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English Mediaeval Architecture - Examples

( Originally Published 1921 )

The different types of buildings erected during the Middle Ages have been given in the chapter on Gothic architecture in Europe (pp. 307-309). In England all classes of buildings, whether ecclesiastical, such as cathedrals, churches, and monasteries, or secular, as castles, houses, and market-crosses, are generally classified according to their period, as Anglo-Saxon, Norman, Early English, Decorated, Perpendicular, or Tudor, of which the approximate dates have been given.


The important place which the Mediaeval cathedral occupied in national life has already been indicated (p. 307). English cathedrals, with the single exception of Salisbury, were constantly in process of construction and alteration, and this characteristic invests them with a special fascination, both architectural and historical, for by combining successive stages in architectural style in a single building they one and all reflect national history and development during successive centuries and also form in themselves a complete record of the evolution of Gothic architecture. The special constitution and foundation of many English cathedrals made them monastic in character and were largely responsible for their general arrangement (pp. 332, 333, 334, 335), from which we can judge of their original purpose.

The cathedrals may be divided into (a) Cathedrals of the Old Foundation, (b) Cathedrals of the Monastic Foundation, and (c) Cathedrals of the New Foundation.

(a) The thirteen Cathedrals of the Old Foundation which were served by secular clergy were not affected by the reforms of Henry VIII. They are the Cathedrals of York, Lichfield, Wells, Exeter, Salisbury, Chichester, Lincoln, Hereford, London, and the Welsh Cathedrals of Llandaff, Bangor, S. David and S. Asaph.

(b) The thirteen Cathedrals of the Monastic Foundation were originally served by regular clergy or monks, and were reconstituted at the Dissolution of the Monasteries as chapters of secular canons. They are the Cathedrals of Canterbury, Durham, Rochester, Winchester, Worcester, Norwich, Ely, Carlisle, Peterborough, Gloucester, Chester, Oxford, and Bristol. Westminster Abbey was a cathedral church only from A.D. 1540 to 1545. When the change in these monastic establishments was made, the abbot became the bishop, the prior the dean, and the monks became canons and choristers, while the personnel generally remained the same.

(c) The Cathedrals of the New Foundation are those to which bishops have been more recently appointed, viz. Ripon and Southwell, which are old Collegiate Churches, as well as the Parochial Churches of Newcastle, Wakefield, Manchester, Birmingham, Truro, Chelmsford, and Southwark, and the former Abbey Church of S. Alban.

Before describing individual examples of cathedral churches it will be helpful to take a general survey of the features they have in common in this country and in which they offer a striking contrast to Continental and especially French cathedrals. Monastic cathedrals are indeed almost peculiar to England and Germany, where a large proportion of the present cathedral churches once formed part of monastic establishments with cloisters, refectories, dormitories, chapter houses, scriptorium, library, guest hall, infirmary, prison, wine cellar, mills, workshops, and gardens (cf. Monastery of S. Gall, p. 293). The cloisters round which the various buildings were grouped formed a covered way for the use of monks, but were also planned, as at Salisbury and Wells, as ornamental adjuncts to cathedrals which were not part of monastic establishments. The Collegiate Churches of Lichfield, Ripon, Southwell, York, and Manchester, and the Irish, Scotch, and Welsh Cathedrals (S. David's excepted), have no cloisters. Much of this difference in treatment is occasioned by difference in purpose. In England these churches often served a two-fold purpose and provided services for monks at one end and for laymen at the other ; while in France the cathedrals were largely built and paid for by laymen themselves and were designed for their use. In England, owing to this conventual origin, the choir or eastern arm had to be large enough to accommodate the monks, and it was often nearly as long as the nave or western arm.

