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Early American Academies

( Originally Published 1907 )

IN view of those beginnings which have already been traced, we may say that the academy movement was an outcome of nonconformity. While largely in line with the educational tradition of the time, it involved also a considerable range of educational dissent, along with the more obvious element of religious dissent. Especially in the eighteenth century, it was largely a middle-class movement. If there was in it something of crude philistinism, there was also in it some vital appreciation of the educational significance of that great movement by which the common people were rising to power and prominence.

The great increase of sectarianism in America, where the several church establishments were less powerful than that of England, brought forward a new educational problem. How should education be promoted in a society split in every direction with religious diversity ? The significant fact was that there were in that society men who appreciated the need and value of education. There was a growing number of good citizens who, however much they might differ as to religion, agreed in their love of learning. Such men gradually found it possible to work together on the boards of trustees of the new institutions. Much concession and adjustment was necessary; but the cooperative scheme won its way as it was found to be workable. The history of the Philadelphia academy will give some idea of the general course of this movement.

As early as 1743, Benjamin Franklin had sketched a plan for the establishment of an academy. But the times were not propitious, and he was a man who could wait. Six years later the outlook was more favorable, and after consultation with some of his friends he published his Proposals relating to the education of youth in Pennsylvania. "The good education of youth," it read, " has been esteemed by wise men in all ages. as the surest foundation of the happiness both of private families and of commonwealths." The decline of learning in the colonies was deplored. Many of the fathers had been well educated in Europe ; but " the present race are not thought to be generally of equal ability ; for, though the American youth are allowed not to want capacity, yet the best capacities require cultivation." It was accordingly proposed that some gentlemen of leisure and public spirit should secure a charter authorizing them to erect an academy. These trustees should take a personal interest in the school, and should undertake in practical ways to promote the welfare of its students when they should go forth to the duties of active life.

It was further proposed that a building should be provided in a healthful situation, with garden, orchard, meadow, and field ; and furnished with a library, philosophical apparatus, and other appliances. There should be a rector and the necessary number of tutors under him. Provision should be made for boarders. Sports were recommended for the physical good of the students : running, leaping, wrestling, and swimming.

" As to their studies, it would be well if they could be taught everything that is useful, and everything that is ornamental. But art is long and their time is short. It is therefore proposed, that they learn those things that are likely t6 be most useful and most ornamental ; regard being had to the several professions for which they are intended."

All were to be taught penmanship, drawing (with perspective). arithmetic (with accounts, and the first principles of geometry and astronomy), and the English language (grammar, oral reading, and composition). The greatest stress was laid upon studies in English. Authors of the late seventeenth and the early eighteenth century were recommended for study ; but readings in history were still more strongly emphasized and were made to constitute the vital centre of the whole plan of instruction. "If history be made a constant part of their reading, . . . may not almost all kinds of useful knowledge be that way introduced to advantage?" Geography, chronology, ancient customs, oratory, civil government, logic, languages, and even morality and religion, were to find their first entrance into the attention and interest of the students through the channel of history.

But, the proposals continued, there should be also readings in natural history, both because of the utility of its several divisions and for the sake of the improvement of conversation. This study should be accompanied by practical exercises in agriculture and horticulture. Commerce, industry, and mechanics would be entertaining and useful studies for all.

With all this the academy should cultivate " that benignity of mind, which . . . is the foundation of what is called good breeding," and should impress on the minds of the youth the idea of what constitutes true merit, which is " an inclination, joined with an ability, to serve mankind, one's country, friends, and family." True learning gives or in-creases the ability to perform such service.

Franklin would gladly have made this academy an English school pure and simple. But he yielded to men of wealth and learning whose cooperation was needed, and included both ancient and modern languages. As a pupil in the Boston Latin School, he had himself made only a beginning in the study of Latin. In the severe course of self-education which he had carried out during his early ru The Proposals were distributed among the public-spirited citizens of Philadelphia, and met with general favor. A subscription was soon set on foot with a view to carrying them into effect. This was very successful. The individual contributions, subscribed for a period of five years, soon amounted to the goodly sum of £800 a year. Then aid was solicited from the city government, and the response was a donation of £200 from the public treasury, with the added promise of £100 a year for five years. The subscribers chose twenty-four prominent citizens from their number to act as trustees of the funds thus secured. This board of trustees adopted a set of Constitutions of the Publick Academy In the City of Philadelphia, hired a house, engaged masters, and opened the school.

