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Schools - Recent Tendencies - Continued

( Originally Published 1907 )



THE endeavor to adjust our secondary schools to the changing needs of American life, has had its influence upon curriculums, but has appeared most conspicuously in the differentiation of schools.

The old grammar schools represented the classical trend and tone in education; the academies showed the influence of the new romantic ideals ; the high schools had a touch of realism from the start, which hardly came to its full development, however, until the present generation. The schools had worked down and down to larger and larger social grades and divisions, till they had come to be, in a sense, a concern of the whole people. The educational movement became so comprehensive in its range, that it em-braced a multitude of diverse aims and aspirations. The old academies had shown great flexibility in their systems of organization and instruction ; but numerous variants from the dominant type arose in their day, as we have seen. Some of these variants were solitary institutions ; some belonged to movements which soon brought forth many schools, alike in some characteristic feature; while one movement, that which gave us the public high schools, outgrew and overshadowed all that the academies had done, and gave a different and probably more lasting character to our general provision for secondary education.

The high schools, too, have shown great adaptability to varying needs and conditions. But they have failed to meet all demands for secondary education, and we have seen private schools of many sorts — some under ecclesiastical control, some managed by private corporations, some owned and conducted by individuals in their purely private capacity — growing up and flourishing alongside of the public schools. These schools, both public and private, have been busily engaged in the attempt to satisfy the great diversity of public taste and need in this domain, and their varied activities have served to render our secondary education increasingly interesting and significant.

One of the notable tendencies of the past forty years is seen in the growth of large boarding schools under Episcopalian management. This movement is commonly traced back to a beginning in the Flushing Institute and St. Paul's College, on Long Island. The Flushing Institute was under the control of a private corporation, apparently organized as a joint stock company. But its whole educational management was in the hands of the Rev. William Augustus Muhlenberg, a man of marked and winning personality, who rose to distinction in several spheres of activity. Beginning as a boarding school for boys in 1828, it grew into a college ten years later. In the eighteen years that Dr. Muhlenberg was at the head of the institution, about nine hundred students came under his instruction. Among these were John Jay, Richard Grant White, three prospective bishops of the Protestant Episcopal church, and others who became eminent in various fields of usefulness. The college was owned and controlled by Dr. Muhlenberg alone. It was continued for three or four years after he left it to enter a pastorate in New York, and then was closed and the property sold.

Dr. Muhlenberg regarded his school as his family. He was to each of the boys in loco parentis, and the paternal type of boarding school management which he represented has entered largely into the conduct of other institutions. " Schools modelled, so far as might be, after St. Paul's," says his biographer, "had sprung up in all directions. Every diocese became ambitious to have one, and bishops and doctors of the church had resorted to College Point, and sat at his feet, as learners of his methods." St. James College, at Hagerstown, Maryland, was one of the most note-worthy of these new schools.

A little later this movement, to which Dr. Muhlenberg had given so great an impetus, resulted in the founding of a school which has lived and prospered to the present time. That is the St. Paul's School, at Concord, New Hampshire, in some sense the patriarch among the schools of this class. Dr. George Cheyne Shattuck, a former pupil of the Round Hill School at Northampton, was the founder of this school. It was declared in the deed of gift, by which he conveyed a valuable piece of real estate to the trustees whom he had chosen, that, " We are desirous of endowing a school of the highest class, for boys, in which they may obtain an education which shall fit them either for college or business ; including thorough intellectual training in the various branches of learning ; gymnastic and manly exercises adapted to pre-serve health and strengthen the physical condition ; such aesthetic culture and accomplishments as shall tend to refine the manners and elevate the taste, together with careful moral and religious instruction."

The first rector of this school, who stamped his character and ideals upon its whole organization, was the Rev. Henry Augustus Coit, a former student under Dr. Muhlenberg at College Point, and sometime instructor in the College of St. James, at Hagerstown. He presided over the institution from its opening, in 1856, down to the time of his death, in 1895. Under his management it went steadily forward, in attendance, equipment, and teaching force. In 1860 it had six masters and 43 boys; in 1870, nine masters and 100 boys; in 1880, seventeen masters and 227 boys ; in 1890, twenty-seven masters and 295 boys. The latest catalogue shows thirty-seven masters and 352 boys.

