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Geography - Sun, Moon, Stars, Etc.

( Originally Published 1915 )

The Sun :

One of the stars; distance from earth; source of heat, light, and energy; attraction force; influence on life. The Planets :

Names, motions, are stars shining with reflected light, "morning" and "evening" stars, the earth a star, recognition of the brighter planet-stars in the sky.

The Moon:

A cold, dead world; shines with reflected light, rotation around the earth, lunar month, time of rising, why later each night; phases, explanation.

Comets :

Nature, appearance.


A few generalizations only : are other suns, source of light, different colours, cause of "twinkling ", distance from earth, the "Milky Way ", recognition of North Star, Big Dipper, Little Dipper, and a few other prominent stars and constellations.

Meteors :

Shooting starsócause of light.

Geography Reader: " Coral Islands ", page 37; "Mon-soon Weather ", page 49.

For hints on the teaching of the following topics, see " Suggestions for Lessons ", Chapter XI: The Solar System, The Sun, The Planets, The Moon, The Stars, Comets, Meteors.


1. Review Canada as a whole and Ontario in detail, as outlined for the Junior Grade of Form III.

2. The other Provinces in considerable detail, the Territories, Newfoundland. The lesson on Nova Scotia (see page 125) will suggest a method of treatment.

3. Consider, in the light of the detailed study of the individual Provinces, Canada as a Dominion, emphasizing particularly the commercial aspect of the subject.

In connection with the commercial geography of Canada, review briefly the home industries as outlined for Form II. Determine, if possible, how these industries happen to be located where they are. In what ways are they important to the home locality? Have they any importance to other parts of the country or to the world abroad ? If so, show how and trace their products to places of consumption or distribution. Use maps for this purpose. Study lines of transportation. Why does not the home locality produce all things needed for consumption there? Show why different localities have different industries.

After an introductory study of home industries, consider further the great industries of the Dominion. The following list is suggested:

(1) Agricultural produce : fruits, grains, flour, meal.

(2) Animals and their products: bacon, cheese, cattle, hides and skins, furs.

(3) Fisheries' produce : salmon, codfish, etc.

(4) Forest products : lumber, square timber, pulp-wood, wood-pulp.

(5) Mineral produce : coal, iron, gold, copper, silver, nickel, lead, asbestos.

(6) Manufactures : wood, iron, leather, etc.

In the study of each of these industries :

(1) Locate the region of production.

(2) Study carefully the natural physical features and the climate of the region.

(3) Picture the life of the people engaged in the industry.

(4) Trace the general steps in the production and preparation for market.

(5) Locate important centres of production, manufacture, and trade.

(6) Trace the movement of products to market, studying carefully the routes taken.

(7) Determine why products go to various markets.

(8) Compare, when possible, present methods of production and transportation with earlier methods. Seek causes for the differences.

(9) Consider the importance of the industry to our own country and to the world at large, both from the standpoint of money value and from its influence upon the happiness and comfort of the people.

These industries should be taken as types. Show how and why the Government, in some instances, is aiding the development of some of these industries, through irrigation, experimental stations, fish hatcheries, forestry, fish and game laws, etc.

All places mentioned in connection with the study of an industry, such as province, cities, prairies, lakes, rivers, and canals, should be definitely located. Use pictures, picture post-cards, and materials to illustrate the subject-matter being studied.



1. Ontario

2. Quebec

3. New Brunswick

4. Nova Scotia

5. Prince Edward Island

6. Manitoba

7. Saskatchewan

8. Alberta

9. British Columbia.

Territories :

1. Yukon. 2. Mackenzie.

For hints on the teaching of a Province, see lesson on Nova Scotia, Chapter XI.


Newfoundland : See Geography Reader, pages 64-6. South America : See Geography Reader, pages 224-64. Asia : See Geography Reader, pages 350-414.


1. Countries included.

2. Size :

Compare with areas in Canada.

3. Location :

Direction from other European countries and from Canada.

4. Surface.

5. Climate :


Temperature : Compare with same latitude in North America; reasons for difference.

6. Occupations :

(1) Agriculture and grazing:

Need for agricultural products

Crops raised

Advantages for agriculture

Importance of stock-raising

Conditions favourable for grazing.

(2) Fishing:

Where carried on

Why an important industry.

(3) Mining:

Location of principal coal-fields

Where iron and tin are found

Importance of mining industry

Uses made of coal and iron.

(4) Manufacturing:

(a) Woollens :

Leeds and Bradford the centres (York-shire)

Kinds of woollen goods manufactured Advantages for manufacturing

What becomes of manufactured goods.

(b) Cottons:

Manchester the centre (Lancashire) Advantages for manufacturing

Where manufactured goods are sent.

(c) Iron and steel:

Glasgow, Sheffield, Birmingham, chief centres

Kinds of goods manufactured Advantages of each centre

What becomes of manufactured goods.

(d) Linens:

Belfast the centre

Advantages for manufacturing

How linen is made

Where it is sent.

(e) Shipbuilding, potteries, carpets, etc., as time permits.

7. Commerce :

(1) Imports :

(a) Foods

(b) Raw materials.

(2) Exports:

Manufactured goods.

(3) Chief ports :

London, Liverpool, Southampton, Glasgow,

Belfast, Bristol, Plymouth, Portsmouth,

Hull, Newcastle. Locate each on map.

8. The people :




Chief Overseas Dominions and colonies.

Europe : See Geography Reader, pages 265-348. Africa : See Geography Reader, pages 439-509.


The Empire and its component parts. See the Text-book, pages 250-258.

See Geography Reader, "Australasia", etc., page 415; " The British Empire ", page 510.

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