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St. Clement Of Alexandria

( Originally Published 1906 )

EUSEBIUS, in his Ecclesiastical History, mentions the following works of Clement of Alexandria : the Stromata, in eight books ; the Hypotyposes or Institutions, "a book of exhortation addressed by him to "the Greeks" (which is generally called the Exhortation to the Heathen) ; the Paedagogue, a treatise called What Rich man may be saved? ; one on the Passover ; an exhortation to Patience addressed to Neophytes, and the Ecclesiastical Canon. Eusebius observes that St. Clement " quoted from the Gentiles where he finds any useful remark with them," and adds that his works "also abound in a great variety of other " (i.e. secular) " learning." Dr. Sandys says : "Clement of Alexandria is the earliest of the Greek Fathers who were specially conspicuous for learning." Of his works those most interesting to the student of education are the Stromata or Tapestry work, and the Pcedagogue. In any educational treatise, or in one even bearing upon education, there are many matters on which we should expect remarks ; on learning proper, on discipline and training, on manners, demeanour, and recreation. What then has St. Clement to say upon these in the Tutor or Pcedagogue ? Very little, if anything, does he write directly upon the subject-matter of secular learning, very much upon " illumination or knowledge of God ; " we are illuminated," he writes, " which is to know God."

The Instructor, or Paedagogue, is Christ. That the aim of the Instructor is the inculcation of religious, not secular, knowledge is perfectly clear from a sentence which occurs early in the treatise : " The Instructor being practical, not theoretical, His aim is thus to improve the soul, not to teach, and to train it up to a virtuous, not to an intellectual life."

In common fairness, however, St. Clement's view of learning in the Paedagogue should be compared with that which is given in his Address to the Greeks (or Exhortation to the Heathen). Against the man who could write—" But we have no sensible image of sensible matter, but an image that is perceived by the mind alone—God, who alone is truly God " the accusation of belittling the mind and its appurtenances cannot lie justly. Again he writes : "For into all men whatever, especially those who are occupied with intellectual pursuits, a certain divine effluence has been instilled."

It cannot be said so truly that St. Clement disdained knowledge, as that he considered the Greek to be "maimed with respect to the truth," while the genuine Christian was, on the contrary, in communication with the Source of all possible know-ledge. This position he states quite clearly in the Exhortation to the Heathen : chap. xi. " Wherefore since the Word Himself has come to us from Heaven, we need not, I reckon, go any more in search of human learning to Athens and the rest of Greece, and to Ionia. For if we have as our Teacher Him that filled the Universe with His holy energies in creation, salvation, beneficence, legislation, prophecy, teaching, we have the Teacher from whom all instruction comes ; and the whole world, with Athens and Greece, has already become the domain of the Word."

We may feel that St. Clement was oversanguine concerning the tolerance and intellectual width of some Christians, that he esteemed somewhat too lightly the place of Greece in the scheme of the world's development ; but it is one thing to condemn knowledge (as the Christians are accused of doing), and quite another to be mistaken or unappreciative concerning some of its methods and instruments.

At the same time, the aim of the Paedagogue is undoubtedly moral rather than intellectual, as the following passage indicates : " As there is one mode of training for philosophers, another for orators, and another for athletes, so there is a generous disposition suitable to the choice that is set upon moral loveliness resulting from the training of Christ. And in the case of those who have been trained according to this influence, their gait in walking, their sitting at table, their food, their sleep, their going to bed, their regimen and the rest of their mode of life acquire a superior dignity."

If our attention is not directly drawn here to scholarship and learning, yet St. Clement is dealing with matters forming an integral part of a comprehensive education, matters specially needing attention in his time. These things cannot indeed be excluded from any really educational system ; did not John Locke—perhaps the most highly esteemed of English educational writers, as he is certainly one of the most observant and penetrating — himself defer the subject of actual learning to the very end of his volume, while he rambled with surprising elaboration and repetition over the whole business of rearing and bringing children up ? Matters which are admittedly a part of education in the hands of Locke do not become something entirely alien to it because they are treated by a Christian Father of the second century ; details of discipline, wealth, dress, companions, recreation, demeanour, manners are as much the stuff of educational problems in the Paedagogue as they are in the Thoughts concerning Education. St. Clement's order when he tells us that "the all-benignant Word—first exhorts, then trains, and finally teaches "—is strikingly similar to Locke's arrangement of educational methods.