There is much in this school, as in those which have followed its lead, which reminds one of the English public schools. Not only its distinctive religious character, but its school nomenclature, in which forms and removes and other old-time expressions appear, and its pursuit of the English game of cricket, introduced by the founder himself in the earlier days, all call up associations with Rugby and Harrow and other great schools of the mother land. It is not to be supposed, however, that these resemblances indicate a purpose to make of St. Paul's and the other schools of its class mere imitations of their English prototypes. It is more likely that these American schools, having received inspiration and suggestion from across the water, are working them out in such forms as American conditions seem to call for, and that the occasional reproduction of distinctively English usages is a mere incident of the process. In its earlier history, the school year at St. Paul's lasted from December to October, with a brief recess in May. The charges for tuition and residence were three hundred dollars a year. Since 1864 these charges have slowly risen to seven hundred dollars .

St. Mark's School, at Southborough, Massachusetts, was founded by Joseph Burnett, in 1865. It is said that its establishment was suggested by the fact that the dormitories of St. Paul's School were already full, and new boys could gain admission to that school only after a long period of waiting. Beginning with twelve boys, St. Mark's soon had to build a new dormitory for forty-five, which was soon thereafter enlarged to provide for sixty. When this pro-vision was again increased, in 1890, and one hundred boys were accommodated, that number was fixed as the final limit. In recent years this limit has been somewhat exceeded. The school is under a board of trustees, who appoint a head-master in whom the actual administration is vested. The bishop of the diocese (Protestant Episcopal) is visitor of the school.

The Shattuck School, at Faribault, Minnesota, named for the founder of St. Paul's School, took definite shape in 1867. Groton School, at Groton, Massachusetts, took its place in this sequence of foundations in 1884 ; and others have followed in their line.

This notable group of Episcopalian schools is representative of a larger class of boarding schools, under various forms of control, which have been growing up in recent years. Another important institution of this class is the Lawrenceville School, established on the John C. Green foundation at Lawrenceville, New Jersey, in 1883, in which the household or cottage system of school management has been carried to a high development.

The military ideal in education was quickened by the experiences of our Civil War. It has reappeared in the organization of school battalions in a number of high schools, from Boston to San Francisco ; in ecclesiastical schools, like that at Faribault; and in other institutions under various forms of private control. Many schools have been established in which the military organization is not simply one aspect of the life of the institution, but gives it instead its dominant character. The Michigan Military Academy, on the shore of Orchard Lake, may be mentioned as an example of this type of institution. Colonel Rogers established this school in 1877, proposing to make of it an institution in which boys should be put through a course of effective military training, and at the same time be fitted for admission to the leading colleges, both east and west. The school made its way quickly into public favor, and has had a highly interesting career .

One recent foundation is so unique and of such great proportions that it can hardly be passed by in such an account as this. The Jacob Tome Institute, founded in 1889, at Port Deposit, Maryland, received from its founder, by gift and bequest, a sum amounting to more than $2,500,000. The character of this Institute can hardly be set forth, for it is not yet clearly determined ; but there is reason to hope that the management will make of it in time a very important addition to our provision for secondary education. At present, a free elementary school is maintained by the corporation, together with a secondary school for both boys and girls. Instruction in this " Senior School" is also free to residents of Maryland. Others pay a tuition fee of one hundred dollars a year, with an additional charge of three hundred dollars for such as live in the boarding hall. The act of incorporation calls for instruction not only in the usual school studies, but also in manual training, and in domestic and other useful arts. Several courses of instruction have accordingly been offered, some preparatory to college and others of a more general character, besides courses in manual training, in commerce, and in art. A school of commerce, of college grade, has been announced as projected but has not yet been organized.