English cathedrals, which often formed part of a monastic group with cloisters (p. 345 J), refectory, and other buildings, are now set in a quiet " close " and not among the houses of the town, as is so usual in France (p. 440). They are long and narrow as compared with French ; for whereas in France the length is seldom more than four times the width, due largely to the double aisles and side chapels, in England it is often as much as six times the width. This extreme length of vista, further emphasised by the comparatively low nave vault, gives English cathedrals much of their stately solemnity. There are fewer side chapels in England than in France, and this indicates the more general character of the services held for the laity. Many English cathedrals, such as Norwich and Canterbury, which were founded or remodelled after the Conquest by Norman prelates, had an apsidal east end which was sometimes developed into a chevet, but the English type reverted, as in Durham and Lincoln, to the square eastern termination of the Saxon prototype (p. 396). The transepts project considerably and secondary transepts occur, as at Salisbury, Canterbury, Lincoln, Wells, and Worcester, but in France the transepts are single and have little projection. The entrance was generally by a projecting south-western porch which acted as a screen against the wind, and is in contrast to the large recessed western portals which open directly into the nave in French cathedrals. The high central tower, as at Lincoln, York, Ely, Gloucester, Canterbury, and Durham, is effective by contrast with the low nave ; its height is sometimes further increased by a tapering spire, as at Salisbury and Norwich. Occasionally there are two western towers, while at Lichfield all three towers are crowned with spires (p. 351 B). Flying buttresses are not nearly so common as in France, owing to the comparative lowness of the nave vault. In France the flying buttresses to the chevet produce a complex, restless effect (p. 438 C) which is absent from the simple square east ends of English churches. A description of English cathedrals would be incomplete without a reference to the sculptured west fronts of Wells (p. 342 B) and Exeter, and to those internal fittings such as rood lofts, choir screens, carved stalls, misericords, bishops' thrones, sculptured reredoses, fonts, tombs, sedilia, pulpits, lecterns, brasses, triptychs, wall tablets, alms boxes, credences, oak chests, and other fittings which with the tiled floor not only give a rich and furnished appearance to the interiors of cathedrals and churches, but are also of importance as historical records (pp. 421, 422, 423, 424, 427, 428).

Chapter houses for the transaction of ecclesiastical business were originally square in plan, as at Canterbury (p. 333 B) and Bristol (A.D. 1142—70) (p. 335 K), but that at Durham (A.D. 1093—1140) (p. 333 E) was apsidal, and that at Worcester (A.D. 1084—1160) (p. 333 A) is circular. The normal type is octagonal with a centre pillar to support the vaulting, as Westminster (A.D. 1250) (pp. 353 D, 357 c), Salisbury (A.D. 1250) (pp. 332 E, 345 G), and Wells (A.D. 1292) (pp. 310 J, 334 J), but Lincoln (A.D. 1225) (pp. 332 F, 347 A) is decagonal. York chapter house (A.D. 1280—1330) (p. 332 B) is octagonal, 57 ft. in diameter, but has no central pillar, as the vault is of wood instead of stone.

A reference to the comparative plans (pp. 332, 333, 334, 335) will indicate the work of successive periods in each building, and the views of models (pp. 329, 330, 331) show the special features of a number of cathedrals. In the short notices which follow, Early English, Decorated, and Perpendicular are abbreviated respectively as E.E., Dec., and Perp., and an asterisk denotes those which were churches of Benedictine monasteries (P. 244).

1. Bangor (p. 334 D).—Repeatedly destroyed. Present church, which suffered much in the civil wars, is Dec. and Perp. Thoroughly restored by Sir G. Scott (A.D. 1866).

2. Bristol (pp. 331 A, 335).—Augustinian monastery. Rectangular Norman chapter house. E.E. " Elder Lady Chapel." Dec. choir (A.D. 1306–32) ; modern nave by Street to match choir. Peculiar in having nave and aisles of nearly equal height, with lofty aisle windows, as in German " hall" churches, without triforium and clear-story (p. 486 D)). Remarkable canopied wall recesses.

3. Canterbury (pp. 330, 333 B, 346).—Choir of great interest erected by William of Sens on the model of Sens Cathedral after destruction of Anselm's Norman choir (A.D. 1170). Work carried on under William the Englishman. Original Norman work of singular interest. Contraction in width of choir, to preserve two earlier Norman chapels. At extreme east is the curious chapel " Becket's Crown " and Patriarchal Chair (p. 428 c). Extensive crypts under eastern portion. Double transepts. Splendid late Perp. central tower. Perp. nave. West front and towers unimportant, except in general picturesqueness of group. Oblong chapter house with fine wooden ceiling. Perp. cloisters on north of great beauty. Numerous side chapels.

