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Geography - The Earth As A Planet Form

( Originally Published 1915 )

Proofs of the earth's rotundity; diameter, circumference.


Measured by time required to travel around it; compare with the time required to cross the Atlantic; with the time required by Columbus for his voyage to America.

Motion :

Compare with a spinning top circling about the floor; the earth's orbit ; year, leap year.


Inclination of the earth's axis; distribution of light; variation in length of day and nightóconsult the almanac; cause of seasons; equinoxes.

For hints on the teaching of the following topics, see " Suggestions for Lessons ", Chapter XIII: The Earth as a Planet, the Earth's Orbit, the Inclination of the Earth's Axis, Variation in the Length of Day and Night, the Cause of the Seasons.


1. Measurement of circles.

2. How to locate a point.

3. Latitude and parallels of latitude :

(1) Meaning,

(2) Use.

4. Meridians and longitude :

(1) Meaning,

(2) Use.

5. Latitude and longitude :

How determined on the map.

6. Longitude and time.

7. How latitude and longitude are determined at sea.

8. Standard time.

For hints on the teaching of Latitude and Longitude, see " Suggestions for Lessons ", Chapter XIII.


1. Origin of continents.

2. Modification of coast-lines:`

Type : Coast-line of North America.

3. Continental physical features :

(1) North America

(2) South America

(3) Europe

(4) Asia

(5) Africa

(6) Australia.

4. Influence of topography upon civilization.

5. General review.

For hints on the teaching of the following topics, see "Suggestions for Lessons ", Chapter XIII : Continent Structure, Influence of Topography upon Civilization, World Barriers.


1. Location :

(1) In reference to other continents

(2) Compare with latitude of Canada.

2. Size.

3. Coast-line :

(1) Comparison with other continents. Advantage.

(2) Names of principal coast featuresóseas, gulfs, bays, straits, capes, etc. State one interesting fact about each.

4. Surface features, drainage :

(1) Review facts taught in Form III, Junior Grade.

(2) Mountains and rivers that form boundaries between countries. Effect upon local races, languages, and customs.

(3) Non-boundary mountains and rivers.

5. The countries, with capitals :

Associate with each country some interesting characteristic, such as, Holland : quaint customs, dikes, canals, windmills.

6. Climate and vegetation :

Elements that affect the climate of Europe : Latitude, westerly winds, rainfall, effect of mountain ranges.

Compare the climates of Western and Eastern Europe. Account for the difference.

Compare the climate of Western Europe with that of Eastern North America in the same latitude. Give reasons for the difference.

7. Occupations of people :

(1) Basic factors: fertile soil, proximity of sea, accessibility to world's markets, presence of mines, labour

(2) The principal industries and exports of each country

(3) The chief commercial cities, particularly the world-renowned seaports

(4) World trade routes.

8. Peoples, Governments.


A review of work assigned for Junior Grade of Form III. Consider particularly not only physical conditions, but investigate the reasons for these conditions. Show, by concrete examples, that physical conditions, in large measure determine the industrial life of the people and form the basis for commercial and social development.


Follow the same general line of study as for North America and Europe. The chief points to be considered are position, form, size, relief, drainage, climate, industries and industrial regions, centres of population, chief countries and cities, people and their government.

Compare the physical conditions of this continent, such as, relief, drainage, soil, climate, seasons, etc., with those of North America.

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