Course Of Cooking Lessons
( Originally Published 1921 )
"Study to show thyself . . . a workman that needeth not to be ashamed."
THE following lesson outline is intended merely as an aid to those who are called upon to teach the subject of cooking in sanitariums and other educational institutions. Accordingly, the practical work has been arranged to cover, as far as possible, all the more important recipes adapted to class work, and to take them up in an order favoring economy of time, and providing for an equalization of work between baking, stewing, etc.
This short course, which is adapted for the advanced student, usually extends over a period of from ten to twenty weeks. One two-hour demonstration and lecture period is usually conducted by the instructor weekly; this is followed by two two-hour periods a week of practical work by the class individually. Careful attention is to be given to the study of the nutritive values of foods, their digestibility, combinations, etc., also to the general principles which govern in the making of menus. Familiarity with the text matter on these subjects should be required of the class; the lessons so learned to be impressed during the practical work that follows.
Lesson 1. Principles of Canning: (vegetables) string beans, corn, pumpkin.
Lesson 2. Principles of Canning: (fruits) p. 256, fruits, tomatoes.
Lesson 3. Preservation in Salt: p. 255, string beans, cucumbers, peppers.
Lesson 4. Cookery and Food Preparation: p. 61, steamed rice, rice and nut patties, stuffed bell peppers.
Lesson 5. Macaroni family style, corn dodgers, stewed beets. Lesson 6. Vegetable julienne soup, baked bean purée, wheat sticks.
Lesson 7. Principles of Successful Cookery: p. 67, spinach or other greens, cream of tomato soup, corn meal puffs.
Lesson 8. Vegetable salads, mayonnaise, garnitures.
Lesson 9. Nuttose, potato soup with dumplings, wheat puffs.
Lesson 10. Food Economics: p. 57, baked dressing without eggs, brown gravy, corn bread. (Save some of the dressing cold for the next lesson.)
Lesson 11. Nut and potato pie, savory potato hash, stewed lentils, gluten gruel. (Save some cooked lentils for the next class.)
Lesson 12. Lentil and potato hash, cream of corn soup, breaded tomato.
Lesson 13. Favorite lentil patties, country gravy, Graham fruit pudding.
Lesson 14. Principles of Bread Making: entire wheat, or quick method, Parker House rolls, pumpkin pie without eggs.
Lesson 15; Wash out gluten, savory pot roast, oatmeal gruel.
Lesson 16. Gluten biscuit, diabetic bread, diabetic puffs, soy coffee.
Lesson 17. Vegetable gluten stew, lemon snow, custard sauce.
Lesson 18. Vegetable Gelatin: p. 201, lemon, orange, fruit, aerated oatmeal gems.
Lesson 19. Potato stew with dumplings, cereal coffee, junket.
Lesson 20. Mix and roll out noodles, potato duchess, apple snow.
Lesson 21. Cream sauce, noodles au gratin, scalloped beets, baked parsnip, sago fruit mold.
Lesson 22. Lemon pie, rice and soy bean loaf, rice and soy bean patties.
Lesson 23. Baked savory eggplant, stewed carrots, cream rolls.
Lesson 24. Loaf cake, icing, granose gruel.
Lesson 25. Vegetable loaf en aspic, tomato salad agar, aerated wheat gems.
Lesson 26. Lima bean and macaroni pie, steamed fruit pudding, lemon sauce.
Lesson 27. Fruit salads, sauces, garnitures.
Lesson 28. Savory potato, rice and egg croquettes, creole sauce.
Lesson 29. Pasteurized milk, yogurt, cottage cheese, butter substitutes, browned flour, oat cookies.
Lesson 30. Potato and lima bean pie, browned rice, cream eggnog. Lesson 31. Spanish rice, fruit soup, baked custard.
Lesson 32. Ragout of vegetables, pop overs, malted nuts.
Lesson 33. Toasts, fruit eggnog, coddled egg.
Lesson 34. Sandwiches, omelet puff.
Lesson 35. Layer cake, frosting, ornamenting.
ESSENTIALS TO SUCCESS
In this work, as in any other, two things are vital to success, first a careful planning, and then the carrying out of the plans made; as expressed in the terse sentence, "Plan your work, then work your plan."
All the ingredients necessary for the preparation of a dish should be at hand and carefully measured before the work of combining them is begun. Accuracy in measuring and carefulness in combining are as essential to the success of a recipe as is the knowledge of what is to go into it.
The effect of heat at different temperatures, and the time of exposure to it, must be understood. But this knowledge can come only as a result of experience.
The following articles are necessary for measuring: a cup holding exactly one half pint, with thirds and fourths indicated, teaspoons and tablespoons of regulation sizes, and a common table knife. To insure uniformly good results, level measurements have been adopted by leading teachers in cookery, as the best guide that can be given ; and these will be used throughout this book. The following table of measures may be used as a guide:
TABLE OF MEASURES
3 teaspoons equal 1 tablespoon
To measure a cupful of any dry ingredient, fill the cup, rounding slightly by placing material in the cup with a spoon ; and with the sharp edge of a case knife, brush off all material that is piled above the brim. Care must be taken not to shake the cup.
To measure a teaspoon or tablespoon of dry ingredients, dip the spoon into the same, and with the edge of a case knife turned toward the tip of the spoon, brush off all that extends above its edge. For one half spoonful, divide with a knife lengthwise of the spoon, and push out one half ; divide halves crosswise for quarters. The term "sifted flour" implies that flour is sifted once before measuring.
In combining ingredients, three movements are employed, described as follows :
1. Stirring, a circular motion made with a spoon through the ingredients; continued until all are blended.
2. Beating, a turning of ingredients over and over rapidly by means of a spoon or an egg whip, to inclose air by continually bringing the under part to the surface, allowing the utensil used to be brought constantly in contact with the bottom of the dish, and up through the whole mixture.
3. Folding, a turning over and over of the ingredients; best accomplished by a vertical, downward motion of spoon or whip, bringing it up through the mixture, and each time allowing it to come in contact with the bottom of the dish, repeating until all is thoroughly blended. This is a slower movement than that of beating, and its object is so to mix ingredients that the air already introduced may not escape.