Dr. Kaye, sometime Bishop of Lincoln, renders a passage in the opening paragraph of the Paedagogue thus : "It is the same Word, Who now by exhortation, now by precept, now by persuasion, rescues man from the dominion of worldly habit, and leads him to the salvation which is of faith in God." This, which is rather a rendering of the whole paragraph than a literal translation of a single sentence of St. Clement, suggests almost that the modern psychological analysis of human activity into reason, feeling, and will was present in germ to the Christian Father, exhortation being the appeal to reason, precept the appeal to will or organ of action, and persuasion the appeal to feeling.

St. Clement's view of discipline is to be found in the sixth chapter of the first book. In this chapter it is true that he is not speaking of school discipline, strictly so called. The whole thing is an analogy, a picture of one thing by looking at which we may, if we choose, learn something about another. His plan in the Paedagogue is to treat the Christian community as one great schoolhouse ; Christian people, as her scholars ; and Christ, the Logos, the Heavenly Word, the right Reason, as the Instructor or Pa dagogue. This view is nowhere more lucidly expressed than it is at the end of the eleventh chapter of the first book : "It is clear that One alone—true, good, just, in the image and likeness of the Father, His Son Jesus, the Word of God—is our Instructor ; to whom God hath intrusted us, as an affectionate Father commits his children to a worthy tutor, expressly charging us, ' This is my beloved Son : hear Him."

From this, then, it is obvious that everything which St. Clement says is merely analogous to the circumstances of an actual school for children. But if this be clearly grasped and remembered, there is still much to be learned from his treatise of the Christian outlook on education. Moreover, it is worthy of notice that St. Clement is willing to in-corporate Greek wisdom into his Christian system, as, for example, when he writes : 1 "Thus also Plato, knowing reproof to be the greatest power for reformation and the most sovereign purification, in accordance with what has been said observes 'that he who is in the highest degree impure is uninstructed and base, by reason of his being un-reproved in those respects in which he who is destined to be truly happy ought to be purest and best.'"

St. Clement's method of discipline it would not be unfair to call a system of fear tempered by mercy ; this description accords with a sentence in the Address to the Greeks, where he writes : 2 " You have received, O man, the divine promise of grace ; you have heard the opposite threat of punishment. By these the Lord saves, disciplining man by fear and grace."

In the Paedagogue he writes : " The bitter roots of fear then arrest the eating sores of our sins, wherefore also fear is salutary, if bitter"; and then he holds up the other side of the shield :

" You may learn if you will the crowning wisdom of the all-holy Shepherd and Instructor, of the omnipotent and paternal Word, when He figuratively represents Himself as the Shepherd of the Sheep. And He is the Tutor of the Children. He says therefore by Ezekiel, directing His discourse to the elders, and setting before them a salutary description of His wise solicitude : ' And that which is lame I will bind up, and that which is sick I will heal, and that which has wandered I will turn back ; and I will feed them on My holy mountain."

Interpreting the spirit of this passage, and applying it to the pupils in an actual school, we find that St. Clement attributes to the Instructor a system of wise discrimination ; a method which aims at discerning, at diagnosing the cause of failure, and then applying the appropriate remedy. Saner educational theory and practice could hardly be devised.

He carefully differentiates the various modes of disciplinary method : the following are the chief of those which he enumerates:

(1) "Admonition is the censure of loving care, and produces understanding."

(2) "Upbraiding is censure of what is base, conciliating to what is noble."

(3) "Complaint is censure of those who are regarded as despising or neglecting."

(4) "Invective is a reproachful upbraiding or chiding censure."