It would be too large an undertaking to give any account of the private day schools which have grown up in American cities within recent years ; yet it is not to be forgotten that their number is great and their service highly important. Some are fitting schools for college, in which cramming is carried to the last degree of refinement. Some are finishing schools for young ladies, which attain their object beyond all question. But it can hardly be doubted that the majority of these schools are under the influence of a genuine educational purpose, and many of them are doing work of the greatest value, as is shown by the high character and sound culture of students whom they have sent out.

The Roman Catholic educational movement in this country received a new impetus from the Third Plenary Council held at Baltimore in 1884. Parish priests were solemnly charged by this council with the establishment and maintenance of parochial schools, and Catholic parents directed to send their children to such schools, except in special cases. This action merely followed and emphasized that of the Second Plenary Council, held in 1866. But a new step of great significance was that resulting in the establishment, at Washington, D. C., of the Catholic University of America, which was opened for theological students in 1889, and for students in philosophy, law, and technology in 1895.

In their recent development, Catholic schools have in several particulars been frankly assimilated with the courses and methods of the public schools which they parallel. Under the lead of the rector of the Catholic University, an Association of Catholic Colleges of the United States has been formed, which has now held three annual conferences ; and at the latest of these conferences, Bishop Conaty, in his opening address as presiding officer, urged the importance of unifying the system of Catholic education, through a more complete organization of high schools, which should link the existing parochial schools with the Catholic colleges.

This project has been widely discussed of late, in Catholic circles, and it is not unlikely that the next important advance in Catholic education will be seen in the more general establishment of schools of this kind. The Rev. J. A. Burns, C.S.C., in an address before the conference mentioned above, called attention to the fact that, in the year 1898-99, there were 646 boys and 1,342 girls in the 53 Catholic high schools then in existence, attached to elementary schools. He argued in favor of the building up of such schools, " as the connecting link between parochial school and college." He would make them " a system of schools parallel, as nearly as may be, to the system of public high schools." One of the most notable steps already taken, in the direction indicated by these recent utterances, was the establishment several years ago of the Cahill High School, an endowed, free, Catholic school, in the city of Philadelphia.

Similar schools have been established at Peoria, Providence, and elsewhere.

The differentiation of schools thus far considered is that on the side of private establishments. While there has been a notable development of private secondary education, in several directions, within the past generation, it is a fact of great significance that this movement has not yet begun to compete in any marked degree with the public high school movement. Up to the eighties of the nineteenth century, less than half of the secondary school students in the United States were in public high schools. Within that decade the proportion was reversed. In the year 1887—88 the public schools are found passing their competitors for the first time. In 1889—90 the public high schools contained more than two-thirds of our secondary school students, and this pro-portion has increased every year since that time, so far as the statistics have yet been published. According to the latest report of the United States Commissioner of Education, that for the year 1899-1900, 82.41 per cent of the secondary school students in the United States were in public, and 17.59 in private schools.

Other differentiations of our secondary education should be briefly noted, the most of which have affected both public schools and those under private management. And first of these, the provision for separate schooling of boys and girls. The report of the Commissioner of Education for 1896—97 showed a total of 5,109 public high schools in the whole country, of which 35 were for boys only, 26 for girls only, and the remainder co-educational. The same report showed a total of 2,100 private high schools, academies, etc., of which 351 were for boys only, 537 for girls only, and 1,212 co-educational.

There has been some differentiation of secondary schools on the color line. In the northern and western states, white and colored students, where there are colored students of secondary grade, commonly attend the same schools. But in the southern states separate schools are provided for those of African race. The report of the Commissioner of Education for 1896—97 showed 169 schools in the United States for the secondary and higher education of colored youth exclusively. In many of these schools both grades of instruction were provided in the same institution. About twenty of the number were public high schools. The remainder were private or denominational institutions. In these 169 schools, 15,203 colored students were receiving instruction of secondary grade. The report for 1899—1900 showed that 5,075 colored students were pursuing secondary school studies in public high schools in the southern states, and 3,320 in such schools in other portions of the Union.