The school was popular from the start, and the house was soon too small to hold it. It happened that the building erected in 1740 for the double purpose of providing a preaching place for Whitefield and other itinerants and housing a charity school, was now available. It is doubtful whether the proposed charity school had ever been opened. The property was encumbered by debt. Fortunately Franklin was one of the trustees of this hall and also a trustee of the new academy. He brought about an agreement between the two boards, by which the academy acquired the building under promise that a charity school should be conducted on the premises.

The Whitefield building was accordingly opened as the home of the academy in January, 1751. This was made a formal occasion, and a sermon was preached by the Rev. Richard Peters. In due time a charity school, of lower grade than the academy, was opened in accordance with the terms of the transfer. Then a charter was secured from the proprietaries of the province, in 1753, incorporating The Trustees of the Academy and Charitable School in the Province of Pennsylvania. This body was made self-perpetuating. Its members must always be residents of Pennsylvania, within five miles of the seat of the academy. The trustees were authorized "to erect . . . and support an academy or any other kind of seminary of learning in any place within the said province of Pennsylvania, where they shall judge the same to be most necessary and convenient for the instruction, improvement, and education of youth in any kind of literature, erudition, arts, and sciences, which they shall think fitting and proper to be taught." This was a remarkably broad provision.

The academy was organized in three schools, the Latin, the English, and the mathematical, each having a separate master. The first rector, Mr. David Martin; died before he had been with the school a full year. Then the Rev. Francis Alison, who had conducted the Presbyterian " academy " at New London, was made master of the Latin school ; and seems later to have become rector of the academy. Mr. David James Dove was the English master. He devoted a part of each day to a private school for girls. In the academy, he had about ninety pupils; but some difference having arisen between him and the trustees he withdrew after somewhat more than two years of service, and there after conducted a private school for boys besides continuing his girls' school. His salary in the academy was £150 a year.

The Latin master received £200 a year. It was originally intended that such instruction as the Latin scholars might receive in history, logic, English, etc., should be given by the Latin master; and the Latin master was expected to assist the English master as he might find opportunity.

No assistant teacher or usher was to be provided in the Latin School for less than twenty boys, nor in the English school for less than forty boys. In the earlier days, the attendance in the Latin School seems to have been about sixty. Mr. Dove's ninety in the English School was reduced to about forty after his withdrawal. The tuition fee in each of these schools was £4 a year. Mr. Theophilus Grew was the "mathematical professor," at a salary of £125. As early as 1751 there were three " assistant tutors " employed in the academy, at a salary of £60 each.

The Rev. William Smith, a graduate of the University of Aberdeen, and a clergyman of the Church of England, having come to America, became deeply interested in the movement for the establishment of King's College, and took occasion to publish his ideas upon the higher education in a work entitled A general idea of the College of Mirania. This came to the notice of Franklin, who entered into correspondence with Mr. Smith with reference to the affairs of the academy. The result was that in 1754 Mr. Smith was appointed to the teaching force of the institution. A fourth school was then added, the philosophical. Mr. Smith (later Doctor of Divinity) was placed at the head of this school, in which he taught logic, rhetoric, and natural and moral philosophy, to the more advanced students.

Then followed the reincorporation of the institution as the College, Academy, and Charitable School of Philadelphia. The new charter simply confirmed and extended the provisions of the earlier one, the chief addition being the power to confer academic degrees. Dr. Smith was made provost of the institution, and he continued at its head until 1779. Dr. Alison was made vice-provost. After the reorganization in 1755, the Latin and Philosophical schools were spoken of as the college, and the other two constituted the academy.

It appears at once that the early history of this institution was very different from that of any other American school.

But some of its characteristics were typical, and may be regarded as symptoms of the general change which was coming over our educational thought.

