Roses - Climbers
( Originally Published 1914 )
UNFORTUNATELY there is not at this time any hardy climbing rose which blooms through spring, summer and autumn with great reliability. The so-called hardy ever-blooming climbers have been tested with-out success. The ones which are absolutely hardy bloom mainly in the spring, and those which bloom throughout the season need the most careful protection in the Middle Atlantic States.
In the lists which follow only the most dependable varieties of climbers are included.
To make the subject as clear as possible, the various climbers are divided into two classes; this is an arbitrary division and not at all in accordance with the ordinary manner of classification.
In the first division are included Climbing Hybrid Teas and some other climbers whose blooms have the general shape and size of the Hybrid Tea rose. Hybrid Tea climbers are mostly, as has been explained heretofore, sports from Hybrid Tea roses. They do not bloom as profusely as the Hybrid Teas, nor as constantly. They may be depended upon to give some blooms in the spring, and a few other blooms mainly in the autumn, although these are so scattered that they cannot be called continually blooming roses. They need special protection here, but should do better farther south. In addition to these are included some other roses which have the Hybrid Tea form of bloom; unfortunately they bloom only in the spring and have practically no bloom thereafter, but are given for their great beauty.
Aims ROVER. Hybrid Perpetual Climber; Alex. Dickson and Sons, 1898. Color is crimson shaded maroon; medium size, good form; blooms in the spring only; flowers come on short stems; has a fair petallage and is very fragrant. A hardy rose but in the North the canes should be given winter protection.
CHRISTINE WRIGHT. Hoopes Bros. and Thomas,
of West Chester, Pa., 1903. Cross between Caroline Testout and a Wichuraiana seedling. Placed with Hybrid Tea climbers on account of the fact that its flowers are large and double; borne singly and in clusters; good form, with a perfect bud and good petallage; color is wild rose pink; requires no protection; blooms best in spring. A few scattering flowers in autumn. A very satisfactory climbing rose. Foliage lasts well.
CLIMBING AMERICAN BEAUTY. Hybrid Perpetual
Climber; Hoopes Bros. & Thomas Company. Rich rosy crimson; strong, vigorous growth, hardy.
Gives remarkable amount of spring bloom, often with long stems; practically no summer or fall bloom. Loses foliage early.
CLIMBING KAISERIN AUGUSTA VICTORIA. Hybrid Tea; two firms claim introduction; 1897. Primrose, of same form and color as the dwarf rose of the same name; very beautiful, but only gives scattering blooms throughout the season. Requires heavy winter protection. The best bloomer of the Hybrid Tea sports.
CLIMBING LADY ASHTOWN. Hybrid Tea; Bradley, 1910. Salmon pink, not quite as good form as the dwarf rose of the same name; gives fair amount of bloom in spring and an occasional bloom during summer and early autumn. Requires heavy winter protection. Takes mildew more easily than most of this class.
CLIMBING MADAME MELANIE SOUPERT. Hybrid Tea; J. Burrel & Company, 1914. Salmon yellow, suffused carmine; large, full, perfect form; has given more bloom than majority of the Climbing Hybrid Tea sports. Requires heavy winter protection.
CLIMBING MRS. W. J. GRANT. Hybrid Tea; William Paul and Son; 1899. Imperial pink; medium to large and good form; blooms fairly well in the spring with scattering blooms in the summer and autumn. Requires heavy winter protection.
CLIMBING RICHMOND. Hybrid Tea; Alex. Dickson and Sons, 1912. Pure red scarlet; bloom similar to the ordinary dwarf Richmond; of fair form only and blooming less freely in the autumn and summer than in the spring. Requires heavy winter protection.
DR. W. VAN FLEET. Peter Henderson & Co., 1910. Reported to be a cross between a Wichuraiana and Souv. du President Carnot. It is a Hybrid Wichuraiana, but on account of the form of the bloom is placed with the Hybrid Tea climbers. Is more hardy than the Hybrid Tea sports and is of a soft flesh tint shading to delicate peach pink; gives a bloom on somewhat longer stem than the average climber; blooms well in the spring and scattering blooms thereafter. Foliage very good and lasts quite well.
Dr. Van Fleet has brought out through Lovett of Little Silver, N. J., another Wichuraiana Hybrid named "Mary Lovett," a cross between a seedling Wichuraiana and Kaiserin Augusta Victoria and termed a White Dr. Van Fleet. This rose has done remarkably well during 1916 and is strongly recommended. Loses foliage early.
MADAME HECTOR LEUILLOT. Hybrid Tea; Pernet-Ducher, 1904. Golden yellow tinted with carmine in the center; large, full; gives scattering blooms throughout the entire season, and most attractive color. Not as tall a grower as the balance of this class and requires heaviest winter protection. Should do very well south of Washington and in similar climates.
REINE MARIE HENRIETTE. Hybrid Tea; Levet, 1878. Madame Berard (of Gloire de Dijon) X General Jacqueminot. Deep cherry red; blooms prolifically in the spring, the flowers being of good form and petallage and fragrant; it occasionally gives blooms in summer and autumn. Requires winter protection.