Another special type of school, the evening high school, has been established in a number of our larger cities. Schools of this sort have offered very elastic courses of study, suited to the varied needs of their clientage, and have been a great boon to many who have been obliged to work by day after the completion of an elementary school course.

The European manual training exhibits at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, in 1876, gave a strong impetus to a movement, already under discussion and even tentatively begun, toward the establishment of manual training schools in American cities. St. Louis took a step forward, in 1879, in the establishment of such a school in connection with Washington University. In 1884 similar schools were established, some under private and some under public control, in Baltimore, Chicago, Toledo, New York, and Eau Claire, Wisconsin. The discussions of the year 1882 in the National Educational Association, together with important articles in the great public journals, had given new force to the movement. In these early schools the idea of manual training for the purposes of general culture was usually uppermost, their projectors disclaiming any intention of establishing schools for the teaching of trades.

More recently, trade schools have been established in the largest cities, but for the most part under private initiative and control. A notable school of this sort is the California School of Mechanical Arts, established at San Francisco by James Lick, the founder of the Lick Observatory. Mr. Lick, in 1875, conveyed to certain trustees a large amount of property, to be devoted to various public uses. He directed that the sum of $540,000 should be set aside to found and endow a school " to educate males and females in the practical arts of life." After prolonged litigation the school contemplated in this gift came into being in 1895. It receives pupils who have finished the work of the grammar school, and offers them a course of instruction and training four years in length. Some studies of a general character are included in this course ; but the distinguishing feature of the school is its provision for technical instruction preparatory to the pursuit of several of the common mechanical trades. Each pupil devotes the first two years in the school to laying a broad foundation in drawing, mathematics, natural science, and general manual training, and to the discovery of his own special tastes and aptitudes. At the end of this period he selects the trade which he will pursue, and the last two years are devoted to specific preparation for the practice of this trade. The school is free to boys and girls from any part of California.

The Wilmerding school, established in 1898 for similar purposes by a bequest of Mr. J. Clute Wilmerding, has been organized in such close connection with the Lick school that the two may be conducted on a co-operative basis. The Regents of the University of California were made trustees of the fund of $400,000 bequeathed by Mr. Wilmerding to found this school.

In a recent address before the Twentieth Century Club of Boston, President Pritchett of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology gave an interesting survey of the provision for technical instruction and training for particular trades now available in the city of Boston. Such provision is found to be meagre and inadequate, although some good beginnings have been made. President Pritchett called especial attention to the good work done on certain technical lines in the evening classes of the Young Men's Christian Association, the Young Men's Christian Union, and other benevolent and private organizations .

In the most of the cities of the country, both large and small, the evening classes of the Young Men's Christian Associations are rendering a very important service, offering as they do both technical and " continuation " courses in a great variety of subjects. Such classes have been maintained for many years ; but they have been greatly extended and improved within the past decade. One chief influence furthering this new development emanated from the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn. The International Committee of these Associations have employed a secretary to foster and systematize this side of their varied activity. Their state organizations stimulate and unify the work of the local Associations ; and the local Associations themselves, working in full independence, employ skilled directors for their educational agencies, offer courses in such subjects as are most in demand, under the best instructors they can secure, conduct regular examinations, and issue certificates of proficiency to students who have satisfied strict scholastic requirements. Other religious and benevolent societies do work of a somewhat similar sort, though generally less extensive and systematic than that of the organization referred to.

The Pratt Institute is itself a typical instance of a class of large urban foundations which are of untold value as supplemental agencies of education. The Cooper Institute of New York is the patriarch of such establishments, and the Drexel Institute of Philadelphia is another notable example. It is an immensely varied work which is done by these institutes, and each has followed its own separate course of development. But their activities are chiefly educational, and fall largely in what may be regarded as the field of secondary education ; more particularly, too, in secondary education of a technical sort.

