Butterflies - The Tribe Of The Hair-streaks
( Originally Published 1917 )
The Hair-streaks are small butterflies with the eyes notched to allow for the insertion of the bases of the antennae. The name is given on account of the fine, hair-like markings which extend across the under surface of the hind wings. In many species there is a tailed projection or two on the hind inner margin of the hind wing. The caterpillars are remarkable for the small head, so connected with the body that it can be pushed forward in a characteristic way.
The Hair-streaks are among the most exquisite and delicate of all our butterflies. A large proportion of them have the upper surface of the wings toned in beautiful hues of grayish brown and the under surface lighter gray, marked with dots and stripes, some of which are brilliant in coloring. A few of the larger species are brilliantly iridescent in purples, blues, and greens, marked with black. The males have well-developed scent-pockets in many species, these being commonly along the front border of the front wing.
A very interesting suggestion in regard to the possible function of the curious tail projections was made nearly a hundred years ago by some English entomologists and has since been discussed at considerable length in various publications. It is that the slender tails, together with the enlargement of the wing just back of them, give the impression of a false head. Along with this unusual development of the wing is to be considered the fact that these butterflies nearly always alight head downward so that the false head, furnished with what seem to be waving antennae, takes the place that would naturally be occupied by the true head. Instances have been reported in which this false head has apparently been nipped off by a lizard and much evidence has accumulated to indicate that this curious device may be a real protection in many cases. Of course, the loss of the tails and the part of the wings adjacent would be comparatively insignificant. In most cases, these projections on the wings are held at right angles to the plane of the wing.
While nearly half a hundred species of Hair-streaks have been found in North America, only a few of these are sufficiently abundant to require discussion in this little book.
The Great Purple Hair-streak
It seems something of a reflection on the activities of American entomologists to say that, after the lapse of more than a century since Abbott studied the insects of Georgia, our knowledge of the early stages of two of the largest Hair-streak butterflies is still confined to the observations he made. Yet this is true, and one of them the Great Purple Hair streak is the largest species of the group that occurs in the eastern United States. The ether is the White-M Hair-streak.
The Great Purple Hair-streak is a beautiful, iridescent blue creature, as seen from above, with blackish borders around the blue. As seen from below, the wings are dark brown, with red spots near the body. The two tail-like projections are quite long. It is very large for the group to which it belongs, measuring nearly two inches across the expanded wings. It is a tropical form, extending into our southern borders from California to Florida and occasionally occurring north as far as southern Illinois. The larvae feed on oak.
The White-M Hair-streak
The White-M Hair-streak is about two thirds the size of the Great Purple species with less blue and more hack on the upper wing surface. The hind tail is slender and well developed, and the angle of the wing just back of it is rounded out in an unusual fashion. The lower surface of the wing is of a general grayish brown color, marked by a white stripe, which takes the form of the letter M: hence its name. This is also a southern species occurring at times as far north as Ohio and even Atlantic City, New Jersey. The caterpillars feed upon the leaves of oak and Astragalus or milk vetch.
There is also a third species of this group of whose history we are ignorant except for Abbot's observations. It is an exquisite little butterfly called the Least Purple Hair-streak (Calycopis cecrops) and is apparently a tropical form which has spread into' our Southern states. It is especially beautiful because of the brilliant red and white lines running across the under surface of both wings. It occurs as far north as West Virginia and Kentucky and ranges westward at least to the Mississippi Valley.
The Gray Hair streak
This exquisite little creature is capable of surviving under a great variety of climatic conditions. It ranges from New Hampshire to Florida and Central America, but apparently occurs only rarely north of the United States. Perhaps the most distinctive feature in the female is the orange spot just in front of a pair of tiny tails on each hind wing, the rear one being curiously curved and about three times as long as the other. In the male the shorter tall is absent. The general color of the upper surface is a dark bluish gray, relieved on the margin of each hind wing by a few white dots and the orange spot already mentioned. The under surface is much lighter gray, distinctly marked with two dark brown lines near the margin, the outer line little more than a row of spots and the inner line with a white edge.