In the second division are placed all the other climbing or rambling roses which have given the best results, most of them being Hybrid Wichuraiana. Except in the extreme North they are hardy and of much more vigorous growth than the Hybrid Tea sports, though as a rule they only bloom for a short season in the early summer and a few have some autumn or summer flowers.
The breeding of this entire class is considerably involved, and different authorities and catalogues list the roses variously as Hybrid Wichuraianas, Hybrid Polyanthas, Polyanthas and Multifloras; for example, Hiawatha is listed in many places as a Hybrid Wichuraiana, whereas this rose is a cross between Turner's Crimson Rambler and Carmine Pillar; the first a Polyantha, and the second usually listed as a Climbing Hybrid Tea. Goldfinch is from Helene, which is a cross between Turner's Crimson Rambler and a seedling of the Polyantha Aglaia, yet this rose is sometimes listed as a Multiflora.
CECILE BRUNNER. Polyantha Hybrid; sprays; beautifully formed, small. This rose, if secured in three-year-old plants and given heavy winter protection, has proved one of the best bloomers among climbing roses. It is not as vigorous a climber as the Wichuraianas, but makes good growth of eight-to ten-foot canes, on which its miniature, perfectly formed flowers appear in sprays. The color is flesh cream with a shell-pink center. It must not be con-founded with the dwarf Polyantha of the same name. It may be expected to bloom splendidly in the spring, quite well in summer, and also in autumn. There are a few other climbing Polyanthas already catalogued, and several new roses of this class have been introduced recently, the best known being Miss G. Messman, a sport of Crimson Baby Rambler; Marie-Jeanne, white; and Orleans Rose Climbing, a sport of the pink Polyantha Orleans Rose; but here these roses require protection.
Another climbing Polyantha which has done well for some growers is Climbing Clothilde Soupert. Unfortunately, plants of this variety have winter killed badly, but with special winter protection it should live up to its reputation as a constant bloomer, and south of Philadelphia it will do well. The blooms are double, the color silver flesh to shell pink.
AMERICAN PILLAR. Hybrid Polyantha. Conard, 1909. Large clusters; dark pink with a white center and yellow stamens. Very large, single. Similar to Evergreen Gem. Foliage lasts quite well.
AVIATEUR BLERIOT. Hybrid Wichuraiana; Fauque et Fils, 1910. Clusters; saffron yellow, center golden yellow. Foliage lasts quite well.
DOROTHY PERKINS. Hybrid Wichuraiana. Perkins ,1902. Trusses, single, light pink. Foliage lost quite early.
ELIZA ROBICHON. Hybrid Wichuraiana. Barbier, 1901. Trusses, single, rose, shaded old gold. Especially good for covering banks. Holds foliage well.
EVANGELINE. Hybrid Wichuraiana. Walsh, 1907. Single, white, tips of petals carmine pink.
EXCELSA. Hybrid Wichuraiana. Walsh, 1909. Trusses, double, brilliant scarlet. Crimson Rambler with good foliage, which lasts especially well. Bloom of Troubadour almost identical with Excelsa. The best red climber of the class.
GARDENIA. Hybrid Wichuraiana. Manda, 1899. Clusters, bright yellow, paler as flowers expand; very pretty in bud form. Foliage very good and lasts well. Do not confound it with Gardenia of Soupert & Notting, which is inferior.
GOLDFINCH. Hybrid Polyantha. Paul & Son. Pale orange, changing to white; semi-double, trusses. Reported stronger in the extreme North than the Hybrid Wichuraianas.
HIAWATHA. Hybrid Polyantha. Walsh, 1905. Single, crimson, center pure white to cream. Loses foliage early.
JEAN GIRIN. Hybrid Wichuraiana. Description given by Admiral Ward, as grown on Long Island. Absolutely hardy as a climber; almost the same as Dorothy Perkins, and in the fall has a second blooming period, when it gives approximately half the number of blooms produced in the spring. Foliage lasts quite well.
SILVER MOON. Said to be a cross between Rosa Wichuraiana X Cherokee. Extra large, single, silver white with golden yellow stamens, of remarkably strong growth; very distinct. Foliage lasts well.
TAUSENDSCHON. Hybrid Polyantha. Soft pink; large clusters; foliage lasts fairly well. Reported hardier in the North. than the Hybrid Wichuraianas.
VEILCHENBLAU. Hybrid Polyantha. Schmidt, 1909. Lilac changing to amethyst and steel blue; medium size; produced in large clusters; lower foliage lost early.
The greatest development in climbers, if the catalogue descriptions may be relied upon, are the following new additions, brought out in 1913-14-15, but not yet thoroughly tested:
LE MEXIQUE, Wichuraiana; introduced by Schwartz in 1913, color "pale silvery rose; clusters"; has been tested in this country and one grower claims that it gives scattering blooms until fall.
MOONLIGHT AND DANAE, introduced by Reverend J. H. Pemberton in 1914, are listed as Hybrid Teas and catalogued as continual bloomers from June until autumn. The growth is similar to a Wichuraiana, but less vigorous; they bloom in clusters, and both give scattering blooms through the entire season, the last one being noted in November. Moonlight flowers on new wood; Danae on that of the previous year.