Commercial subjects have a large place in the courses offered by these various institutes and associations, and this side of vocational instruction calls for some special notice. For several generations, bookkeeping and other subjects of this class have found a place, rather uncertain and variable, to be sure, in the courses of study of secondary schools. In the high schools and in many private schools, regular commercial courses have been organized. For the most part, however, such courses have been less exacting than the main courses of the schools in which they have been offered, and too often they have been the last resort of lazy or incompetent students. Not infrequently, too, they have been short courses, only one year or two years in length. There have been honorable exceptions, but on the whole these commercial courses have proved unsatisfactory.

There has been, however, a real and insistent demand for distinctively commercial education, and this has been met in part by private schools, " business colleges," of varying degrees of excellence, which have appeared in most of the larger cities of the country. Among the institutions of higher education, the University of Pennsylvania, with its Wharton School, stood alone in its provision for the advanced study of commercial operations, until the closing years of the nineteenth century, when a movement appeared almost simultaneously in a number of our colleges and universities, looking to the making of provision, on a high plane of efficiency, for studies of this kind. A new interest has arisen, too, in commercial education of the secondary grade. The setting up of a Business High School in Washington, District of Columbia, is one indication of such interest. Of much greater significance is the establishment of a High School of Commerce by the Board of Education of the City of New York. This school will be opened in the fall of 1902, under the principalship of Mr. J. J. Shepard, and provided with a corps of thirty instructors. A new building is in process of erection for its use. The school will offer a course seven years in length, resting upon the ordinary elementary instruction offered in the primary and grammar schools.

These few pages have given but the merest hint of the varied development of our secondary schools in recent years, but to go at all fully into the subject would add unduly to the bulk of this volume. In bringing our survey of this class of recent tendencies to a close, it will be well to make note of the new movements affecting secondary education in our great and growing cities.

The increasing demand for high school instruction in our cities within recent years, has taxed to the utmost the ingenuity and the resources of those officially charged with the management of public schools. New problems not a few have presented _themselves. At what point does the centralization of high school instruction in a single school cease to be economical or of educational advantage ? When more than one high school is provided, may the division best be made on territorial lines, or according to the sex or the special pursuits of the students to be accommodated ? What system of supervision will best regulate the common interests of all such schools and their relations one to another ? What principles shall guide in the distribution of funds among the several schools ? Questions such as these, for the most part new in this generation, have come up for answer. And each community has answered them, provisionally at least, in its own way, under the influence of numberless local conditions. The different solutions reached in Chicago, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Denver, Cincinnati, Boston, Baltimore, and a score of other cities, are full of interest, and might well fill a volume on The new systems of high school administration. Such a volume should deal also with the varying duties of high school principals, the departmental organization of instruction, the thousand-andone questions relating to high school buildings and the equipment and management of workshops and laboratories.

This work cannot attempt even a superficial account of these things. Some little attention should be given, how-ever, to the new high school system of the metropolis, which in its rapid development is probably without a parallel in the history of education.

From. 1870, when the Normal College was established, down to 1897, when the new high schools were opened, the public provision for secondary education in what is now the Borough of Manhattan and the Bronx was substantially as follows : The Free Academy, now become the City College, could care for a limited number of boys, giving them a course leading to an academic degree. The Normal College offered secondary instruction, with a professional bent, to girls who wished to become teachers. And there was an evening high school, which provided a continuation course for such as had completed their elementary studies, and were now occupied during the day with the duties of active life.

The City College and the Normal College took the best of those who offered themselves for admission, but they had accommodations for only a small fraction of those who had finished the elementary school course and wished to go on with higher studies. It does not appear clearly why these facilities had not been enlarged to meet the growing need. There was probably an unwillingness on the part of successive school boards to devote public funds to secondary education when so many children were continuously unprovided with opportunities for even primary instruction. But the countless other influences which must have been at work, no one outside of the City of New York may ever hope to untangle.