The ends which the academy was intended to serve were set forth by the trustees in their petition for aid from the city treasury. They were four in number :

" 1. That the Youth of Pensilvania may have an opportunity of receiving a good Education at home, and be under no necessity of going abroad for it; Whereby not only considerable Expense may be saved to the Country, but a stricter Eye may be had over their morals by their Friends and Relations.

" 2. That a number of our Natives will be hereby qualified to bear Magistracies, and execute other public offices of Trust, with Reputation to themselves & Country ; There being at present great Want of Persons so qualified in the several Counties of this Province. And this is the more necessary now to be provided for by the English here, as vast Numbers of Foreigners are yearly imported among us, totally ignorant of our Laws, Customs and Language.

" 3. That a number of the poorer Sort will be hereby qualified to act as Schoolmasters in the Country, to teach Children Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, and the Grammar of their Mother Tongue, and being of good morals and known character, may be recommended from the Academy to Country Schools for that purpose ; The Country suffering at present very much for want of good Schoolmasters, and obliged frequently to employ in their Schools, vicious imported Servants, or concealed Papists, who by their bad Examples and Instructions often deprave the Morals or corrupt the Principles of the Children under their Care.

" 4. It is thought that a good Academy erected in Philadelphia, a healthy place where Provisions are plenty, situated in the Center of the Colonies, may draw a number of Students from the neighboring Provinces, who must spend Considerable Sums yearly among us, in Payment for their Lodging, Diet, Apparel, &c., which will be an Advantage to our Traders, Artisans, and Owners of Houses and Lands. . . ."

These arguments call for a few words of comment. The need of home schools to enable native-born Americans to compete with foreigners in public and commercial employments, was much in the minds of thinking men among the colonists. We have seen that the consideration of this need entered largely into the discussions which arose about the county school system of Maryland. It became a subject of dispute in Virginia also. With the growth of business concerns in American cities, it became necessary to send to Europe for young men who had received a training not easily got in this country. This state of things plainly demanded some sort of remedial action on the part of the colonists.

The need of education because of the increase of foreign immigration became much more serious as time went on. We shall see that the service of the academies in providing the country with better teachers commanded much attention when the academy movement got well under way. And this is not the only instance in which we find that those of "the poorer sort" were thought of for future schoolmasters. The fear of secret Roman Catholic influence which is referred to, was deep-seated in the minds of Englishmen everywhere, and was, of course, based on political as well as religious considerations.

It may well be supposed that the religious bearings of education would be taken less seriously by such a man as Franklin than the thrifty forethought expressed in the fourth argument. This argument was reinforced by European precedents, and it was doubtless as influential as any in securing the desired subsidy from the town council. The realism of the paragraph gets its finishing touch in that delicate allusion to school-boy appetite. How well the academy fulfilled the expectation of commercial advantage to the city appears from a communication by " Philo-Marylandicus " in the Maryland Gazette, in 1754. The writer was urging the establishment of a college in Maryland ; and in support of that project he presented an estimate of the amount of good money drawn from Maryland to Philadelphia by the academy in that city. At least one hundred Marylanders, he declared, were at-tending the academy, and these might be expected to spend fifty pounds sterling a year each in Philadelphia, making a total of five thousand pounds ?

The religious difficulty had been met by making representatives of different denominations members of the first board of trustees. This probably indicated a purpose on the part of the promoters to be fair to all Protestant sects and to be bound to none. Their attitude is a sign that the transfer of emphasis in education from religion to morals was already begun. Franklin would surely favor such a change of front, in so far as it might be found politic ; for his religious creed was short and simple, and he had made systematic endeavors to attain to moral perfection.

A great subscription was raised in England for the college and academy in 1762-64. This was made the occasion of a joint letter to the trustees by the Archbishop of Canterbury, the proprietaries of the province, and an eminent dissenter, recommending in substance that the distribution of trusteeships among the several denominations be made permanent. The trustees accordingly made a formal declaration that neither " the members of the Church of England or those dissenting from them [should] (in any future Election . . . ) be put on any worse Footing in this Semi-nary than they are [at the time referred to]." In the course of the troubles which befell the institution during the Revolutionary War, it was charged that this declaration was in effect a narrowing of the original intent of the foundation.

