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English Mediaeval Architecture - Comparative Analysis

( Originally Published 1921 )

The evolution of English architecture is here traced by comparison of plans, walls, openings, roofs, columns, mouldings, and ornament through the Anglo-Saxon, Norman, Early English, Decorated, Perpendicular, and Tudor periods.

A. Plans.

Anglo-Saxon (p. 396).–A church was frequently planned as a simple rectangle (p. 396 A) or as two unequal oblongs, of which the larger was the nave and the smaller the sanctuary, and the distinction was clearly marked, both internally and externally (p. 321 N, Q, 396 B, C). These were joined by a chancel arch under which steps sometimes led to a sanctuary on a lower level which, following the Celtic type, was square-ended, as at Bradford-on-Avon (p. 321 Q) ; while another type was derived from the Roman basilican church with apsidal end, as at Worth (p. 396 c) and Brixworth. Towers are without buttresses, as at Earls Barton, Northants (p. 321 c), S. Benet, Cambridge (p. 321 D), and Sompting (p. 321 E).

Norman (p. 396).–The nave was considerably lengthened from the Anglo-Saxon period, transepts were developed, and there was sometimes a tower over the crossing, and the sanctuary became apsidal in cathedrals and some churches (p. 396 D, E). Many cathedrals were rebuilt in this period, and in those of Norwich, Durham, Ely, S. Albans, and Winchester the naves are conspicuous for their length. S. John's Chapel, Tower of London (p. 364 C, E), is a Norman church in miniature. Towers are square and massive, as at S. Albans and Iffley, but many churches in Norfolk and Suffolk have round towers, either due to Scandinavian influence or to the absence of stone suitable for square angles, as they are built of knapped or unknapped flints. Plans of English cathedrals are given on pp. 332, 333, 334, 335. For plans of castles and manor houses of this period see pp. 362, 368.

Early English (p. 396).–Church plans were very similar to the Norman, and the difference was chiefly brought about by the introduction of the pointed arch, which made it possible to construct oblong instead of square vaulting compartments, each complete in itself ; while many Norman apses were transformed into square-ended sanctuaries of Anglo-Saxon type (p. 396 H–N). The " broach " spire rising from the square tower without a parapet was introduced (p. 401 A), and the steeple of S. Mary, Oxford (p. 401 E), is an early example of a tower surmounted by clustered pinnacles behind which rises the low pyramidal spire. Plans of English cathedrals are given (pp. 332, 333, 334, 335). For plans of castles and manor houses of this period see pp. 367, 373.

Decorated (p. 396).–Nave bays of new cathedrals and churches were given a wider spacing than in earlier periods ; and in proportion as piers became more slender, the floor space was increased, thus the interiors were more spacious (p. 396 P–S). Several great central towers were now carried up, as Salisbury (pp. 329 G, 345 n), and Lichfield (pp. 329 E, 351). The " broach " spire gradually gave way to the lofty spire with parapets, angle pinnacles, and spire-lights, while moulded ribs, ornamented with crockets, accentuate the angles of these tapering spires (p. 401) ; sometimes the spire is raised on an octagonal basement, as at Bloxham (p. 401 H). Plans of English cathedrals are given (pp. 332, 333, 334, 335). For plans of castles and manor houses of this period see pp. 367, 373, Perpendicular (p 396).—Owing to the building activity of preceding centuries, few ecclesiastical buildings of first importance were planned, though many were altered or enlarged. Many parish churches indicate the tendency to reduce the size of piers and to throw the roof weight externally on projecting buttresses, which were rendered more necessary by the increased size of windows (p. 396 T, U). Towers were erected without spires, as the Bell Tower, Evesham (A.D. 1533), and elsewhere (p. 401 D, F, G, J), but when a spire occurs it rises behind a parapet, as at S. Peter, Kettering (p. 401). A novel type is at Newcastle, where open flying buttresses support a central pinnacle (p. 401 B). Plans of English cathedrals are given (pp. 332-335). For plans of castles and manor houses of this period see pp. 367, 374.

Tudor.—Few churches were built and they were similar in plan to those of the last period. King's College Chapel, Cambridge, and the magnificent royal tomb-house of Henry VII at Westminster Abbey are the last ecclesiastical edifices of importance in the Gothic style. The most characteristic buildings of this period are the numerous manor houses for which a distinctly domestic plan and type of architecture were developed (p. 379).