There had grown up'in the meantime within the city a noteworthy group of secondary schools under private control, some of which had a national reputation. The school of the Dutch Reformed Church, established in 1633 for elementary instruction, was still alive, and had grown into the Collegiate School, for the secondary education of boys. Trinity School, another colonial establishment for elementary instruction, had also become an important secondary school. The old Columbia Grammar School, which shares in the classical reputation of Professor Anthon, continued its work, though no longer connected with Columbia College. There were such schools for girls as Mrs. Reed's, Miss Spence's, the Misses Ely's, the Brearley schools, and many others well known in the city and far beyond its limits as well; and boys' schools, without a colonial history, were making a strong modern record—the Cutler School, the school of John Browning, and several others ; while the two schools of Dr. Sachs were making separate provision for both boys and girls.

There remained, however, the growing demand for free public high schools, and under Mayor Strong's administration the preliminary steps were taken by the Board of Education to satisfy this need. The new high schools which were finally secured, as an outcome of this movement, were three in number : the De Witt Clinton School, for boys ; the Wadleigh School, for girls; and the Peter Cooper School; now called the Morris School, for both girls and boys. They were opened in the fall of 1897. Dr. John T. Buchanan was called from the Kansas City High School to become principal of the school for boys; Dr. John G. Wight, from the Girls' High School of Philadelphia, to become principal of the school for girls ; while the mixed school was put in charge of Dr. Edward J. Goodwin, who was called from the principalship of the high school at Newton, Massachusetts. Dr. Buchanan, beginning with about five hundred boys, in a condemned and disused grammar school building, saw his school grow to twelve hundred in a single year, and to twenty-four hundred in two years. Each year the enormous growth called for the opening of an " annex" to the school in another part of the city, till now the De Witt Clinton School is in reality a system of four schools, all remote from one another, with a teaching force of nearly one hundred instructors. Each annex is in charge of a "first assistant," while Dr. Buchanan continues to be principal over the whole, four-parted institution.

The Wadleigh School has gone through a similar and nearly parallel development, the number of teachers having grown to a little over one hundred. Provision has been made for four annexes, in widely separated sections of the city. The Morris School has been extended to two annexes and has a force of seventy teachers.

The regular high school enrolment of this chief borough of New York City has grown, then, in five years from nothing to not far from ten thousand ; and there is no sign as yet that the annual increase has reached its term. An attendance of several hundred is expected at the new High School of Commerce, when it shall open in the fall of 1902. A manual training high school is expected to appear, although the steps toward its establishment have halted for a time. And the stronger private schools of the city are prosperous as ever, and go on their way undisturbed by this great expansion in the public schools.

The third group of recent tendencies to be discussed in these chapters is that looking toward a better adjustment of our secondary education to the needs of individual students. In this we find ourselves dealing not only with changes in the organization of schools, but still more with a tendency affecting the underlying theory of education.

For several generations our secondary education worked on as best it might, feeling its way among the influences of tradition, of social unrest, of political and religious revolution, with very little attempt at the interpretation of those influences under the guidance of any comprehensive theory. This was especially true of that dominant side of secondary education which was chiefly concerned with preparing students for college matriculation. So far as the cultivation of educational doctrine with reference to education in " fitting-schools " is concerned, the greater part of the nineteenth century was a barren and desolate period indeed.

In the meantime a deep interest had been aroused in the theory of elementary education. Under the influence of the better normal schools, this interest was widely propagated and was made to awaken some real professional spirit among the teachers and supervisors of elementary schools. Much of the educational theory so spread abroad was superficial ; and much that had been far from superficial in its original setting-forth was misunderstood and misapplied by its ex-pounders and adherents. But a sincere effort was making toward rationalized processes and rational criticism, and that is a thing of great price. From another point of view and in a very different way, the theory of education was studied profoundly and set forth in luminous addresses and reports by a notable line of college presidents. But in college faculties and in the teaching force of a large part of our secondary schools there reigned a settled indifference if not a positive opposition to the study of educational questions with reference to their bearing upon education. If this condition of things is now passing, the change is mainly due on the one hand to the educational spirit and influence of a few great college and university presidents, and on the other hand to the spirit and influence of the normal schools.

Even now one would hardly venture to say that we have any full-rounded theory of secondary education. But we have a new and better professional attitude. School men are more disposed to take account of theoretical considerations in the attempt to solve school problems.