Franklin had to make many concessions to get the academy launched in the first instance, and it finally swung so far away from his original purpose that he found himself much out of sympathy with its management. He was especially disappointed in the English school, which had been the centre of his interest in the undertaking.

New schools devoted to new ideas tend generally to be-come assimilated with the educational traditions about them. This was the case with the academies, and the academy at Philadelphia presents a striking example. The classical tradition was strong when this school was founded — a tradition backed up by all the artificial classicism of Augustan England, and of the European mode established by the France of Louis XIV. and Louis XV. Orators decorated their speeches with Latin quotations. Contributors to the newspapers signed themselves Cato or Justitia or Philo-something-or-other. These things had degenerated into a mere shibboleth of an educated class. The new life that was to be put into classical studies by the New Humanism of Germany was not yet felt.

The growth of nationalism and of national literatures had hardly begun to affect the schools. It took the romantic movement and the American and French revolutions to give the mother tongue an assured position in programmes of instruction. This was true of other countries as well as of England and her colonies. So the English school in the academy at Philadelphia was in advance of the times. It is important, however, in that it looked to the future.

Before the academy was fairly started, Franklin had pre-pared a Sketch of an English school. This was a proposed course of studies in English for a school of six classes. Its recommendations run about as follows : Pupils should have learned to read and write before entering this school. In the lowest class, they are to study the rules of English grammar, orthography, and short pieces, such as Croxall's Fables and little stories. Attention is to be given to the meaning of words and to oral reading. In the second class, the pupils will read short pieces like those of the Spectator, with some grammatical study and an account of the meanings of words, of sentences, and of the piece as a whole. Other lessons may be devoted to selections from plays and speeches, letters, Hudibrastic and heroic verse, etc. Such lessons should be chosen as contain useful instruction. When the meaning has been mastered, attention should be devoted to oral reading. Each boy should have a dictionary.

In the third class, especial attention should be given to rhetoric and the practice of speaking. The reading of history is to begin with Rollin's ancient history, and the reading of natural and mechanic history, with the Spectacle de la Nature. Composition is to be the special concern of the fourth class. The letters of Pope and Sir William Temple are recommended as models. Dr. Johnson's Ethica elementa, or first principles of morality, is to be read in this class. The fifth class is to write little essays in prose and verse, and read Dr. Johnson's Noetica, or first principles of human knowledge. The sixth, besides continuing studies already begun, is to read the best English authors, as Tillotson, Milton, Locke, Addison, Pope, Swift, the higher papers in the Spectator and Guardian, the best translations of Homer, Virgil, and Horace, of Telemachus, Travels of Cyrus, etc.

The school hours should be so arranged that some classes might be with the writing master, improving their hands, and some with the mathematical master, studying arithmetic, accounts, geography, use of the globes, drawing, mechanics, etc., while the rest are under the English master's instruction.

Some forty years after the publication of this sketch, near the close of his long life, Franklin addressed to the trustees of the college and academy a protest against their treatment of the English school. He reviewed the history of the institution, showing that the English school had suffered from systematic discrimination in favor of the classical studies, until the English master had been reduced to the position of a mere assistant to the Latin master, whose pupils he instructed in the English branches, or of a teacher of little boys in the elements commonly taught in a dame school. He declared that " the Latinists were combined to decry the English school as useless. It was without example, they said, as indeed they still say, that a school for teaching the vulgar tongue, and the sciences in that tongue was ever joined with a college, and the Latin masters were fully competent to teach the English." He proposed, finally, that since the interests of the English school were not properly guarded under the arrangement then existing, that school should be set apart as a separate institution and given its share of the common funds. It does not appear that action was taken along the line of this suggestion.

In the third quarter of the eighteenth century, there were other schools in the middle colonies and farther south which were commonly called academies. But no such institution has thus far come to light, beside the one at Philadelphia, that was regularly incorporated under this designation previous to the breaking out of the Revolution. The private establishments which came into existence about this time and were known as academies, contributed much to our later colonial education, and some of them after a time grew into real American academies. A few of these have been mentioned in the chapter on Later Colonial Schools.