B. Walls.

Anglo-Saxon. —Walls were generally of rough rubble with ashlar masonry at the angles in " long and short " courses, as at Earls Barton (p. 321 C). Pilaster strips are also frequent.

Norman.—Walls are thick but often defective in construction, as the core was imperfectly bonded with the facing, which, in the later period, was frequently ornamented with arcading. The height of interiors is nearly equally divided between nave arcade, triforium, and clear-story (pp. 341 E, 402 B), and, as in the churches at Caen, there was often a passage between the clear-story windows and the arches carrying the inner part of the wall (p. 323 A). Broad, flat buttresses succeed the Anglo-Saxon pilaster strips and are often flush with the corbel table, which supports a plain parapet (pp. 404 A, B, 402 A, c, 416 A).

Early English.—Walls retain the massive character of Norman work, but more cut stone and less rubble core were employed. The concentration on buttresses of the weight of roof and vaulting began the process carried out in succeeding periods of reducing the walls to a mere enclosing screen of stained-glass windows. The excellent proportions between openings and piers give a light and graceful appearance, as in the transepts of Salisbury Cathedral. Buttresses gradually became more pronounced than in the Norman period till they were generally equal in projection to their width, in order to resist the outward pressure of the pointed vaults. They were formed in receding stages by weathered offsets which were often gabled, and their angles were sometimes chamfered (pp. 404 C–F, 402 E). Flying buttresses (p. 404 Q, T) were first utilised as external features in this period, but were not common till later. In church interiors the nave arcade usually occupies half the height, and the upper half is equally divided between triforium and clear-story, as in the choirs of Ripon (p. 402 D) and Ely (p. 402 F), and the nave of Lincoln (p. 347 C) ; but sometimes the triforium was reduced in order to allow of a greater display of glass above, as at Westminster (p. 353 A) and Salisbury (p. 345 F). Parapets have moulded copings and ornamental patternwork (p. 416 B).

Decorated.—Walls were gradually transformed, owing to the increased size of traceried windows and of buttresses, and tracery was extended as panelling even over walls (p. 403 J). Buttresses were still in stages, and late in the period were ornamented with niches, crocketed canopies, and finials (p. 404 H, J), while angle buttresses, set diagonally, were introduced (p. 404 G) and flying buttresses were sometimes pierced (p. 404 R). The internal division of nave arcade, triforium, and clear-story shows, in the latter part of the period, the tendency to reduce still further the height of the triforium in order to secure larger clear-story windows (p. 347), while in other examples there is extreme ornamentation (p. 403 H, K). Parapets were occasionally pierced with flowing tracery (p. 416 c), but this was a French feature, and the English generally preferred the battlemented form.

Perpendicular. — Walls were profusely ornamented with panelling, resembling window tracery, as in the late Perpendicular or Early Tudor Chapel of Henry VII, which is most elaborate in detail, and a miracle of beauty (p. 358 A). Knapped flint was used as wall facing for panels, in conjunction with stone tracery in Norfolk and Suffolk. Parapets, em-battled, panelled, or pierced (p. 416 D, E, F), were often very ornate, as at Merton College, Oxford. Buttresses project so boldly that chapels were sometimes formed between them, as at King's College, Cambridge (p. 383) and elsewhere (p. 404 K, L, M). Flying buttresses span the aisle roofs and are moulded or pierced and sustained by pinnacles (p. 404 N, s). Interiors, owing to the elimination of the triforium, frequently consist of two stages, viz. nave arcade and clear-story. In place of the triforium, there is often a mere line of panelling as at Winchester (p. 403 M) and S. George's Chapel, Windsor (p. 382 II), or of niches for statuary as in the Chapel of Henry VII, Westminster (p. 358).