(5) " Reproof is the bringing forward of sin, laying it before one." (In chap. x., St. Clement is rather more explicit on this point ; he says : " Chiding is also called admonishing ; and the etymology of admonishing is putting of under-standing into one ; so that rebuking is bringing one to one's senses.")

(6) "Bringing one to his senses is censure, which makes a man think."

(7) " Visitation is severe rebuke."

(8) "Denunciation is vehement speech. And He employs denunciation as medicine." (This remark recalls the observation of a writer whose era and general surroundings were strangely unlike St. Clement's, viz. Michel de Montaigne, " Punishment acts as medicine for children." Essais ii. xxxi., de la cholère.)

(9) " Accusation is censure of wrong-doers."

(10) "Objurgation is objurgatory censure."

(11) " Indignation is a rightful upbraiding." The fact that this skilful analysis of the different ways and means of reproof refers obviously and admittedly to Christ's government of the Church, cannot suppress in the reader's mind the suspicion that the ability thus to understand and to set forth these different methods may have grown in large measure out of St. Clement's own pedagogic experience as head of the famous catechetical school of Alexandria. No one surely but a person accustomed to meet and deal with the varying needs and infirmities of youth still in statu pupillari could have shown this minute acquaintance with, this apt handling of, the great educational problem of discipline. It is not fair to suppose that the mundane practice suggested the religious theory ; but it is perhaps fair to say that the method whereby divine doctrine was set forth could hardly have been so perfectly handled save by one who, in the world of human education, had been forced to come to close quarters with the need for it.

Though St. Clement dwells at length on Christ's rebukes, yet the method of the Instructor is represented again at the end of the chapter as a mingling of justice with mercy : " For as the mirror is not evil to an ugly man because it shows him what like he is ; and as the physician is not evil to the sick man because he tells him of his fever,—for the physician is not the cause of the fever, but only points out the fever,—so neither is He that reproves ill-disposed towards him who is diseased in soul.

For He does not put the transgressions on him, but only shows the sins which are there, in order to turn him away from similar practices. So God is good on His own account, and just also on ours, and He is just because He is good." From a chance phrase in the Address to the Greeks we may gather that St. Clement is advocating a milder method than that which was usual in his day ; that gentleness in teaching was not universal, we may judge from the following words : " O surpassing love for man ! Not as a teacher speaking to his pupils, not as a master to his domestics, nor as God to men, but as a father does the Lord gently admonish His children."

A few other passages from the first book of the Paedagogue throw considerable light on St. Clement's view of education ; and they have, besides, intrinsic interest for us of a so different world, as we busy ourselves with the problems and difficulties of bringing up children. We must not forget, how-ever, that in applying these scraps of his method to modern school life, we are wresting them from their original meaning, where Christ is the school-master and Christian men and women the scholars. He tells us, for instance, that the Instructor "cares for the whole nature"; that men and women'. alike are the objects of the Instructor's care. In the tenth chapter he has something to say which might benefit those who fancy that school life can be all pleasant, a place even where punishment should be abolished : " The plan of dealing stringently with humanity is good and salutary ";3 further on, he writes in a similar strain : "I say then that praise or blame, or whatever resembles praise or blame, are medicines most essential of all to men. Some are ill to cure, and, like iron, are wrought into shape with fire, and hammer, and anvil, that is, with threatening and reproof and chastisement ; while others . . . grow by praise." Long before psychology had a name this Christian Father had learned some of its lessons. In chap. xi. he returns to the question of the value of severity and chastisement : " The pungency and the purifying virtue of punishment are profitable on account of its sharpness."

Yet any impression that St. Clement's method is wholly one of severity or gloom would be erroneous, for he prizes a quality too little cultivated and engendered by all educational systems alike: "Let us anoint ourselves," he exhorts us, " with the perennial immortal bloom of gladness—that ointment of sweet fragrance." He would not teach us, as some people seem inclined to do, that virtue is increased by the unpleasantness of an action.