4. Carlisle (pp. 331 C, 335 B): Augustinian Abbey. East end of beautiful design with fine tracery windows.

5. Chester (pp. 331 E, 335 F).-Originally the church of the Benedictine order of S. Werburgh. Built of red sandstone. Perp. central tower. Cloisters on north. Lady Chapel at east end.

6. Chichester (pp. 329 F, 334 o): Chief example of double aisles, resulting from former lateral chapels. Fine central spire. Norman nave. Bell-tower is the only detached example in an English cathedral.

7.Durham (pp. 330 C, 333 E, 336).-Norman work (A.D. 1096-1133). Massive E.E. eastern transept called the " Chapel of the Nine Altars " (A.D. 1242-90) and central Perp. tower. A group of great dignity which has few rivals. Norman nave (A.D. 1099-1128) is finest in England with pillars about same width as openings and quaintly channelled with spirals and flutes. Norman nave vault (A.D. 1133) said to be earliest in England.

8.Ely (pp. 330 A, 332 A, 402 EF, 403 J, ).—Norman nave and transepts with timber roof and modern painting. Choir remarkable for carving. Unique central octagon 70 ft. in diameter with unequal sides, by Alan of Walsingham (A.D. 1322), has rich wooden vault with octagonal lantern. This plan influenced that of S. Paul, London (p. 718 n). Exceptional Lady Chapel, 100 ft. by 46 ft. by 60 ft. high (cf. chapter house, Canterbury). Imposing west front (180 ft. wide) with high tower, the same width as nave, flanked originally both north and south by transepts with octagonal turrets. In front of the tower projects the E.E. vaulted Galilee porch (A.D. 1198-1215).

9. Exeter (pp. 329 D, 334 E).—Unique twin towers over north and south transepts (cf. S. Stephen, Vienna, p. 488). The finest specimen of the Dec. style and exceptionally rich in varied tracery and carved wood and stonework.

10.Gloucester (pp. 330 D, 333c).-Very rich in Early Perp. fan vaulting (p. 324 H). Norman choir cased with Perp. (cf. Winchester). Perp. fan-vaulted cloisters on north of singular completeness. Choir has largest Perp. windows in England. Elaborate Lady Chapel. Impressive central tower (225 ft. high) with internal flying buttress.

11. Hereford (pp. 331 F, 335 H).—Norman nave and choir. E.E. Lady Chapel and Dec. central tower.

12. Lichfield (pp. 329 E, 335 J, 351, 403 G, n).—Built of reddish stone on sloping ground. Nave, transepts, chapter house, and west front in E.E. style. Graceful central and western spires in Dec. style form the only triple group of spires in England. Spherical triangular clear-story windows. No cloisters.

13. Lincoln (pp. 330 H, 332 F, 347, 348).-Rebuilt (A.D. 1185-1200) on ridge of steep hill dominating town. Double transepts, western towers, and highest central tower (271 ft.) in England. Resembles Canterbury in general outline, but comparison with Canterbury shows how English treatment has here replaced French, and the term " National Lincoln" aptly describes its peculiar interest. E.E. nave, transepts, and choir. Dec. " Angel Choir" (A.D. 1256-1314). Cloisters on the north. E.E. decagonal chapter house, vaulted to central pillar and surrounded by flying buttresses. Unusual west front consists of screen wall behind which rise two western towers whose lower parts are invisible.

14. Llandaff(p.335c).—A long low building situated at foot of hill, without transepts or side chapels. Two western towers. Nave much restored. Square chapter house with central pillar. No triforium or cloisters.

15. Manchester (p. 334 B).—Perp. (A.D. 1422-1520). Remarkable for double aisles obtained, as at Chichester, by inclusion of side chapels. Fine stalls.

16. Newcastle.—Late Dec. in style. Perp. tower (A.D. 1474) with spire on crown of arches, similar to S. Giles, Edinburgh, King's College, Aberdeen, and S. Dunstan in the East, London. Fine modern stalls.