These small butterflies lay tiny though beautiful eggs upon a variety of plants. The eggs hatch into curious little caterpillars that have the appearance of slugs with small heads which can be extended as if the little creature had really a rubber neck. The object of this extensile head is seen when one finds the larvae feeding upon the fruits or the seed-pods of its various food plants hawthorn, hop, hound's tongue, and St. John's wort. The caterpillar is able to thrust its jaws into the interior of the seed-pods and devour their contents. There seem to be generally two broods in a season, even in the more northern parts of its range, while toward the south there are probably at least three broods. The butterflies are found upon the wing almost any time in summer, especially from early June until late in August.
The Banded Hair streak
Thecla calanus This is one of the most familiar of the delicate little butterflies grouped in the genus Thecla. It occurs rather commonly in a great stretch of territory extending from Maine, west to Nebraska, south to New Mexico and Texas, and east to Alabama and Georgia. It also occurs in a limited area on the coast of California. The general color of the upper surface is a dark brown, which in the male is marked near the front edge of the fore wings with a distinct gray patch of scent scales. The under side is similar in color to the upper except that the outer half of the wing is marked by two series of broken lines in white, blue, and brown and a brilliant bit of coloring just in front of the tail projection of the hind wings; this coloring shows beautiful tones of red, blue, and black.
These little butterflies may often be seen visiting the midsummer flowers but are fully as likely to be found along the sides of a shady road, where they rest upon the leaves of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants. When disturbed, they fly up in small companies but soon settle back again into their previous positions. They are lovers of sunshine and may often he seen upon a leaf, with fully expanded wings, taking a sun-bath. There is but one brood a year, butterflies appearing early in summer and remaining for several weeks. They lay their tiny pale green eggs upon the leaves of various trees, especially oaks and hickories, and probably hawthorns. It is not known whether these eggs remain unhatched as a rule until the following spring, or whether they soon hatch and the young caterpillars hibernate without feeding. It is probable that both conditions occur. In spring the larvae eat holes in the leaves of their food plant and grow rather slowly, gradually be-' coming brown or green slug-like caterpillars about half an inch long. They finally change into greenish brown chrysalids from which the butterflies emerge in early summer.
The Striped Hair streak
In the Eastern states the distribution of this species is almost the same as that of the Banded Hair-streak, but in the Central West the outline of its region moves northward extending into Canada, above North Dakota, and into Montana and Wyoming. It does not go so far south, however, extending practically only to the southern borders of Kansas and Missouri. The butterfly bears a striking general resemblance to the other species just named, differing chiefly in the fact that the under surface of the wings is much more thickly marked with broken lines that extend nearer to the body. As a rule, it is not common and consequently it is prized by collectors. Some good observers have noticed that it is more likely to be found only on flowers, instead of sunning itself on leaves. It is single-brooded, hibernating either in the egg state or in that of the young larvae. The food plants are varied, there being good evidence that the caterpillar feeds upon all of these: apple, plum, shadbush, blueberry, holly, chestnut, willow, thorn, and several kinds of oaks. Mr. W. F. Fiske found a chrysalis of this species in the deserted nest of a tent caterpillar in New Hampshire in early June, the butterfly emerging later in the month.
The Acadian Hair streak
This is one of the numerous butterflies that offers some young student an opportunity to make real contributions to science. It is a beautiful little creature, expanding scarcely an inch across its outstretched wings, found from New England west to Montana along a rather restricted area, which coincides pretty closely with the southern part of the Transition Zone. There is a form on the Pacific Coast which is commonly considered to be this same species.
These butterflies appear during July and August. They visit various flowers but are especially likely to be found near willow thickets along the borders of brooks and swamps. It is supposed that the eggs are laid upon the willows and that they remain unhatched until the following spring. Then they develop into little caterpillars that feed upon the willow leaves and mature in time to form chrysalids early in June. These chrysalids in turn disclose the butterfly early in July. So far as I know the eggs themselves and the situation in which they are laid have never been described.
The Olive Hair streak
Very few butterflies have the distinction of showing a clear case of protective resemblance to one kind of plant in both the adult and the larval stages. This is the case, however, with this Olive Hair-streak which is so intimately associated with our common red cedar, that where one is found the other is likely to occur, although both caterpillars and butterflies are seldom seen because they resemble the twigs of the cedar so closely.