St. Clement turns from recommendations for the welfare of mind and heart to those touching the body, to the physical needs of man. Every reader of Locke's Thoughts concerning Education will remember the emphatic opening pages dealing with hygiene, the absolute importance of which is insisted upon in the sentence : (§ 1) " A sound Mind in a sound Body is a short but full description of a Happy State in this World. He that has these two has little more to wish for ; and he that wants either of them will be but little the better for any thing else." After that warning, Locke proceeds to give advice on food, drink, clothing, sleep, and other matters connected with health and strength and sound development.

St. Clement's aim, when he touches on these questions, is, of course, less mundane than Locke's was ostensibly ; but still we ought to remember that beneath the chilly commonsense of the English-man lay a sincere reverence for religion. Consequently it is not in the least strange that we should find their views similar. The following passage, with a few very slight changes, would not seem out of place among Locke's temperate counsels : " The Instructor 1 enjoins us to eat that we may live. For neither is food our business, nor pleasure our aim ; but both are on account of our life here, which the Word is training up to immortality. Wherefore also there is discrimination to be employed in reference to food. And it is to be simple, truly plain, suiting precisely simple and artless children—as ministering to life, not to luxury. And the life to which it conduces consists of two things — health and strength; to which plainness of fare is most suit-able, being conducive both to digestion and lightness of body, from which come growth and health and right strength ; not strength that is wrong, or dangerous and wretched, as is that of athletes produced by compulsory feeding."

A little further on in the same chapter he repeats this warning : " Those who use the most frugal fare are the strongest and the healthiest and the noblest ; as domestics are healthier and stronger than their masters, and husbandmen than the proprietors ; and not only more robust but wiser, as philosophers are wiser than rich men. For they have not buried the mind beneath food, nor deceived it with pleasures."

St. Clement's care, we notice, is for the mind, for the understanding, which Locke prized at so high a rate.

It is curiously instructive, curiously suggestive of the antiquity of novelty, when we find this second century Father giving the advice of our con-temporary physicians ; as, for instance, when he warns us against the agglomeration of different foods: "We must' therefore reject different varieties, which engender various mischief, such as a depraved habit of body and disorders of the stomach, the taste being vitiated by an unhappy art—that of cookery, and the useless art of making pastry. Antiphanes, the Delian physician, said that this variety of viands was the one cause of disease"; and once again, when he advocates the use of wholemeal bread : "They emasculate plain food, namely, bread, by straining off the nourishing part of the grain."

St. Clement could hit as hard as St. Paul himself. He has enumerated the dainties which human luxury has invented, and adds of the consumer of them : "A man like this seems to me to be all jaw and nothing else." At the same time he is not a bigot, scarcely even ascetic : "We do not abolish social intercourse," he observes ; and again : " We are not, then, to abstain wholly from various kinds of food, but only are not to be taken up about them. We are to partake of what is set before us, as becomes a Christian, out of respect to him who has invited us, by a harmless and moderate participation in the social meeting."

His general moderation appears in the sentence, "Excess, which in all things is an evil, is very highly reprehensible in the matter of food."

Now all this, uttered in the spirit which inspired our own greatest educational writer, loses none of its pedagogic value because it is not avowedly meant, as Locke's advice was, for the private tuition of a gentleman, or as a treatise of our day would be intended probably for the assistance of secondary schoolmasters and mistresses. The fact that these recommendations are addressed to the whole Christian community, that they are intended as a guide for the upbringing of each and every member, robs them of no iota of their educational value. In the History of Education it is the spirit not the letter which is significant ; in the course of so many centuries, external circumstances have altered of necessity ; yet the fundamentals of human character, consequently of human training, have remained even curiously the same.

Moreover, he has young people actually in his mind at times, e.g. when he quotes Plato's opinion that "not one man under heaven, if brought up from his youth in such practices " (i.e. in the midst of luxury and overfeeding), "will ever turn out a wise man."

From the consideration of food St. Clement passes to that of drink.