Tudor.—Walls followed on the same lines as the last period, as the Chapel of Henry VII (p. 358 A), but in domestic buildings there is some novelty, as in the extended use of red brickwork with thick mortar joints, in which patterns were formed by darker " headers," as at Hampton Court Palace, Compton Wynyates, and other manor houses. Buttresses have traceried panels, as in the Chapel of Henry VII, and are crowned with finials, often ornamented with crockets, while flying buttresses are often pierced (pp. 358 A, F, 404 P)

C. Openings.

Anglo-Saxon.—Arches, as in the chancel arch, Escomb, and the tower arch, Sompting, are semicircular (p. 321 D) and often unmoulded, and the sides or jambs frequently have " long and short work." Doorways are plainly framed with square, unmoulded jambs, and semicircular arches (p. 321 C, D). Windows have square jambs and either round or triangular heads, as at Deerhurst (p. 321 J), with the occasional addition of a central dividing baluster, as at Worth (p. 321 H) and S. Mary, York (p. 321 G), and another treatment is that at Earls Barton (p. 321 A, B, c).

Norman.--Arcades invariably consist of semicircular arches (p. 402 B), unmoulded in the early part of the period, as in S. John's Chapel, Tower of London (p. 364 C), and in the later period they are enriched with mouldings, as S. Bartholomew, London (p. 323 A), and Waltham Abbey. Doorways and windows have jambs in square recesses or " orders " with semicircular arches. These " orders " are frequently carved with zigzag and beak-head ornament, as at Etton (p. 407 A, B), or elaborately sculptured, as at Barfreston, Kent. Windows are small and the internal jambs are deeply splayed (pp. 322 A, 408 A). They are in single lights, although double windows divided by a shaft occur in towers, while three openings, of which the middle one is sometimes the largest, are often grouped together, as in S. Bartholomew, London (p. 323 A).

Early English.—Arcades are of more slender proportions, and pointed lancet arches came into general use (p. 402 ID, F), at first side by side with round arches (p. 402 C, D) and in connection with vaulting, and then in arches, as at Westminster Abbey and the Temple Church (p. 322 B). Doorways (p. 407 C, D, E) have jambs enriched with mouldings, detached shafts, and richly carved ornaments, and are crowned with lancet arches. Windows (p. 408 B–E) of lancet shape (p. 859) are grouped in two, three or even five lights, as in the " Five Sisters " in York Minster (p. 344) The glass is often near the face of the wall, thus making deep internal jambs. The early form of " plate " tracery (p. 408 D) which was cut through a plate of stone was developed into " bar " tracery. The two-light windows of Westminster Abbey, with geometrical tracery dating from A.D. 1245, are among the earliest traceried windows in England (p. 354 D). Cusps (Lat. cuspis = a point), let into the soffit of tracery arches in separate pieces, were introduced, as at Raunds, Northants, and are found especially in circular lights, but in later window-heads the cusps are an integral part of the traceried mouldings. The spaces between the cusps are known as trefoil (p. 365 D), quatrefoil, or cinquefoil (Lat. folium = a leaf) according as they are composed of three, four, or five openings (p. 859) .

Decorated.—Arcades became wider in proportion to their height and were crowned with equilateral arches (pp. 403 H, K, 859), i.e. struck from the points of equilateral triangles, as at York and Lichfield, and the ogee arch came into use (p. 859). Doorways (p. 407 F–L) have jambs of less depth than in the Early English style, and are ornamented with engaged instead of detached shafts. Windows (p. 408 H, J, K) are large and divided by mullions into two or more lights, and the enlargement of clear-story windows proceeded pari passe with the diminution in height of the triforium. Tracery at first consisted of geometric forms, as at Westminster Abbey, the cloisters of Salisbury (p. 345 J), the choir clear-stories of Lincoln (p. 347 G) and Lichfield (p. 403 G), and the nave of York. In the latter part of the period it consisted of curvilinear or flowing lines, as in the choirs of Ely (p. 403 J) and Wells. Cusps which, in the Early English style, had often been let into the stone tracery now formed part of it. Smaller types of windows still occur (p. 408 F, G).

Perpendicular.—Arcades now usually consist either of " drop " arches (pp. 323 B, 859) or in the later period of four-centred arches (pp. 403 L, 859), of which the spandrels are sometimes filled with tracery or carving (p. 403 M). Doorways are generally finished with a square hood-moulding over the arch, and the spandrels are ornamented, as in the doorway of Merton College, Oxford (p. 407 M). Windows, of which the earliest in the style are probably those at Winchester (p. 352), have mullions continued vertically through their whole height up to the main arch, an arrangement which produces a perpendicular effect and gives the name to the style (p. 408 E, N). In many cases they are of enormous size, strengthened by horizontal transoms, and even form a wall of glass, as at S. George's Chapel, Windsor (pp. 382, 408 M), the east window at Gloucester (38 ft. wide by 72 ft. high), King's College Chapel, Cambridge (p. 383), and the Chapel of Henry VII, Westminster (p. 358).