17.Norwich (pp. 329 H, 333D).—Long narrow Norman nave (A.D. 1096-1145), aisleless transepts, and choir with apsidal chapels. Bold central spire, choir, clear-story, some windows on south of nave and vaulting throughout are Perp. Eastern apsidal chapel replaced in thirteenth century by oblong Lady Chapel, since destroyed. Chapter house, resembling that of Durham, also destroyed.

18. Oxford (pp. 331 B, 334 c).—Originally an Augustinian Priory. Norman nave and choir (A.D. 1158-80). E.E. chapter house and Lady Chapel. Nave pillars, alternately circular and polygonal, support lofty Norman arches beneath which is triforium gallery—an unusual arrangement in order to give height. Norman central tower with E.E. upper part and short spire. Nave, shortened by Card. Wolsey when building his college of Christchurch, forms a vestibule to choir, which has fine vaulting with pendants.

19.Peterborough (pp. 330 F, 332 D, 341, 342 A, 402 A, B).—A Norman cathedral (A.D. 1117-90) with finest interior after Durham. Nave timber roof is probably oldest in England, with painted wooden ceiling of lozenge-shaped compartments. Nave aisles vaulted (cf. Ely). Apsidal choir enclosed on the east by rectangular Late Perp. chapel, fan vaulted, as at King's College, Cambridge. Grand E.E. western facade (A.D. 1233), 158 ft. wide, has a portico of three gigantic arches, the full height of cathedral. A gable crowns each arch, and angle abutments are carried up as small towers with spires. Other towers rise immediately behind, over western bays of the aisles. Central archway encloses two-storeyed Perp. porch.

20. Ripon (pp. 329 B, 335, 402 C, D, 320).-Central and two western towers. Rich choir stalls with tabernacle work. Perfect E.E. western facade (restored by Sir G. Scott).

21. Rochester (pp. 331 D, 334).—Norman nave and fine western doorways. E.E. walled-in choir and transepts. Perp. nave, clear-story, and wooden roof.

22. S. Albans (p. 334 F): Much destroyed and altered in recent years. Norman nave (longest in England, 284 ft.), transepts, and choir. Western portion of nave is E.E. Dec. marble shrine of S. Alban discovered and re-erected by Sir G. Scott.

23. S. Asaph (p. 334 A).—Rebuilt in Dec. style. Perp. roof and choir stalls. Restored by Sir G. Scott.

24. S. Davids (p. 335 E).—Situated in valley of the Alan close to the sea. Central tower. Two-storeyed south porch. Nave arches support a carved oak roof of Perp. design (A.D. 1508). Dec. rood-screen.

25. Salisbury (pp. 329 G, 332 E, 345, 459 A)= On a level site, surrounded by the green-sward of a wide " close," broken only by elm trees. Almost entirely in the E.E. style (A.D. 1220–58). Is characteristic of English Gothic, as Amiens is of French (p. 447). Double transepts, central tower, Dec. spire, 404 ft. high, the loftiest in England. West facade is unimpressive, but a fine vaulted north porch projects boldly. Dec. cloisters.

26. Southwark (S. Saviour, or S. Mary Over-le) (pp. 303, 325).—E.E. choir. Restored nave.

27. Southwell (p. 334 x).—Norman nave transepts and towers. E.E. choir. Dec. octagonal chapter house without central pillar, the chief glory of the cathedral, probably the model for York. Rich and well-preserved carving. No cloisters.

28. Wells (pp. 329 A, 334 J, 342 B) (c. A.D. 1180–c. 1425).—E.E. nave, double transepts, and western bays of choir. The E.E. west front (15o ft. wide, including buttresses) is flanked by towers arcaded and enriched with sculpture—the highest development in English Gothic of this type of facade. Central tower; eastern Lady Chapel and octagonal chapter house. Unique triforium of close-set openings. As illustrating the comparative height to width of English and French cathedrals, Wells is 32 ft. wide and 67 ft. high (two to one) and Amiens is 46 ft. wide and 140 ft. high (three to one).

29. Winchester (pp. 330 E, 332 C, 352, 403 L, m).—Has greatest total length (56o ft.) of any Mediaeval cathedral in Europe. Norman transepts and tower (A.D. 1070–1107). Norman nave and choir (A.D. 1079–93) transformed by William of Wykeham and successors (A.D. 1394–1486) by veneer of Perp. on Norman core and a vaulted roof. Largest E.E. retro-choir in England with Dec. stalls (cf. Gloucester). Tombs and chantries. Timber vault to choir.