Like Immanuel Kant, the Father forbids wine to children. He argues from St. Paul's recommendation to Timothy that water is the natural beverage of the healthy. Yet here again he is no sour ascetic ; for "towards evening, about supper-time, wine may be used, when we are no longer engaged in more serious reading." His reason for allowing it is expressed quaintly, with perhaps a Platonic reminiscence. " First, wine makes the man who has drunk it more benignant than before, more agree-able to his companions, kinder to his domestics, and more pleasant to his friends." A warning follows, to mitigate its possibly hurtful qualities by the admixture of water. "For both are works of God ; and so the mixture of both, of water and of wine, conduces together to health, because life consists of what is necessary and of what is useful."

His description of drunkenness is vivid ; his condemnation of it absolute.

Probably no one will deny that a part of education consists in training the artistic side of human nature. The process may be performed in more ways than one, e.g., the ascetic, the puritan, will endeavour to eradicate the aesthetic sense ; the apostle of beauty will cultivate it to riotous excess. That there is a wise mean between these two will probably be the dictum of the average educator. St. Clement inclines to the ascetic view. He includes under one comprehensive ban cups of silver and gold, cups inlaid with precious stones, or of curious and elaborate shapes, vessels of chased glass, silver couches and table utensils, articles of rare wood, costly furniture, purple hangings, " proofs of taste-less luxury, cunning devices of envy and effeminacy —are all to be relinquished, as having nothing whatever worth our pains."

It cannot be denied that his sweeping condemnation of all beautiful works of art gives a convenient handle to critics of Christian asceticism. Nor would St. Clement wish, one fancies, that any palliation of his position should be offered. The tolerance meted out to the classics and to wine is cut off short, and beautiful things are banned without remorse. But though palliation is disallowed, explanation may be offered. St. Clement lived through the reign of Commodus, the emperor whom Gibbon described as " dissolved in luxury," i and the virtues of the Emperor Pertinax could not wipe out the recollection of the vices of his predecessor. An odd circumstance, of some relevance here, is the condemnation of beautiful things as an element in education by Locke and Rousseau. They lived in an era unlike St. Clement's; yet in this particular they were strangely severe. Readers of Locke's Thoughts concerning Education2 will re-member the passage where he writes : 37) "The Coverings of our Bodies which are for Modesty, Warmth, and Defence are by the Folly or Vice of Parents recommended to their Children for other uses. They are made matters of Vanity and Emulation. A Child is set a-longing after a new Suit, for the Finery of it ; and when the little Girl is trick'd up in her new Gown and Commode, how can her Mother do less than teach her to admire herself by calling her her little Queen and her Princess ? Thus the little ones are taught to be proud of their Clothes before they can put them on."

Rousseau takes up a still more illogical position in wsthetics ; he permits a child to prefer a gay colour to a sombre, but he bars out entirely a "rich stuff." 1 Yet why? "Richness" is often as great an element of beauty as colour. Who does not know that the texture of an iris flower is as exquisite an essential in the whole as its form or colour? It does not seem, however, to occur to Rousseau that beauty of texture may be a legitimate source of pleasure ; he traces it sternly to an instinct for pomp and luxury. St. Clement, Locke, Rousseau, widely dissevered in race, era, and environment as they were, yet join hands in a condemnation which, if carried rigorously into effect, would truncate education to a serious degree. Perhaps the real explanation is that they all three lacked the artistic sense ; though, when we recollect Rousseau's description of the sunset, we hardly feel that this is sufficient explanation of his view.

As a natural corollary to his condemnation of costly and beautiful ornaments, follows St. Clement's rule on clothing and adorning the body. This is interesting not only in itself, but as a succinct and vivid picture of the customs of the day : " What are we to imagine ought to be said of love of ornament, and dyeing of wool, and variety of colours, and fastidiousness about gems, and exquisite working of gold, and still more, of artificial hair and wreathed curls ; and furthermore of staining the eyes, and plucking out hairs, and painting with rouge and white lead, and dyeing of the hair, and the wicked arts that are employed in such deceptions?" He admires "that ancient city of the Lacedemonians " which, " interdicting respectable women from love of ornament," kept "flowered clothes and ornaments of gold " for the disreputable outcasts from society.