Tudor. — Arcades are of wider span and are generally crowned by typical four-centred Tudor arches with spandrels filled with either tracery or carving. Doorways are based on the Perpendicular type with four-centred arches (p. 378 x), often enclosed in a square hood-moulding, and the spandrels are often carved with heraldic devices (p. 378 B) . Large windows with perpendicular mullions and horizontal transoms were now chiefly used for domestic architecture (p. 378 E), and the pointed arch was frequently omitted, to suit the flat ceilings of living-rooms, and its place externally taken by a hood-moulding terminating laterally in carved bosses (p. 376 A). Projecting oriel windows give variety to facades in the upper storeys, not only of manor houses, as at Compton Wynyates, but also of the numerous colleges of a quasi-religious nature, as at Oxford and Cambridge.

D. Roofs.

Anglo-Saxon.—Saxon vaults, based on Roman, were plain and simple. There is no exact knowledge of roofs of this period, as none exist, but they were probably either of simple timber construction covered with slate (p. 321 K. L, M), or of stone slabs in horizontal layers approaching each other till they met at the apex, as in early Irish churches. In some illuminated manuscripts buildings are represented as covered with slates or shingles. Tower roofs were sometimes, as at Sompting (p. 321 E), formed by four planes lying on the gables and meeting in ridges above the apex in each case, a peculiar form shown in some Rhenish churches.

Norman.—Norman roofs were chiefly of king-post form with an inclination of forty-five degrees and were covered with lead or shingles. The simple framing is either left exposed internally or there is a flat ceiling, boarded and painted, as at Ely and Peterborough (p. 341 H). Cathedrals and abbeys of this period originally had wooden ceilings, but were vaulted later, as Gloucester, Exeter, and Durham. The introduction of rib and panel vaulting (p. 324 B) eventually supplanted the Roman method of intersecting cross-vaults in which the meeting lines were simple groins, as in the crypt of Canterbury Cathedral (A.D. 1096–11o7) (p. 324 A) and S. John's Chapel, Tower of London. Early rib and panel vaulting is seen in the ambulatory, Canterbury Cathedral, and the north aisle of Durham Cathedral. There is sexpartite vaulting in the choir of Canterbury (p. 346 B), erected by William of Sens (A.D. 1195), while the nave vault at Durham has, it is believed, the earliest pointed arches over a high vault in England (p. 336 n).

Early English.—Roofs became steeper externally with an inclination of about sixty degrees. Where there was no stone vaulting the framing was left exposed internally, and the braces or ribs, together with the close-set rafters, produce the effect of a waggon-shaped vault (pp. 363 C, 409 A). Vaults (p. 324 C, D) are marked by the general use of the pointed arch as in Westminster Abbey, which surmounted all difficulties of vaulting the oblong nave compartment, which had ribs of such varying span. The main ribs consisted of transverse, diagonal, and wall ribs, to which were added later intermediate ribs or " tiercerons " and ridge ribs, as in Lincoln Cathedral (p. 348 B).

Decorated.--Roofs are of more moderate pitch, and sometimes have open framing internally, of which Great Malvern Priory (p. 409 B), Heckington Church (p. 360 B), and S. Etheldreda, Holborn, are good specimens. Vaults (p. 324 E, F) have an increased number of inter-mediate ribs which tend to reduce the size of panels, and the "lierne " rib led to complicated star-shaped patterns known as " stellar " vaulting, as in the choir of Ely (A.D. 1322) and the nave of Canterbury (A.D. 1379), while the number of bosses occasioned by the numerous ribs add richness to the vaulting surface. .