There was a strongly marked individuality in the Moravian foundation of Nazareth Hal], in Pennsylvania. It stood upon a great tract of land purchased in 1740 by George Whitefield, and later conveyed by him to the Moravian Brethren. This domain became nominally the property of the Countess Zinzendorf. It was the only manor granted by the proprietaries of Pennsylvania which was vested with the right of court baron ; and the feudal character of the tenure of the estate is shown by the fact that it was held on condition of rendering service to the proprietaries by delivering to them, in June of each year, if demanded, a single red rose.

The building known as Nazareth Hall was erected in 1755–56 as a manor house, with a view especially to accommodating Count Zinzendorf and his retinue when that noble bishop should revisit this country. Zinzendorf died before he could return to America ; but the Hall was serviceable in many ways to the manor, and to the Moravian church. A synod convened there in 1757, presided over by Bishop Spangenberg, the members of which were escorted back and forth by armed men, for fear of an attack by the hostile Indians. Then, in 1759, it was first opened as a boarding school for Moravian youth.

At that time the Moravians were living under a peculiar, half-communistic system. The boys sent to this school were educated at the expense of the communion for which it was established. This system came to an end in 1764, and the school gradually dwindled, until it was closed in 1779.

When peace had been restored, after the Revolution, steps were taken to have the Hall reopened as a school for boys, under Moravian auspices, but admitting others on equal terms. It was announced as the " Paedagogium, or Boarding School, about to be established by the United Brethren at Nazareth." The general direction of the institution was lodged in the officers of the church in Pennsylvania. No boy might be admitted under the age of seven nor above the age of twelve. Instruction was offered in the elementary branches, and in the English, German, Latin, French, and Greek languages, history, geography, mathematics, music, and drawing. Particular attention to the health and morals of the scholars was promised, with specific reference to " proper exercises, cleanliness, and gentleness of deportment."

The institution became widely known for the excellence of its instruction and discipline. Pupils came from neigh-boring states, from Europe, and in considerable numbers from the West Indies. John Konkaput, a Stockbridge Indian, was educated here at government expense. Two hundred and ninety-five boys were entered in the first twenty-five years of the school's existence, eighty-three of whom were Moravians. German was the ordinary language of the institution at the start; but English soon took the first place, while German still received much attention. In the earlier years, the boys were required to use English and German, each three days in the week, for all ordinary conversation.

The county schools of Maryland had generally sunk into a very sorry condition before the end of the colonial period. But a new educational spirit was coming into the life of that colony, which manifested itself in the establishment of schools of the newer type. The term academy first appears in the statutes of Maryland in the year 1778. Lower Marlboro Academy had been erected and supported for a time at private expense. In 1778, the legislature authorized the sale of the property of the free school of Calvert County for the benefit of this institution, and vested its board of trustees with corporate powers. Washington Academy, in Somerset County, was also begun as a private enterprise of " several gentlemen of different religious per-suasion," who intended it simply for the benefit of their own children. This was in 1767. Other children were admitted from time to time. The school grew in public favor. The teaching force was increased. And finally, in 1779, a regular charter of incorporation was secured.

The founding of the two Phillips academies, at Andover, Massachusetts, and Exeter, New Hampshire, marks a second beginning of the academy movement. For these two schools furnished the model and inspiration of many later institutions established in the northern states, both east and west.

Samuel Phillips took the first steps in this enterprise. He was the descendant of a goodly line of Harvard graduates. His father, also named Samuel, had been for a time master of a grammar school at Andover, and later attained to prominence in business and in politics. The younger Samuel prepared for college under Master Moody in the new Dummer School at Byfield, and was graduated at Harvard in 1771. His name at first stood eighth in the list of his class, which numbered sixty-three. But his father represented to the faculty that he was entitled to the seventh place, and he was accordingly advanced. It is said that this case was the immediate occasion of the change at Harvard by which the placing of students according to the rank of their fathers was discontinued.

When his college course was finished, the young man soon made a place for himself. He was a member of the provincial congress. He undertook the manufacture of gunpowder for Washington's army, and came into close relations with the Commander. He was in the convention that framed the first state constitution of Massachusetts. He became judge and state senator, and at the time of his death was lieutenant-governor of the commonwealth.