It must be admitted that St. Clement's sumptuary laws would, if carried into effect, condemn us to a drab world. We may agree with him when he says : "The covering ought, in my judgment, to show that which is covered to be better than itself, as the image is superior to the temple, the soul to the body, and the body to the clothes "; 2 and while we regret that his condemnation of luxury, effeminacy, and vain futility overshot its mark, we may reflect upon the difficulties in which moderation must have found itself involved in the reign of Commodus. St. Clement's attention descends even to shoes : " The use of shoes is partly for covering, partly for defence in case of stumbling against objects, and for saving the sole of the foot from the roughnesses of hilly paths."

To women, shoes are permitted : a "white one" at home, a greased and nailed shoe on a journey, for " woman is a tender thing, easily hurt," a sentence that reads oddly beside certain of Eusebius' descriptions of women martyrs contemporary with Clement, notably, e.g., that of the " celebrated Potamioena," 1 to whom, in the words of the ecclesiastical historian, torture was applied "gradually by little and little, from her feet up to the crown of her head."

To men on military service, shoes are permitted ; otherwise "for a man bare feet are quite in keeping."

In his chapter, " Against excessive fondness for jewels and gold ornaments," St. Clement attempts to turn the flank of the obvious argument that it cannot be wrong to use the gifts of God. It is not particularly convincing to the lover of moderation in all things, but it is interesting as a specimen of his power of literary expression : "First necessaries, such as water and air, He supplies free to all ; and what is not necessary He has hid in the earth and water. Wherefore ants dig, and griffins guard gold, and the sea hides the pearl-stone. But ye busy yourselves about what you need not. Behold, the whole heaven is lighted up, and ye seek not God ; but gold which is hidden, and jewels, are dug up by those among us who are condemned to death."1 Perhaps St. Clement's antithesis is over-sharp and crude ; certainly it is for those who appreciate the effect which Job produced by magnifying the worth of the gold of Ophir and the topaz of Ethiopia, only to eclipse the piled up wealth of the Orient by the mere mention of Wisdom and Understanding. Yet for all that we can in great measure sympathise when he cries, " I am weary and vexed at enumerating the multitude of ornaments, and I am compelled to wonder how those who bear such a burden are not worried to death. O foolish trouble ! O silly craze for display." 2 He quotes a passage from the " comic poet Alexis" which suggests that the women of his own time had not improved on those of days already gone by. These lines, indicating with minute detail the devices resorted to for the improvement of nature's supposed deficiencies, are equally applicable to the fashionable follies of our own time ; another proof, were one needed, that the fundamental weaknesses of human nature persist from age to age:

"Is one of them little? She stitches cork into her shoe-sole.
Is one tall? She wears a thin sole,
And goes out keeping her head down on her shoulder;
This takes away from her height. Has one no hips?
She has something sewed on to her, so that the spectators
May exclaim on the fine shape behind.

Has one yellow eyebrows? She stains them with soot.
Do they happen to be black? She smears them with ceruse.
Is one very white skinned? She rouges.
Has one any part of the body beautiful? She shows it bare,
Has she beautiful teeth? She must needs laugh,
That those present may see what a pretty mouth she has,"

and so on, in a strain only too easily understood by any observant student of human nature.

St. Clement regards "fondness for finery" as a greater vice than "Love of dainties and love of wine," apparently because the passion for these things is, in his eyes, insatiable : "'A full table and repeated cups' are enough to satisfy greed. But to those who are fond of gold, and purple, and jewels, neither the gold that is above the earth and below it is sufficient, nor the Tyrian Sea, nor the freight that comes from India and Ethiopia, nor yet Pactolus flowing with gold ; not even were a man to become a Midas would he be satisfied, but would be still poor, craving other wealth. Such people are ready to die with their gold."