30. Worcester (pp. 329 C, 333 A).—Level site on banks of Severn. Norman crypt, transepts, and circular chapter house (the only one in England). E.E. choir. Dec. and Perp. nave, cloisters, and central tower (196 ft. high). Interesting monuments, including royal chantries of King John and Prince Arthur (p. 391).

31. York (pp. 330 B, 332 B).—Largest in area and width, 1o6 ft. within the walls, of any English Mediaeval cathedral. E.E. transepts remarkable for beauty of mouldings and the ` five sisters "—a name given to lancet windows of north transept, each 50 ft. high and 5 ft. wide. Unique fourteenth-century stained glass. Nave and octagonal chapter house, with wooden roof and without central column, of Edwardian Gothic (A.D. 1261–1324). Perp. tower. No cloisters. Nave—second in height to Westminster Abbey—and choir have wooden imitation of stone vault. West front of French type. In spite of size the cathedral is less impressive than Durham in outline and grouping.

S. Paul, London.—See English Renaissance (p. 719).

Note.—A comparative table which contrasts characteristics of English and French Gothic cathedrals is given (p. 457).


The importance of the monastic system during the Mediaeval period throughout Europe and the general plan and purpose of monastic establishments are fully dealt with elsewhere (pp. 244, 248).

Westminster Abbey (pp. 353, 354, 357, 358, 543 A) stands on what was once Thorney Island, or the Eyot of Thorns, opposite an ancient ford across the Thames. Traditionally said to occupy the site of a church built by Sebert in A.D. 616, the Benedictine monastery was founded by S. Dunstan in A.D. 960, and partly rebuilt (A.D. 1055—65) by Edward the Confessor just before the Norman Conquest and dedicated to S. Peter. Early kings, from the Confessor onward, were busy pulling down, rebuilding, and bringing up to date, and so its character changed from Norman or Romanesque to Mediaeval or Gothic ; and the successive and merging phases of Early English, Decorated, Perpendicular, and Tudor, with their own peculiarly English features, find a place in various parts of the abbey church ; while the Early Renaissance has also left its imprint on magnificent monuments, and even the more ponderous art of Queen Anne and the Georges is faithfully reproduced in the memorials to England's dead. Originally the church formed part of that great triple group—monastery, church, and royal palace—the last of which was superseded by the Houses of Parliament, thus keeping pace with the growth and changes of the English Constitution as it passed from absolute to constitutional monarchs and representative government.

The monastery was one of the largest Benedictine foundations, with a typical lay-out (p. 354 H), which comprised the abbey church and a square cloister court, surrounded by open arcades of various dates (pp. 353 D, 354 A), with refectory, dormitory, and octagonal chapter house (A.D. 1250), (p. 353 D), with a fine vault (p. 357 c) whose thrusts are balanced internally on a slender clustered pier, and met externally by bold flying buttresses (p. 358 A). There was also a common court (now Dean's Yard), an inner court (now Little Dean's Yard), and the infirmary, besides mills, workshops, orchards, gardens, and the usual trout stream which, from the heights of Hampstead, here joined the Thames, and still runs under Great College Street. The precincts covered a large area, and formed a self-contained community, the germ of the later City of Westminster. Most of the existing monastic buildings date from the time of Abbot Litlington (mid-fourteenth century), and include the abbot's residence (now the Deanery), with Jerusalem Chamber and dining-hall ; but the Chapel of the Pyx and monks' day-room, forming the dormitory undercroft, come down from Edward the Confessor's time. The greater part of the abbey church was rebuilt on a grander scale by Henry III, and to -him are due the present eastern arm, north and south transepts, one bay of the western arm, all erected between A.D. 1245 and 1260, and four more bays of the western arm, built between A.D. 1260 and 1269. For nearly a century building operations were suspended, and the old Norman nave still remained standing. The church is in the main French in character, and is largely based on Rheims (the French coronation church). It is an early example in England of the Geometric style, while the pinnacles and bar-tracery windows are among the first in this country. The eastern arm of the church, terminating in a polygonal apse, with ambulatory and cluster of surrounding chapels (pp. 353 D, 358 A), which form the only complete " chevet " in England, contains the much-venerated shrine of the Confessor, and the Coronation chair (p. 428 A). The Confessor's shrine (p. 354 J), stands in the centre of his chapel, and to this hallowed spot pilgrimages have been made from all parts of the world. Originally buried under the central tower of the Norman church, the body was translated to this shrine by Henry III in A.D. 1269. The monument, which was much damaged at the Reformation in A.D. 1538, is of Purbeck marble, and on each side of the pedestal are three trefoiled recesses in which sick people were placed in the hope of miraculous cures. Twisted columns at the angles:, filled with glass mosaics, supported the reredos of the former altar, surmounted by a frieze of porphyry and serpentine ; the tomb is covered by an oak superstructure, added by Abbot Feckenham (A.D. 1554).