From such accounts as have come down to us we are led to think of him as preternaturally grave, industrious, and methodical. But he took a quiet pleasure in the mirth of others, and was a lover of children. He was deeply religious, and feared the laxness of doctrine which he saw creeping into the churches. He was known at the same time as " an enthusiast for virtue." His religion was intensely ethical.

He was a devoted student of the writings of those eminent nonconformists whose names are associated with the early English academies. He provided for the gratuitous circulation of some of the works of Philip Doddridge and Matthew Henry and Isaac Watts. Doddridge's Sermons on the religious education of children, was among the books which he especially recommended. Josiah Quincy said of him that he seemed to have all of the poetry of Watts by heart.

" With all his conservatism he was an innovator. His fertile mind was intent upon improvements ; upon discussing principles and devising schemes, which would break in salutarily upon the old order of things. Sometimes his best friends, and especially his father and uncles, who were yet sure to second his projects, would hint that he had a little too much of the spirit of what we, in our day, term `young America.'" This mixture of conservatism and progress is fairly representative of the academy movement, with which his name is so intimately connected.

Several members of the Phillips family were associated with Judge Samuel Phillips in the establishment of the academy at Andover, notably his father and his father's two brothers, John Phillips of Exeter and William Phillips of Boston. John Phillips, on his own account, became the founder of the academy at Exeter. He had preached in his young manhood, soon after graduating from Harvard College. But becoming deeply impressed with the discourses of Whitefield, to which he had listened, he declared himself unqualified for the ministry, and gave it up. For a time he was teacher of a classical school. He was prominent in business, became colonel of militia and justice of one of the New Hampshire courts, and was a liberal benefactor of Princeton and Dartmouth Colleges.

Josiah Quincy, writing in 1855, said of him :

"I visited him at Exeter in his family . . . I spent three or four days there, and partook of his simple meals. I heard him at his family devotions. I shall never forget the patriarchal sweetness of his countenance, or the somewhat stern, yet not unattractive manner, in which he greeted and responded. He had an austere faith, softened by natural temperament and inherent kindliness of spirit."

It was in the midst of the Revolutionary War that these academies were established. Samuel Phillips, the father, and Dr. John,' his brother, became the founders of the Andover school by executing a deed of gift for its endowment, on the twenty-first of April, 1778. A " constitution" for the proposed institution was embodied in the deed.

According to this document, the donors proposed " to lay the foundation of a public free SCHOOL or ACADEMY for the purpose of instructing Youth, not only in English and Latin Grammar, Writing, Arithmetic, and those Sciences wherein they are commonly taught; but more especially to learn them the GREAT END AND REAL BUSINESS OF LIVING" Further on, "it is again declared, that the first and principal object of this Institution is the promotion of true PIETY and VIRTUE ; the second, instruction in the English, Latin, and Greek Languages, together with Writing, Arithmetic, Music, and the Art of Speaking ; the third, practical Geometry, Logic, and Geography ; and the fourth, such other of the liberal Arts and Sciences or Languages, as opportunity and ability may hereafter admit, and as the TRUSTEES shall direct."

Only Protestants may be trustees or instructors in this school. Its advantages are thrown open equally to youth " from every quarter ;" but they must first be able to read English well. The trustees, however, have power to provide for a limited number of beginners. The principal instructor in the school must be "a professor of the CHRISTIAN RELIGION, of exemplary manners, of good natural abilities and literary acquirements, of a good acquaintance with human nature, of a natural aptitude for instruction and government." Much stress is laid on the making of a suitable appointment to this office. No other consideration than that of qualifications is to enter into the selection.

In addition to the ordinary duties of a master toward his pupils, the principal instructor is charged, " critically and constantly " to " observe the variety of their natural tempers and solicitously endeavor to bring them under such discipline as may tend most effectually to promote their own satisfaction and the happiness of others." He is " to en-courage the Scholars to perform some manual labor, such as gardening, or the like ; so far as it is consistent with cleanliness and the inclination of their parents." It is expected that many of the students will become ministers ; and the master is particularly directed to give instruction in the cardinal doctrines of religion as set forth in the Scriptures. That everything may be open and above-board in the management of its financial affairs, there is a provision that a full record of donations to the institution and of all expenditures shall be kept open for all men to read.