Perpendicular.—Timber roofs of the hammer-beam type are numerous as at Eltham (p. 409 G), especially in East Anglia, and were often richly ornamented with carved figures of angels and pierced tracery (pp. 363, 409), while the later roofs in the style became nearly flat and resembled a floor in construction (pp. 363 G, J, 369 K, 389 K). The roof of Westminster Hall (p. 409), erected in A.D. 1399, covers an area of nearly half an acre, and is one of the largest timber roofs, unsupported by pillars, in the world. Fan, palm, or conoidal vaulting (pp. 324 H, 383) was evolved from the " stellar " vaults of the period and consists of inverted concave cones, with ribs of similar radius, as in the Gloucester cloisters, but the lierne and fan vaults are sometimes combined, as at Sherborne Abbey (A.D. 1475). Pendant vaulting was introduced, in which strong transverse arches support elongated voussoirs forming pendants, from which spring the ribs of the vault, as in the Divinity Schools, Oxford (A.D. 1445-80), and the choir of Oxford Cathedral.

Tudor.—Hammer-beam roofs and other roofs with exposed horizontal rafters were thrown across the halls of many lordly manor houses giving a distinctive charm, as in Compton Wynyates and Wolsey's Palace at Hampton Court (p. 377 E), and these continued in use up to the Elizabethan period, as in the Middle Temple Hall (p. 409 H). Vaulting continued on the same lines as in the fan vault of King's College Chapel, Cambridge, and culminated in the magnificent fan and pendant vault of the Chapel of Henry VII, Westminster, while the vault of S. George's Chapel, Windsor (A.D. 1507-37), is an unusual example of side lierne vaults connected to a central barrel vault. Many plaster ceilings of geometrical and pendant type date from this period (p. 378 c) . For examples of timber roofs in English parish churches of all periods see p. 356.

E. Columns.

Anglo-Saxon. — Piers were short, stumpy cylinders crowned with square blocks of stone instead of moulded capitals, and the roughly formed balusters in belfry windows appear to have been turned by a lathe and have projecting capitals to support the thick wall (p. 321 B, D, F, G, H, J).

Norman.—Piers (p. 410) are short and massive and either circular or polygonal, as at Gloucester, Bristol, Exeter, and S. John's Chapel, Tower of London, while at Durham diagonal fluting and zigzag channellings were worked on the cylindrical piers (p. 336 B). Clustered piers, made up of rectangular recesses containing shafts, as at Peterborough and Durham (p. 336 u), were often used alternately with cylindrical piers, as at Norwich, Durham, and Waltham. The shape of piers throughout the Mediaeval period was influenced by the vaulting shafts which they supported. The small shafts in the recessed " orders " of doorways and windows were sometimes richly carved. Capitals (pp. 410, 413) are usually of cubiform or cushion type, sometimes carved and scalloped, but some, such as the Ionic capital in the Tower of London, are reminiscent of Roman architecture, though the Corinthian type, which occurs in Canterbury (p. 346 B), is more frequently seen in France.

Early English.—Piers (p; 410) are either compound, cylindrical, or octagonal, and often surrounded by detached shafts of Purbeck marble (p. 354 c) held together by bands of stone at intervals, as at Salisbury, the Temple Church (p. 322 B), and Westminster Abbey (p. 357 A, B). Capitals were frequently boldly moulded so as to produce deep shadows, or carved with conventional foliage (p. 413), and the normal abacus is circular on plan, and thus differs from the square abacus of France.

Decorated.—Piers (p. 410), which are sometimes diamond-shaped on plan, are surrounded by engaged shafts, a development from detached Early English shafts. Capitals are usually circular on plan ; and when moulded are similar to Early English, but not so deeply undercut, and the carved foliage of oak, ivy, maple, or vine is more naturalistic (pp. 351 D, 413)

Perpendicular. — Piers (p. 410) frequently have four semicircular shafts connected by hollows and side fillets, which are also sometimes carried round the arch (p. 323 B). Piers became more slender and were often oblong on plan with the greater dimension north and south, regulated by the carrying up of the vaulting shafts from the ground. Capitals, now often polygonal on plan, have less pronounced mouldings and the abacus and bell are not so clearly defined (p. 354 E). Capitals when carved have conventional foliage, shallow and square in outline (p. 413). Bases to piers are often polygonal on plan and the " bracket " moulding was in constant use (p. 410 v).

Tudor.—Piers adhered to the slender Perpendicular type with octagonal moulded base and capital, and are principally seen in chantry chapels, sepulchral monuments, and choir stalls, while they were used decoratively in domestic fittings.