In 1914 Pemberton introduced three other Ramblers, for all of which perpetual blooming is claimed. Their blooms in the first year are scattering; the growth is only fair; and they require winter protection.
CERES Blush, with yellow shading.
In 1915 William Paul & Son brought out CORDELIA, which they claim is a perpetual flowering climbing rose. Buds coppery yellow,, changing to lemon yellow; produced in clusters. This variety blooms on wood of the previous year's growth, and winter kills badly here.
M. Leenders & Company, of Holland, list an ever-blooming climbing rose in BLANCHE FROWEIN; color copper overlaid with golden yellow; but so far this has only shown semi-climbing growth.
P. Lambert also catalogues several ever-blooming climbers; and in Hugh Dickson's 1916-17 catalogue, the Wichuraiana, Bouquet Rose—color vivid rose pink changing to lilac white—is noted as perpetual flowering.
It would seem from these introductions that the long-looked-for hardy ever-blooming climbing rose may at least be a reality, but that the growth will be restricted.
Reports are constantly made that various hardy climbing roses have given summer and fall bloom. As a rule, while these reports are no doubt true, other growers cannot depend upon them as they are very often exceptional cases.
For climates in which there is little or no frost the following climbers are recommended. With the exception of Shower of Gold, which is a Hybrid Wichuraiana, they may be expected to give blooms quite well through the season.
ALISTER STELLA GRAY (Noisette). A. H. Gray, 1894. Deep yellow with lighter edges; flowers in clusters.
BELLE LYONNAISE (Tea). Levet, 1869. Canary yellow.
CELINE FORESTIER (Noisette). Trouillard, 1842. Fairly free flowering; old gold.
CLOTH OF GOLD (Noisette). Coquereau, 1843. Sulphur yellow, deeper center; large double.
GLOIRE DE DIJON (Tea). Jacotot, 1853. Buff, orange center; large and double. Perhaps the hardiest of the Tea climbers, but giving more bloom than the Hybrid Tea Sports, a two-year-old plant having two dozen blooms the first week of November, 1916. Should be budded on Multiflora, and grown on a south wall, in the Middle Atlantic States, for the best results.
MARECHAL NIEL (Noisette). Pradel, 1864. Bright rich golden yellow; large, full, fine form.
MADAME ALFRED CARRIERE (Hybrid Noisette). Schwartz, 1879. Pure white, very free; a good pillar rose.
W. A. Richardson(Noisette). Ducher, 1878. Very deep orange-yellow; small, very showy and distinct.
SHOWER or GOLD. Hybrid Wichuraiana. Paul and Son, 1910. Light cream to pale yellow; spring only; foliage fair.
In the locality of Philadelphia for dwarf climbing bloom which may be depended upon, Gruss an Teplitz budded on Multiflora is suggested. This rose grows fully eight feet high without protection and gives a quantity of bloom throughout the season. In this connection, there is a climbing sport of Gruss an Teplitz on the market, but this has not been successful, as during the second year on two plants, less than a dozen blooms appeared during the season.
Among the white roses, Furstin von Pless is a strong growing Hybrid Tea which grows to a height ,of eight feet and gives bloom throughout the spring, summer and autumn. It is not quite as hardy as Teplitz, but even with some winter killing it will grow to the height given by the end of the season, and if thoroughly protected should do better.
Among the pink roses, Lady Ursula on the Multi-flora gives a quantity of bloom throughout the entire season and is nearly as hardy as Teplitz, although it will not grow to more than five feet in height if cut back; nevertheless, if not cut back and protected, Lady Ursula makes a very much better bloomer as a semi-climber than any of the Hybrid Tea sports.
Unfortunately, there is no yellow rose with the qualities of the three just given, although Harry Kirk more nearly approaches the mark.
These roses may also be recommended for hedges in sections with the same winter temperature as Philadelphia. Farther south and on the Pacific Coast many other of the strong growing Hybrid Teas, such as Madame Caroline Testout, do well. For the far north Rugosas make very effective hedges, are absolutely hardy, and give considerable fall bloom.
In planting climbers the bed should be prepared in exactly the same way as for an ordinary bed, excepting that it should be much smaller, but the roots of the climbers will naturally take up more space underground than the roots of the dwarf bushes, and climbers should have a bed of some extent. This is particularly necessary for the Hybrid Teas, Teas and Noisettes. The bed should be made of the same depth and drained as the average rose bed noted under "Preparation." For each plant the bed should be at least two feet wide and not less than four feet in length.
In planting climbers, especially the Hybrid Teas, it is hardly necessary to say that they will not do well on the north side of any arbor or wall. Roses must have the sun in order to flourish and, besides, many climbers on a north wall would be winter killed to a very great degree. It would be easy in the case of all rustic benches, with rustic tops and arbors running east and west, to plant roses on their southern, eastern and western sides and secure plants which would entirely cover the structures. For an ordinary six-foot bench with a rustic top the same length, one good climbing rose planted on the south-ern side would be sufficient to cover the entire structure. The very hardiest climbers would make a brave effort to do well on a north wall, but unless this is the only available space we would not advise its use. There is one exception to north wall planting, as explained later.