Roses - Recipes For The Diseases Of Roses
( Originally Published 1914 )
Below are extracts from the best-known authorities, giving their recipes for mildew, black spot, rust, etc.
"THE ROSE BOOK" (Page 211). H. H. THOMAS suggests using a mixture, for mildew, of equal parts of fine quicklime and sulphur dusted on the affected areas.
"ROSES, THEIR HISTORY, DEVELOPMENT, AND CULTURE". PEMBERTON advocates the same dusting and also gives the following: 1 lb. flowers of sulphur, 1 lb. powdered quicklime. Add sufficient water to form a paste. Add one gallon of cold water. Boil for twenty minutes and when cool pour off the liquid and spray at the rate of half a pint of the above mixture to six gallons of water.
(Page 303). PEMBERTON recommends 1 1/2 lbs. of Calvert's carbolic soft soap in 7 1/2 quarts of water—a pailful; spray with one part of mixture to three parts of soft water, and he adds, "this is the remedy we apply."
"ROSES AND ROSE GROWING" (The Macmillan Co.), (Pages 137-138). Miss KINGSLEY advocates flowers of sulphur for mildew, distributed by a pair of powder bellows, and suggests applying before mildew appears. She uses Quassia Chips for Aphis, and recommends picking by hand for caterpillars.
"THE ROSE" (Page 89). ELLWANGER'S recipe for mildew is sulphur and soot, applied while the dew is on the plants so that it will adhere.
'ROSEs" (Page 52). The Garden Library of Doubleday, Page & Company suggests for black spot carbonate of copper compound, using five ounces of copper compound to three quarts of ammonia and sixty gallons of water. The spraying should be done once a week, using a hose with a nozzle that gives a fine spray.
"PICTORIAL PRACTICAL ROSE GROWING" (Pages 80-84). WRIGHT does not mention black spot, but the reference made to orange fungus or red rust is that it develops into black rust, possibly the same as the well-known black spot. This article is so clear that it is quoted verbatim.
"When the experienced rose grower observes orange-yellow spots on the leaves of his plants in early summer, he knows that he sees the advance guard of the fungoid disease known variously as orange fungus and red rust.
"Some suppose these to be separate diseases; on the contrary they are separate stages in the triune life-cycle of disease, Phragmidium subcorticatum. The first, or AEcidium, stage gives the orange fungus; the second, or Uredo, stage gives the red rust; the third, or Teleuto, stage gives a black rust.
"Where the orange fungus has obtained a strong hold, and has caused trouble for several successive years, it cannot be exterminated at a single attempt. Repeated attacks on it must be made. Measures may begin by spraying the bushes thoroughly in the spring, before growth starts, with Bordeaux mixture.
"Bordeaux Mixture.—To prepare Bordeaux mixture take 214 lbs. of sulphate of copper (bluestone), dissolve in a little hot water; 2 1/2 lbs. of freshly burned lime, dissolve in cold water; 1 lb. of agricultural treacle, 1 lb. of soft soap. Pour together when cool; stir the treacle or soft soap well in and make up to twenty-five gallons with water.
"When the first signs of the disease appear in summer, spray with carbam, repeating if necessary. The solution should reach the under as well as the upper side of the leaves. "To prepare carbam, take 1 ounce of carbonate of copper, M pint of liquid ammonia. Dissolve the carbonate of copper in the ammonia and mix with ten gallons of water."
Mr. E. M. Rosenbluth, of Wallingford, Pennsylvania, claims that, in planting, by placing one large handful of coarse sand and three handfuls of char-coal directly under the roots, varieties which ordinarily lose their foliage early, will hold the same quite well to the end of the season.
One point that all authorities seem to agree upon is the picking and burning of all dead and fallen leaves affected by black spot.
During 1915 there has been a new pest—the larvae of the white tussock moth; this insect is greenish brown with yellow markings, like a small caterpillar. At first it is less than one-quarter inch but grows rapidly as it eats the leaves. Hand picking is the safest remedy.
During the past year Alphano Humus has been used by some growers with marked success. It may be placed, in conjunction with bone meal, around the roots when the rose is planted, and also applied as a top dressing during the growing season.
At the end of the season in order to destroy any chance of rose scale and also as an additional preventive against black spot, the following solution should be made and applied to the rose bushes after the tops have been cut off :
2 lbs. sulphur
Spray the upper parts but apply with a stiff brush near the roots.