F. Mouldings.

Anglo-Saxon.—Mouldings were few, and consisted of simple rounds and hollows in capitals (p. 321 D, F) and bases (p. 321 D) formed by the axe, which appears to have been the chief tool employed, but turned balusters in tower windows indicate greater technical skill (p. 321 B).

Norman. — The development of mouldings was a marked feature of this period (p. 414) . The jambs of door and window openings were formed in recesses orders " and the outer edges were rounded off in bowtell mouldings (p. 862), and from this simple beginning the complicated mouldings of subsequent periods were evolved. The mouldings themselves were elaborately carved with chevron or zigzag, billet, beak-head, nail-head, cable, and double cone, and form an important decorative element in the style (p. 415).

Early. English. — Mouldings are bold and deeply undercut, but still follow and accentuate the outline of the rectangular recesses by being arranged on the " wall " and " soffit planes " (p. 414 G, H, J, K). The bowtell moulding is occasionally accompanied by a side or front fillet, and is sometimes so developed with hollows on either side as to be pear-shaped in section, while sometimes it is pointed and formed as a " keel " moulding (pp. 414 G, 866). The chiselled dog-tooth (p. 864) succeeded the axed nail-head of the Norman period and gives a play of light and shade to deeply cut hollow mouldings (p. 415).

Decorated.—Mouldings depart from precedent, as they are sometimes formed on the diagonal or " chamfer plane " instead of on planes parallel either with the wall face or jamb face (p. 414). There is a tendency to disregard the recesses or " orders," which are now sometimes disguised by hollow mouldings at their junction. New varieties are the wave (p. 871) and the ogee (p. 867) mouldings, while the scroll moulding (p. 869) is used in capitals. Hollow mouldings are ornamented with the characteristic ball-flower and the tablet-flower (p. 415). Base mouldings to walls are strongly marked, as in the exterior of Lincoln and Exeter (p. 410 Q) . Cornices and strings often have their deep hollows filled with carved foliage (p. 415), while hood-moulds or dripstones are ornamented with crockets terminated with carved heads or grotesques, as at Cley, Norfolk.

" The carved angels, ever eager eyed
stared, where upon their heads the cornice rests,
With hair blown back, and wings put crosswise on their breasts." KEATS.

Perpendicular.—Mouldings were set on the diagonal plane, being wide and shallow, and often large and coarse (p. 414). The wide flat hollow known as the casement and also the bracket moulding are very common (p. 863). Pier mouldings are often continued up from the base round the arch without the intervention of capitals. One set of mouldings, especially in bases, often interpenetrates (i.e. passes behind or in front of) another, and this gives a complicated and intricate appearance. Carved mouldings are enriched with tablet-flowers and flowing vine and rose, and crestings frequently surmount the cornice mouldings (pp. 415, 416 J, K), and diminutive battlements occur along the transoms of windows, while the hollows are enriched with successive cornice flowers.

Tudor.—Mouldings are similar to those of the last period, but owing to their use in fittings of domestic buildings, such as chimney-pieces, wall panels, doors, and ceilings, they were generally smaller and more refined. The lofty moulded and twisted brick chimney-stacks are prominent features in this period. Mouldings begin to indicate the influence of the great Renaissance movement which was gradually being felt in England.

G. Ornament.

Anglo-Saxon. — Sculpture was roughly executed, probably by the mason's axe, and betrays the influence of Roman art ; but in the absence of technical skill little carved ornament was incorporated in the fabric of the buildings, which, it is believed, depended on tapestry hangings for internal decoration.

Norman. — Carved ornament was now often applied to mouldings. Carved foliage, especially the acanthus scroll, is clearly due to Roman art, though executed in a bolder and less refined manner. The tympana over many Norman doorways, such as the Priest's door at Ely, are sculptured with effective though rough representations of Scriptural subjects. Arcades of intersecting arches (p. 341 J) along aisle walls are frequent, and are often piled up in storeys to ornament the whole wall. Stained glass now began to be used, though sparingly, in small pieces, leaded together in mosaic-like patterns. The glass panels in the choir at Canterbury (A.D. 1174) represent Biblical subjects, set in a blue or ruby ground, and framed in brilliantly-coloured scroll-work. Timber roofs were coloured, and sometimes divided into lozenge-shaped panels, as at Peterborough, and the restored roof in Waltham Abbey gives an idea of the original colour treatment. Hanging tapestries gave warmth and interest to interiors, as the famous Bayeux tapestry testifies. The font (p. 422 A), piscina (p. 422 E), sedilia (p. 422 K), gable cross (p. 421 A), boss (p. 421 J), and corbel (p. 421 N) show the craftsmanship expended on carving, fittings, and furniture in many a country church.

