite another thing; for example, when Caffariello sang that wonderful air, la, ra, la, la, la, — Listen, Don Alonzo ; " and he gives them an example, Quando mi sei vicina, a very old-fashioned and formal tune, rather beyond the scope of his voice.' The words are : "Come to the woods, my lovely Rosina," but he explains that the lady's name really is Giannina.

Figaro enters and mimics Dr. Bartolo, who is perfectly furious. Figaro has come to shave him. Dr. Bartolo doesn't want his services. Figaro cannot come tomorrow ; he tells him of his numerous engagements. Dr. Bartolo will have to get another barber. Dr. Bartolo then yields ; Figaro must go to his room for the soap and towels. He takes the bunch of keys from his belt and gives them to Figaro. On second thought, he will go himself. Figaro eyes the keys with envy, and asks Rosina if the key of the lattice is not on that ring. " Yes," she replies, " it is the newest of all." Dr. Bartolo returns ; how stupid of him to leave that barber here in charge of Rosina. Once more he gives the keys to Figaro : " Go, Figaro, you will find everything on the shelf, but touch nothing." Figaro runs off with the keys, exclaiming, "Everything is accomplished ! " Dr. Bartolo tells Don Alonzo that Figaro was the rascal who carried Rosina's letter to the Count. The noise of broken crockery causes Dr. Bartolo to leave quickly. Lindoro asks Rosina if she will be his, and she replies responsively. Bartolo and Figaro enter. The former bewails his broken china ; and the latter, secretly showing to the Count the key of the balcony which he has taken off the bunch, remarks to Bartolo that he nearly broke his head in the dark room. Dr. Bartolo seats himself in the chair to be shaved.

At this moment, to everyone's surprise, Don Basilio enters. (Quintette : Don Basilic ! Cosa veggo!) Dr. Bartolo is amazed, for he believed Don Alonzo's tale ; Rosina wonders what will become of them all ; and Alma-viva and Figaro remark that some boldness is necessary here. Dr. Bartolo jumps from his seat to inquire how Don Basilio is feeling. The latter is surprised. Figaro calls to Dr. Bartolo to come back and be shaved. The Count reminds Bartolo that Don Basilio knows nothing of the letter. Then he asks Basilio what he is doing out with a fever. "With a fever ? " the astonished Don Basilio answers. Figaro runs to feel his pulse, yes, he has fever — he really has scarlatina. "You need medicine," and the Count slips a purse into his hand. Rosina, Figaro, Almaviva, and Bartolo (from a different motive) join in insisting that he goes to bed. One after another takes up the theme of farewell until the puzzled Don Basilio leaves.

Dr. Bartolo again seats himself. Figaro ties the cloth about his neck and stands so as to screen the lovers ; the orchestra meanwhile plays the flippant, tricky, and merry Mozartean figure first heard in Rosina's aria, lo sono docile, and when she saw her lover in this house in Act I. Rosina and her lover pretend to be studying music, but are really making arrangements to elope at midnight. Dr. Bartolo tries to listen, but Figaro diverts his attention, screaming with pain. He has something in his eye, the Doctor must blow in it ! " For pity's sake ! get it out, get it out."

Rosina promises to be ready for Lindoro at midnight. He begins to tell her about the story of the letter. Bartolo overhears some of the words and rushes at them, calling them scoundrels, rascals, and deceivers. They defend themselves, " La testa vi gira," and exeunt, leaving Bartolo, who condoles with himself and calls Ambrosius and Berta. The former must run for Don Basilio. Berta must go downstairs and see that no one enters. No, he will go himself, he can trust nobody ; and the distracted Doctor runs out.

" There is no peace in this house," the houskeeper re-marks, " nothing but turmoil, wrangling, and scolding." She thinks of leaving. A ritornello introduces her recitative, Sempre gridi and aria, Il vecchiotto cerca moglie. What is this love that makes everybody mad ? She even sighs for a lover herself and she is growing old and ugly. [The melody of this is a Russian contredanse, much in vogue in Rome in 1816. The aria was long called the " Aria di' sorbetto," because people used to eat ices while it was being sung.]

At her exit, Dr. Bartolo and Don Basilio enter, talking of Don Alonzo. Basilio does not know him ; he believes he is the Count himself. (Aside he says, "The purse proves it.") This settles things. Bartolo will sign that marriage contract to-night. " To-night ! " Basilio replies, " it is raining in torrents ! Besides, Figaro has engaged the Notary tonight ; his niece is to be married." Figaro has no relations ! Basilio must take the latch-key and bring the Notary at once.

Dr. Bartolo takes Rosina's letter from his pocket. Rosina is approaching now ; he calls her and tells her that her lover is faithless, that he is conspiring with Figaro to give her to Count Almaviva. Here is her letter. Rosina wants to know how he got it. Don Alonzo gave it to him !

Rosina is so furious that she informs her guardian it was all arranged for her to elope at midnight with Lindoro and Figaro ; now she will marry him instead. Bartolo is en-chanted ; he will hurry and bar the door. But they have the key to the balcony ! Then Bartolo will remain here and declare them thieves ; Rosina must go to her room. On second thoughts, he will go for assistance; the wretches might be armed !

Lamenting her cruel fate, Rosina leaves, and Dr. Bartolo hurries away. The storm, of which Don Basilio spoke; has increased, and we have an orchestral interlude giving a descriptive musical picture of the rolling thunder, the flashing lightning, and the pattering rain. After it subsides, Almaviva and Figaro enter from the window.

Figaro remarks that it is " lover's weather." The Count bids Figaro strike a light. They wonder where Rosina can be. She now enters and denounces Lindoro. She accuses him of having feigned love in order to betray her to Alma-viva. The Count would like to know if she really loves Lindoro. Yes, she did ! Throwing himself at her feet, he tells her he is Almaviva himself. The delighted Rosina be-gins the fine trio, A qua/ colpo (Ah ! what rapture). Figaro reminds the happy lovers that there is no time to lose. Suddenly he exclaims that two persons are coming with a lantern. In the Allegro, " Zitti ! Zitti ! " (the motiv of which is borrowed from an air in Haydn's Seasons), they propose to fly by the window ; but, alas ! Figaro informs them that the ladder has gone.

Basilio and the Notary enter. Figaro recognizes them. Going forward, he reminds the Notary that he was to come to him this evening to join Count Almaviva and his niece; how fortunate ! they have all met by chance; has he the document ? Basilio says that Bartolo is not here. Alma-viva, taking him aside, gives him a ring from his finger, and, showing him a pistol, promises him a bullet if he opposes. The contract is signed : Rosina sighs with happiness, and Figaro cries, " Evviva ! "

Dr. Bartolo enters with soldiers and bids them arrest the thieves. Almaviva explains that Rosina is his wife. But Rosina is to be married to Dr. Bartolo ! Rosina never thought of such a thing ! The officer threatens the scoundrel, demanding his name. The latter announces that he is Count Almaviva. He brings forward the witnesses to his marriage and in his aria, Cessa di piω resistere, tells Bartolo that resistance is useless, his rule of tyranny is broken ; to Rosina he promises a happy life. The people wish them every happiness. Dr. Bartolo accepts the situation philosophically ; but he reproves Figaro and condemns Don Basilio as a traitor. Basilio remarks that the Count has persuasions in his pocket that no one can resist ; Figaro sarcastically refers to the folly of Inutil Precauzione. Now that the lovers are united, this lantern lighted during the troublous times may be extinguished, and he puts it out. All present join in the rondo :

" Amore e fide eterna
Si vegga in voi regnar."

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