The interior of the Abbey betrays the French influence in loftiness and verticality produced by lancet arches and tall clear-story (p. 357 A, B). The north transept facade is emphatically French with cavernous porches and rose window (p. 354 B). The nave (p. 354 F), continued westward by Edward III and others (A.D. 1350--1420), adhered to the thirteenth-century general design, but the Perpendicular date is revealed in such details as piers and mouldings. The various periods of the building of the church are indeed clearly seen in the piers themselves ; in the sanctuary a cylindrical pier is surrounded by four detached shafts of Purbeck marble, as was usual in the Early English period (pp. 354 C, 410 K, L) ; in the first five bays west of the crossing four attached shafts are added to these four, and in the western part of the nave all eight shafts are attached, i.e. formed on the pier itself (p. 354 E) . The western towers were added (A.D. 1735–40) by John James or Nicholas Hawksmoor. The church, which has an extreme length of 511 ft. 6 ins., is notable for an unusually spacious triforium used for coronation ceremonials. Its nave vault, 102 ft. high (p. 324 D), the highest Gothic vault in England, has a complex system of strutting by flying buttresses across aisle and north cloister (pp. 354 A, 404 T). The church abounds with chapels and monuments, including—besides the Confessor's shrine—that of Henry III (p. 387 M) and other kings, and these with many others (p. 387, K, L) form a unique museum of sculpture of all periods, while over the east end of the ambulatory stands the richly sculptured fifteenth-century Chantry of Henry V (p. 354 G). At the extreme east end is the celebrated Chapel of Henry VII (A.D. 1502-12), built in the Tudor period as a magnificent mausoleum of the king, on the site of a Lady Chapel of A.D. 1220, and forming the culminating triumph of English Mediaeval architecture (pp. 353 D, 358, 543 A). The tomb of Henry VII and of his queen Elizabeth of York (p. 708) is enclosed by a remarkable gun-metal screen of Gothic design, forming a chantry chapel. This is the chapel of the Knights of the Bath, and the low seats of the Esquires are backed by the richly carved canopied stalls of the Knights, embellished, as is the rest of the chapel, with elaborate heraldic devices (p. 424 F). The famous fan vault of lace-like tracery (p. 358), with pendants hanging apparently unsupported, is really constructed on half-concealed transverse arches of which the pendants are merely elongated voussoirs, and around these pendants the conoidal web is built up. Instead of being attached to the clear-story wall, as in previous experiments of the kind, the main conoids are advanced upon these arches so as not to interfere with the broad clear-story windows, and are supported on pendants, and connected to the clear-story by other conoids above the level of the springing of the windows. The buttresses of previous Gothic periods have here given place to octagonal piers, between which the windows form a mere screen, and are many-sided on plan, while the flying arches are filled with tracery (pp. 358 F, 404 P).