Along the Atlantic Coast this little butterfly occurs from New Hampshire to Florida, and westward to a line drawn from Dakota to Texas. The upper surface of the wings is rather dark olive-brown and the under surface, so far as it is exposed when the butterfly is resting, is of a greenish hue that harmonizes with the green of the red cedar twigs. There are also, on the under surface, some irregular lines and dots of red, brown, and white which probably help in rendering the insect inconspicuous when it is resting among a cluster of twigs.
The yearly history of this beautiful little butterfly differs from that of most of its relatives. The species winters in the chrysalis state, the first brood of butterflies bursting forth early in May. These lay their eggs upon or between the scales of the red cedar twigs, especially those which bear flowers. About a week later the eggs hatch into tiny caterpillars that feed upon the scale like leaves, continuing to eat and grow for nearly six: weeks before they reach their full size. These caterpillars are so similar in color that they are difficult to see, and they have a remark-able protective device in that the first ring behind the head is developed into a shield which covers the head, hiding it so completely that the movement of the jaws in feeding is effectively concealed. Late in June they change to chrysalids, part of which appear to remain in this condition until the following spring, while most of them give forth a second brood of butterflies in July. These butter-flies lay eggs for a second brood of larvae that mature into chrysalids during September, and hibernate in this condition until the following spring. Consequently, in the Northern states, the collector should look for fresh specimens in May and early June and again in July and early August.
These butterflies visit various flowers, apparently preferring rather small blossoms, such as those of the Mouse-ear Everlasting, which is in bloom when the first brood is flying, and the various members of the mint family, especially spearmint, as well as the sumacs, which are in bloom when the second brood is on the wing. The time between flower visits seems to be spent at rest upon the red cedar branches, and one of the surest ways to find the butterflies is to give these trees a sudden jar, which starts them into flight. In fact, they may often be seen flying around the tops of the cedars a score of feet from the ground.
Synopsis of the Hair-streaks
Great Purple Hair streak (Atlides halesus or Theola halesus). Wing expanse It inches. Upper wing surface bright blue with blackish margins, the blackish coloring extending nearly to the middle in the female. Two distinct tails on each hind wing. Under surface sepia brown with blue and red spots. Abdomen orange below.
White M Hair streak (Eupsyche m album or Thecla m album). Wing expanse 1 1/3 inches. Upper wing surface blue with wide blackish margins in both sexes. Under surface marked with whitish lines suggesting the letter M, with a reddish spot near it. Each hind wing with two small tails.
Least Purple Hair streak (Calycopis cecrops or Thecla cecrops). Wing expanse 1 inch or less. Upper win surface dark brown, more or less marked with blue, especially at base of front wings and inner half of hind wings. Under wing surface marked with a brilliant red line edged outside with white. Two very fine tails on hind wings with brightly colored spots near their base on lower surface.
Gray Hair-streak (Uranotes melinus or Thecla melinus). Wing expanse 1 1/3 inches. Upper wing surface bluish gray with a brilliant red spot at base of tails on hind wing. Lower wing surface much lighter gray, each wing marked with a brown and white stripe and a row of dots nearer the margin.
Banded Hair streak (Thecla calanus). Wing exp 1 1/2 inches. Upper wing surface dull dark brown, commonly without markings although sometimes there is an orange spot on each hind wing. Lower wing surface a little lighter than upper with bright red and blue spots at the base of the tiny tails, and with distinct narrow blue and white broken bands extending across the outer half of each wing.
Striped Hair streak (Thecla liparops). Wing expanse 1 inch. Very similar to the Banded flair streak, but having more white markings on the lower surface of the wings.
Acadian Hair-streak (Thecla acadica). Wing expanse 1 1/3 inches. Upper wing surface blackish brown with a slaty tinge, and red spots at base of the single short tail on each hind wing. Lower surface bluish gray with many small blackish spots edged with white arranged in two principal rows on the outer half of each wing. Larger orange-red spots on each side of base of the tail on each hind wing.
Olive Hair-streak (Mitoura damn or Thecla damon) . Wing expanse 1 inch or less. Upper wing surface olive-brown, more yellow in the male than the female. Tips of tiny tails on hind wing whitish. Lower surface green except where upper wing is covered by lower: this part is brown. The green is marked with a row of white spots on each front wing and two distinct rows of brown and white spots on each hind wing, with black spots between.