Early English.—The dog-tooth ornament in hollow mouldings was used in great profusion (p. 415 L, M) and the chisel replaced the axe of the Early Norman period. Carved foliage is conventional in treatment, and consists of crisp, curling masses of " stiff leaf foliage " (p. 413 D, E, F, 415 J, 421 P). Flat surfaces, as in Westminster Abbey (p. 357 A), are often carved with delicate " diaper " patterns (see Glossary), sometimes painted, and doubtless copied from tapestry hangings or painted panels. Large sculptured figures were often placed in canopied niches, and the west front of Wells (A.D. 1220-42), with 300 statues, is a design on the grand scale in which sculpture is combined with architecture (p. 342 B). Arcading of pointed arches often ornamented the lower part of walls, as at Salisbury. Stained-glass windows increased in number and small pieces of glass were still leaded in mosaic-like patterns, in which a violet-blue was a favourite colour, as in Becket's Crown, Canterbury, the " Five Sisters," York, and the rose window, Lincoln. Many fine monuments now added to the beauty of interiors, and Bishop Bridport's monument (p. 387 B) in Salisbury Cathedral and the Cantelupe shrine, Hereford Cathedral (p. 387 J), are beautiful examples of the fine decorative stonework of this period, while the Early English font (p. 422 B), piscina (p. 422 F), sedilia (p. 422 M) and tabernacle (p. 422 J), gable cross (p. 421 n), finial (p. 421 E), boss (p. 421), gargoyle (p. 416 H), crocket (p. 416 N, P), and bracket (p. 421 P) show that much careful craftsmanship was lavished on these features. The Psalters, Missals, Books of Hours, and Chronicles are a valuable record of contemporary life in which huntsman, shepherd, fisherman, labourer, scribe, monk, king, knight, and saint all bear their part. The British Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum contain armour, caskets, pyxes, and triptychs wrought in metals, ivory, and wood, with architectural features freely used in the designs.

Decorated. — The ball-flower and tablet-flower frequently enrich mouldings, and indeed carving generally became more naturalistic and reproduced the actual forms of ivy, oak, vine-leaves, and even of seaweed (pp. 415, 421 L, Q). Figures in canopied niches were frequently added to exteriors, as at Exeter, and arcading, resembling window tracery, lined the wall surfaces. Stained glass, losing its primitive mosaic character, became translucent in tone and more free in design, and the large windows glowed with luminous coloured pictures of figures in architectural canopies with borders of vine and ivy, such as are seen in York Minster, Tewkesbury Abbey, and Merton College, Oxford.

"The deep-set windows, stained and traced, Would seem slow-flaming crimson fires."

Shrines and tombs in cathedrals and churches (p. 387 G, K, L) are miniature buildings in themselves, with beautiful detail of canopy, crocket (p. 416 Q, R), and pinnacle. Fittings, especially in woodwork, such as pierced screens, bishops' thrones (p. 424 E), carved choir stalls (p. 424 D), pews (p. 424 A), and pulpits, acquired character and importance in the general scheme of internal decoration (pp. 346 B, 348 B). The font (p. 422 c), piscina (p. 422 G), tabernacle (p. 422 L), gargoyles (p. 416 L, m), sedilia (p. 422 N), corbel (p. 421 Q), eagle lecterns (p. 427 E, F), gable cross (p. 421 c), finial (p. 421 F), and boss (p. 421 L) well show the supplementary decorative treatment of the period, and the Eleanor Crosses (p. 394 B) are delightful examples of commemorative monuments.