The school was opened in due form on the thirtieth of April, 1778. The Rev. Jonathan French, one of the trustees, preached a sermon on that occasion. Mr. Eliphalet Pearson, the teacher of the town grammar school, was the first preceptor, and continued in that office for the term of eight years. He had been a fellow pupil with Judge Phillips, at the Dummer School, and was also a graduate of Harvard College. When he withdrew from the preceptorship of the academy, it was to become a professor in the college.

October 4, 1780, the school was incorporated under the title of Phillips Academy, becoming the first chartered academy in New England. The act of incorporation reiterated and confirmed the chief provisions of the constitution. The school was placed under the control of a board of twelve trustees (the number might be increased to thirteen but must not be less than seven), who, with their successors, were declared to be " the true and sole Visitors, Trustees, and Governors " of the institution. The " principal Instructor " must always be a member of this board ; a majority of the members must be laymen and respectable freeholders ; and a majority also must be men who were not inhabitants of the town in which the school might be situated. Under these limitations, vacancies in the board were to be filled by vote of the remaining members. By vote of two-thirds of the trustees, the school might be removed to any other more suitable location in the state of Massachusetts.

Such was the simple and sufficient form of administration settled by law. The school was prosperous from the start. No ill luck followed upon its opening with exactly thirteen pupils in attendance ; and the number was speedily increased. After the first term, provision was made for an assistant teacher.

The founders expressed in their Constitution the hope that their school might lead to the establishment of others on the same principles ; and John Phillips proceeded without delay to insure the realization of this hope. The Phillips Exeter Academy, which he endowed in his home town, was incorporated by the legislature of New Hampshire by act of April 3, 1781. The charter follows so closely the wording of that of the Andover school that it calls for no special remark, except that the number of trustees provided in this case was seven instead of thirteen. A " constitution " was drawn up by the founder, expressed for the most part in the same terms as the similar document for Phillips Andover.

The original endowment consisted of wild lands and interest-bearing notes, the total value of which was estimated before the death of the founder at £8,000. A later estimate, which includes the value of Dr. Phillips' bequests to the academy, shows that the institution received from its founder, all told, an amount not far from sixty-five thousand dollars.

The school was opened early in 1783, and on the first of May of that year there was a formal dedication of the building erected for its use. The first principal, William Wood-bridge, resigned on account of ill health, after five years of service. Then came Benjamin Abbot, who ruled over the institution with great power and wisdom for the term of fifty years. Little Daniel Webster came to hint for schooling in 1796. Edward Everett finished his preparation for college here, at the age of thirteen. Lewis Cass came to the school at the age of ten, a headstrong boy, fond of pranks and of out-door life ; and here he remained for five years and made a very good record. The standard of scholarship was low at the start. There were only two studying Latin when Benjamin Abbot appeared on the scene. But under his management the academy was speedily advanced to the foremost rank of American schools.

There followed in quick succession a notable line of such foundations : Leicester and Derby and Groton Academies in Massachusetts, Clinton Academy and Erasmus Hall on Long Island, Morris Academy at Morristown, New Jersey, the Bingham School at Pittsboro, North Carolina, and many others that gained a goodly fame.

In WINTERBOTHAM'S View of the American United States, we have a general account of education in the several states during Washington's second presidential term. So much of this view as relates to secondary education may be summarized as follows :

New Hampshire. — The old laws required every town of one hundred families to keep a grammar school. This law fell somewhat into neglect before the war, and still more in later years. The unhappy state of science and of virtue during this period excited philanthropic persons to devise other methods of education. The result was the founding of academies. The Phillips Academy at Exeter is particularly described, and those at New Ipswich, Atkinson, Amherst, Charlestown, and Concord are mentioned briefly.