The Abbey is impressive as a triumph of English Gothic architecture, as an outward and visible sign of English religious devotion, and as a record in stone of English history. It has grown with our national growth, and has woven itself into the fabric of our nation's life. At once the most sacred and most famous shrine in our land, this venerable abbey represents the growth of centuries, both in its own building and in national history. From even before the time of the Confessor and onwards, it was slowly built, altered, adorned, and repaired. It has passed under the direction of divers master masons and architects, from Henry of Westminster down to Wren and James, Scott and Pearson. The Abbey and the Empire have always been closely associated ; for not only did the Abbey Church serve the monks of the Benedictine monastery, but it was also the centre of popular pilgrimages to the Confessor's shrine. It has also, through the centuries, been the scene of the gorgeous coronation pageants down to that of our present King ; as well as of those sombre ceremonies connected with the funerals of many of England's greatest sons, who have achieved distinction in every field of human endeavour. This association of " the Abbey " with the nation's recognition of those who have greatly dared is enshrined in the words of Nelson when, in the battle off Cape S. Vincent, he exclaimed : " Victory or Westminster Abbey !

In its structure it is an epitome of architectural art ; in its monuments and statues, tombs and tablets it is a record of the success of many men in many pursuits in many parts of the world : Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Nonconformist ; poet, priest, and king ; warrior, writer, and play-actor ; woman, scientist, and artist—all are commemorated within its walls. A royal foundation, associated with the memory of an English king, the burial-place of kings in the past, the coronation-place of kings to-day, the Abbey is, in very truth, the national shrine for the honoured dead, not of England only, but of the far-flung British Empire. The burial within its portals of the unknown warrior of the Great War is a symbol of our brotherhood in sacrifice, and a sign that Britain's national shrine is the common heritage of her hero sons.

Fountains Abbey, Yorkshire (p. 359), appears to have been founded (A.D. 1132) soon after Rievaulx, the first Cistercian establishment in that county, and to have been named from the springs in the valley of the Skell. Although in ruins, yet, owing to the care with which the place has been uncovered, it is easy here to make a mental picture of a great monastery (p. 359 A, D). The gatehouse (p. 359 B) led into the outer court ; south of this were the guest house and the infirmary of the conversi, or lay brethren, and east of it was the cellarium, no less than 300 ft. long, comprising storehouses and refectory of these conversi on the lower floor, with their dormitory above. Opposite the gatehouse is the conventual church, of which the nave and transepts date from about A.D. 1147, but the choir appears to have been enlarged between A.D. 1203 and 1247, and at the same time the transept known as the " Chapel of the Nine Altars " was built. The tower, by Abbot Huby (A.D. 1494–1526), is still the dominating feature in this beautiful valley. The door in the south-east angle of the nave leads into the cloister court, round which were ranged the chapter house, the monks' dormitory and its undercroft, the calefactory or warming house, the monks' refectory, the kitchen with two great fireplaces, and alongside was a washing lavatory, part of which still remains. Still farther east were the cells for refractory monks and the abbot's lodge, north of which a corridor led to the infirmary hall, with adjacent chapel, cellar, and kitchen. The chapter house, of which the vaulting is now destroyed, was rectangular, and against the walls were stone benches rising one above another on which the monks were wont to sit. The complete monastic establishment must have existed till the time of the Abbot William Thirsk (A.D. 1526-36), after which the estate was sold (A.D. 1540) to Sir Richard Gresham, whose successor pulled down the infirmary and the stone wall, and built Fountains Hall (p. 359 B) on the site in the reign of James I.


The building of churches in England progressed on distinctly national lines, and the 9,000 parish churches of the Mediaeval period indicate the evolution of the style, while the enlargement through the centuries of the parish church can be traced in the plans (p. 396).

S. Andrew, Heckington (A.D. 1345–80) (p. 360) is a fine type of English parish church. It has (p. 36o c) a western tower, nave with aisles, south entrance porch, transepts, aisleless chancel with priest's door, square east end due to Anglo-Saxon influence, and a sacristy. The interior is on the lines of many parish churches, with close-boarded roof to the chancel and open timber roof to the nave (p. 36o B) ; while the exterior is simple and straightforward, with its single western tower and spire, long roof over the nave and lower roof to the chancel.