Such theoretical considerations as have been brought into prominence have been drawn from various quarters. We shall take note here of only one group — that which has been drawn from the study of adolescence as a stage of individual development. The modern movement of general educational theory was, in its earlier stages, predominantly psychological, with a strong tendency toward a rather abstract individualism. This new movement affecting the special theory of secondary education has been taking a similar course, with this important difference that it draws upon the later and not the earlier psychology. Adolescence has become a fad-word in some quarters ; but it cannot be doubted that one of the main aspects of any comprehensive doctrine of this stage of education will always be that which depends upon a knowledge of the normal stages and processes by which children pass, through youth, up into mature man-hood and womanhood.

The trend of these studies in their bearing upon educational problems was discussed four years ago by Dr. William H. Burnham in an address before the New England Association of Colleges and Preparatory Schools.l Dr. Burnham held that the current dissatisfaction with the results of our secondary school training is due in large measure to the fact that "we have devoted attention to the content of culture and to the scholastic product to the neglect of the object of culture —the growing youth." From the standpoint of psychology and anthropology, the youth of high school age presents certain developmental characteristics which are of great importance. About this time comes a period of accelerated growth, with attendant increase of vitality. There appears a liability to certain nervous diseases, which may, however, be outgrown. Great differences are found to exist among children of this age as to their liability to fatigue. These differences may be measured through outward manifestations. It has been proposed that students be graded according to their ability to do mental work without fatigue.

This is a period of functional acquisition and readjustment. Mental change and psychical activity appear in " intellectual awakening, the storm and stress of doubt, the conversions, the intense emotional life, the fluctuating interests and enthusiasms, the general instability, and not infrequently the moral aberrations and perversities." How far the period of accelerated growth coincides with or differs from that of increased intellectual activity is an open question.

Secondary education, according to Dr. Burnham, may be adapted to the needs of developing youth in some such ways as these :

1. By understanding the greatness of the opportunity. The teachers in the higher schools have their pupils at this period of functional acquisition and readjustment, when they are open to new impressions with almost hypnotic susceptibility."

2. It is a time for many-sided interest and self-revelation ; for self-assertion ; for increasing self-direction.

3. It is a time for much activity, bodily and mental, which the school should turn into legitimate channels.

4. There are great individual variations at this stage of development : hence the schools should "demand an educated teacher and give him freedom."

5. "The opinion is still prevalent that the elementary teacher needs special training, but that the secondary teacher is such by the grace of God and the authority of one's alma mater." Over against this view should be set the demand that the secondary school teacher shall have professional training, which shall include a study of the psychology of adolescence.

6. The ordinary college entrance examination is too narrow a test of " the manifoldness of adolescent character." It should be supplemented by a report from the candidate's teacher in the secondary school, covering those qualities — physical and moral as well as intellectual — which must be known before the candidate's fitness to undertake the higher studies can fairly be determined.

The suggestion was repeated that the evils affecting our secondary and collegiate education are due to the lack of an understanding of adolescence rather than to faults of the curriculum. The demand that a psychological rather than a purely logical arrangement of studies should be followed, was illustrated by reference to the Frankfort plan, which the speaker warmly approved.

At the same session of the New England Association, Dr. Fred W. Atkinson, then principal of the Springfield, Massachusetts, high school, presented a paper on The capacities of secondary school students, the general trend of which was in harmony with that presented by Dr. Burnham. An ex-tended discussion followed the reading of these papers, which showed that a new direction had been given by them to the thought of the Association, and that the suggestions which they offered were cordially welcomed.

The new emphasis upon the study of adolescence has profoundly influenced the spirit of our secondary education, and such change as it has produced has generally been a change for the better. Its chief significance thus far lies in this general and pervasive influence, rather than in any specific reform or constructive undertaking to which it has given definite direction. Strong protests have been uttered against the excessive individualism which it is supposed to foster, and more fundamental objection has appeared against any attempt to base a theory of education upon psychology alone. But the working out of any comprehensive theory in this field is largely a task for the future.



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