Massachusetts. — The laws relating to elementary schools and grammar schools in towns are mentioned, and the re-mark follows :

" These laws respecting schools are not so well regarded in many parts of the state as the wise purposes which they were intended to answer, and the happiness of the people require." Of Boston it is said : " There are seven public schools, supported wholly at the expense of the town, and in which the children of every class of citizens freely associate. . . . Perhaps there is not a town in the world, the youth of which more fully enjoy the benefits of school education, than at Bdston." The writer continues : " Next in importance to the grammar schools are the academies, in which, as well as in the grammar schools, young gentlemen are fitted for admission to the university." Mention is made of the Dummer, Phillips, Leicester, Williamstown, and Taunton academies, and the Derby School at Hingham.

Maine. — Four academies are mentioned, those of Hallo-well, Berwick, Fryeburg, and Machias, which " have been incorporated by the legislature, and endowed with handsome grants of the public lands."

Rhode Island. — The ignorance of " the bulk of the in-habitants" is remarked. An exception is made in favor of Providence and Newport. "At Newport there is a flourishing academy, under the direction of a rector and tutors, who teach the learned languages, English grammar, geography, &c."

Connecticut. —" In no part of the world is the education of all ranks of people more attended to than in Connecticut." The provision for county grammar schools is noted. Mention is made of the Hopkins grammar schools at Hartford and New Haven. "Academies have been established at Greenfield, Plainfield, Norwich, Wyndham, and Pomfret, some of which are flourishing."

New York. —" There are eight incorporated academies in different parts of the State; but parts of the country are yet either unfurnished with schools, or the schools which they have are kept by low, ignorant men, which are worse than none. . . . We are happy to add that the legislature have lately patronized collegiate and academic education, by granting a large gratuity to the colleges and academies in this State, which, in addition to their former funds, renders their endowments handsome, and adequate to their expenditures."

New Jersey. — Of Nassau Hall (Princeton) it is said : " There is a grammar school of about twenty scholars, connected with the college, under the superintendence of the president, and taught sometimes by a senior scholar, and sometimes by a graduate ; " and of Queen's College (now Rutgers) : " The grammar school, which is connected with the college, consists of between thirty and forty students, under the care of the trustees." The academies of the state are commended, and seven of them receive individual mention : viz., those of Freehold, Trenton, Hackensack, Orange-dale, Elizabethtown, Burlington, and Newark. " Besides these, there are grammar schools at Springfield, Morristown, Bordentown, Amboy, &c."

Pennsylvania. — The academy at Philadelphia is mentioned. " The Episcopalians have an academy at York town, in York county. There are also academies at German town, at Pittsburgh, at Washington, at Allen's town, and other places ; these are endowed by donations from the legislature, and by liberal contributions of individuals." "The schools for young men and young women in Bethlehem and Nazareth, under the direction of the people called Moravians, are upon the best establishment of any schools in America."

Maryland. — Washington Academy is mentioned, and the fact that "provision is made for free schools in most of the counties ; though some are entirely neglected, and very few carried on with any success. . . . But the revolution, among other happy effects, has roused the spirit of education, which is fast spreading its salutary influences over this and the other southern States."

Virginia. —" There are several academies in Virginia ; one at Alexandria, one at Norfolk, and others in other places." The great scheme of public education for Virginia which had been proposed — under Jefferson's leader-ship —is summarized, and its provisions are cordially approved.

North Carolina. —" There is a good academy at Warrenton, another at Williamsborough in Granville, and three or four others in the State, of considerable note."

South Carolina. — " Gentlemen of fortune, before the late war, sent their sons to Europe for education. During the late war and since, they have generally sent them to the middle and northern states. Those who have been at this expense in educating their sons, have been but comparatively few in number, so that the literature of the State is at a low ebb. Since the peace, however, it has begun to flourish. There are several respectable academies at Charles-ton ; one at Beaufort on Port Royal island; and several others in different parts of the State. . . . Part of the old barracks at Charleston has been handsomely fitted up, and converted into a college, and there are a number of students ; but it does not yet merit a more dignified name than that of a respectable academy. . . . The college at Cambridge is no more than a grammar school."

Georgia. — The act for the establishment of " The University of Georgia," with its provision for an academy in each county, receives extended notice .

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