And even St. Clement, knowing as an experienced teacher that exhortation, tinged with admiration and regard, will persuade sometimes where condemnation fails, concludes with the following appeal: "Is it not monstrous that while horses, birds, and the rest of the animals spring and bound from the grass and meadows, rejoicing in ornament that is their own, in mane, and natural colour, and varied plumage ; women, as if inferior to the brute creation, should think herself so unlovely as to need foreign, bought and painted, beauty ? "

The luxury and love of costly adornment which St. Clement prohibits for women, he forbids to men with at least equal severity.

Compayrê has observed that St. Jerome prohibits baths to girls, and only allows them to any children under exceptional circumstances. This charge may be investigated more suitably in the chapter upon St. Jerome ; but it is interesting here to notice that St. Clement not only permits, but enjoins the use of a bath " for cleanliness." 2 He prohibits it for mere pleasure, " for the sake of heat it is a superfluity, since one may restore what is frozen by the cold in other ways."

Christians have been accused from time to time of undervaluing cleanliness. It would be idle to deny the charge in toto: equally idle, perhaps, to deny that it is often exaggerated. St. Clement, at any rate, while utterly condemning the current Roman abuse of the bath, is emphatic concerning its lawful use ; though even so he draws a distinction between men and women : " The bath is to be taken by women for cleanliness and health, by men for health alone." 1 One of his complaints against those " who minister before the idols" is that they "never come near a bath."

One sentence in this chapter may surprise and gratify those who expect nothing but asceticism and severity from a primitive Christian : "Due proportion, which on all occasions we call as our helper in life, suffices us."

St. Clement has been called the most learned of the early Christian Fathers. Is this an echo of the Platonic philosophy which exalted " temperance," that "harmony or due proportion of the higher and lower elements of human nature," so difficult, even impossible, to define, yet exemplified in the beautiful youth Charmides?

Again it is interesting to observe that St. Clement advocates bodily exercises for men and for women. For the latter he suggests the more active of domestic employments ; for the former, while he does not prohibit gymnastic feats, he suggests useful labour, handling the hoe, turning the mill, cutting wood, and so forth, seeming to argue that healthiness does not begin in an occupation where usefulness ends, a fact sometimes overlooked or forgotten. St. Clement insists as strongly as Locke, though much more tersely, on the importance of good companions ; he points his advice with the scathing observation that since Moses "forbade the ancient people to partake of swine," all Christian people should eschew the companionship of those whose life is animal and swinish. And he insists, further, that if religion is to be a real thing, it is not to be kept for exceptional opportunities, but is to enter, though unobtrusively, into each and every transaction of life.

"Let not him who sells or buys aught, name two prices for what he buys or sells." "Study to speak the truth." Let swearing be banished." And if an example of St. Clement's genuineness, of his sincerity be wanted, the following, acutely observant of ordinary life, may suffice, "Love is not tested by a kiss, but by kindly feeling." And again he writes : What means a fast then ? . . . Loose every band of wickedness. Dissolve the knots of oppressive contracts. Let the oppressed go free, and tear every unjust bond. Break thy bread to the hungry, and lead the houseless poor into thy house."

Possibly some people may argue that all this is not a question of education, but of the inculcation of Christianity. No doubt Christianity has shed light and warmth on ethics ; or rather, it has established an ethics aglow with those qualities ; yet we may remember that Pestalozzi, whose "religion" was challenged publicly, who was suspected by Romanists and persecuted by Protestants, wrote a document addressed to the benefactors of humanity on behalf of outcast children whom he desired to educate ; and that that document contained passages germane in spirit and not alien in expression to the sentences quoted from St. Clement's Paedagogue.

The Miscellanies and the Exhortation to the Heathen may be dealt with more conveniently in another chapter. Perhaps enough has been said already to justify Drane's verdict on St. Clement :

" No one understood better than he the emptiness of human learning when pursued as an end, or its serviceableness when used as a means. His end was to win souls to Christ ; and to reach it he laid hands indifferently on all the intellectual weapons that fell within his reach : poetry and philosophy, science and even satire ; he neglected nothing that would serve his turn."

If the Paedagogue alone seem scarcely evidence to prove that conclusion, ample reinforcement may be found in the erudition of the Address to the Greeks.

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