Perpendicular. — Vine leaves and grapes often enrich the mouldings, which also have cornice flowers at intervals (p. 415 u). Carved foliage is both conventional and naturalistic (pp. 413, 415, 416), while the special ornaments of the period are the Tudor rose, the portcullis, and the fleur-de-lis, all of which were used unsparingly, as in Henry the Seventh's Chapel. Figure sculpture takes the, form of carved angels and heraldic figures supporting emblems, such as the portcullis, rose, and crown, as in Henry the Seventh's Chapel, and the carved angels on the " Jacob's -ladder " at Bath Abbey. Wall arcading was replaced by panelling, which, resembling window tracery, overlaid the wall surfaces and buttresses from floor to vault, as at Gloucester, while miniature battlements decorated window transoms and cornices (pp. 408 M, 423 A). Architectural canopies in stained glass have a mellow golden tinge, produced by silver stain, which well sets off the large single figures in ruby and blue, which are often ranged one above the other and give the solemn effect of

" Storied windows richly dight Casting a dim religious light."

Window design became more pictorial, as the use of perspective over-came the difficulties inherent in transparent glass. Heraldic devices of shields with armorial bearings and scroll inscriptions were frequent, as at King's College, Cambridge, Fairford Church, Gloucestershire, and Canter-bury Cathedral. Shrines and Chantry Chapels, as at Winchester (p. 352 J) and Canterbury, and reredoses, as at Winchester (p. 352 G), were often delicately modelled miniatures on the design of the larger buildings which they adorn. Wooden chancel screens are very general, and were formed of mullions, open tracery, sculptured statues under crocketed canopies crowned with Tudor flower cresting (p. 416 J). Colour was frequently applied to fittings and timber roofs, as in the churches of East Anglia. Choir stalls (p. 424 F) were elaborate and misericords under choir seats were carved with grotesques and delicate foliage (p. 424), while bench-ends were terminated with carved poppy-heads (p. 424 B, C, G). Examples of a Perpendicular font (p. 422 D), piscina (p. 422 H), sedilia (p. 422), chancel and rood screens (p. 423), a bench-end (p. 424 c), pulpits (p. 424), rood loft (p. 423 c), parclose screen (p. 423 A), chantry chapels (p. 387 A, C), a gable cross (p. 421 D), crockets (p. 416 s, T), finial (p. 421 G, H), pendant (p. 421 R), and boss (p. 421 M) are given. Metalwork in door fittings, grilles, and in fine brasses was used in profusion with much variety and beauty of design and execution (p. 427)-.

Tudor.—Tudor ornament began to appear during the late Perpendicular period in church monuments, and also in domestic architecture. The Tudor rose (p. 415 w) enriches mouldings and, with curling vine-leaf and tendril, is frequent in the spandrels of four-centred door-heads. Chantry chapels, as at Worcester (p. 387), were striking features in some of the cathedrals. Sculpture generally betrays Renaissance influence, and the roundels at Hampton Court Palace were actually brought from Italy. Chimney-pieces offered a fine field for the decorative display of carving with heraldic devices, as in the famous chimney-pieces of Tattershall Keep (p. 366 G, J). Woodwork is finely carved, as in the linenfold panels of walls (p. 378 J) and doors, and also of furniture, which now became more plentiful. Modelled plaster ceilings with moulded ribs give finish to interiors, as at Losely Manor House, Levens Hall, and Hampton Court (p. 378 C). Leadwork also received ornamental treatment, as in the turrets at Hampton Court, and in many a rain-water head (p. 378 G). Wrought-iron door fittings (p. 378 n) and locks are often of great beauty and are architectural in character. Glass, coloured with heraldic devices, was now more largely used in domestic architecture in patterned lead " cames," as in the beautiful windows at Ockwells Manor, Berkshire. Castles of the feudal type, designed for military operations and for defensive purposes, and often as bare of ornament as of comfort, were passing away. The manor houses which sprang up were developed on domestic rather than on military lines, as the fortified stronghold gave way before the dwelling-house. With this change of purpose came a desire for comfort and decoration, and so ornament, which had been the faithful handmaid of ecclesiastical architecture, had a fresh chance of development in the service of domestic architecture. Thus, the tendency of Tudor ornament was largely governed by its incorporation in domestic building. This, together with the influence of the incoming Renaissance, gives it a special character and associates it intimately with the new English homes, which were then rising throughout the country in place of old monastic establishments. Here then, again, we see that ornament adds its peculiar attribute to each period.

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