Some larger parish churches which are cruciform on plan have the tower over the " crossing " of nave and transepts. A spire, usually octagonal, often crowns the tower, and the change from the square to the octagon was effected in the thirteenth century by means of a " broach " resting on angle squinch arches (p. 360, E) ; while in the following centuries parapets with elaborate pinnacles and flying buttresses connected the tower to the base of the spire. The principal entrance was either through a south porch near the west end or by a door under the tower in the west facade, and this gives dignity to the entrance. English village churches form in themselves a miniature history of ecclesiastical architecture in this country. Nearly every church has its own peculiar attraction, and with accessories and fittings makes up a gold mine of information for the student and antiquary (pp. 340, 419, 420, 422, 425).

There is no feature of these churches more typically English than the timber roof, with all its manifold variations of structure and design, as gradually developed out of the combinations of rafters and beams. These were manipulated by English carpenters to form varieties of roofing, much as the same simple timber material was skilfully woven together by the shipwrights to form the wooden walls of Old England. These timber roofs form such an integral part of multitudes of parish churches that the description of their construction is here given, which can be applied, according to the type, to analyse any given timber roof.


The English developed as did no other nation the construction of various types of open timber roofs, which culminated in the elaborate hammer-beam variety of the fifteenth century, often gaily painted in gold and colours. The French, on the contrary, favoured the stone vault, which generally necessitated external flying buttresses, and this makes a marked contrast, both internal and external, between the churches of the two countries.

Timber roofs were beautiful features of English Mediaeval interiors, and their intricate construction was an important part of parish churches (p. 355). Unlike vaulting there was little distinctive evolution in these timber roofs, and all types, with the exception of the hammer-beam, were used indiscriminately, and the chief changes took place in the inclination of the external roof.

The English open timber roofs of the Middle Ages (pp. 363, 409) may be classified as : (I) Tie-beam roofs. (2) Trussed rafter roofs. (3) Hammer-beam roofs. (4) Collar-braced roofs. (5) Aisle roofs.

(1) The Tie-beam roof (p. 363 B, E) is the earliest and simplest, as it consists of two rafters pitched against one another with a tie-beam at their lower ends, to counteract the outward thrust on the walls. This was probably the only type in use during the Norman period, and it was never entirely discarded by Medieval builders. The beam was originally pinned to the wall plates and was unconnected with the rafters, and various changes were made to make the truss harmonise with other features. The tie beam usually curved slightly upwards towards the centre, and in the Perpendicular period, when the purlins rested immediately on it, the low pitch of the roof was determined by this curve, as at Wellingborough. In roofs of steeper pitch the space above the tie-beam was filled in with posts and carved tracery, as at Outwell, Norfolk. A central king-post and side struts were often supported on the tie-beam to strengthen the frame-work, and this is in contrast to the scientific method applied to modern roofs, in which the king-post itself is suspended from the apex of the rafters to hold up the tie-beam. Curved braces often connect the tie-beam with vertical wall pieces, and thus the whole was framed together in the form of a depressed four-centred arch, as at Outwell. Another method was to make a pointed timber arch spring from the vertical wall piece below the tie-beam, but as this arch was intersected by the horizontal tie-beam the effect, as is seen in Morton Church, Lincolnshire, is not satisfactory.

(2) Trussed rafter roofs (p. 363 A) probably originated in the need for sufficient space for the pointed vaults beneath, and as this roof gave an appearance of greater height and impressiveness to the interior it was often adopted in preference to the old tie-beam type. Each rafter had a collar stiffened by braces, which were passed through the collar, as at Lympenhoe Church, Norfolk, or stopped on the underside, as at Stowe Bardolph Church. The rafters rested on the outer portion of the wall, and thus left an unsightly ledge on the inside, covered by upright struts which also added to the stability of the roof. The triangle thus formed is held to be the origin of the hammer-beam roof (p. 363 K). The arched trussed rafter roof was obtained by the use of curved timbers connecting the rafters and collars, as at Solihull Church. The roof was often lined with boards which formed a pentagonal ceiling ornamented with ribs and bosses, when it is known as a barrel roof, as at Wimbotsham, Norfolk.

(3) The Hammer-beam roof was evolved at the end of the fourteenth century from the triangle at the foot of the trussed rafter roof (p. 363 F, H, L). It consists of a series of trusses, repeated at intervals, to support the intermediate purlins and rafters, and its object is to transmit the weight and thrust of the roof as low down as possible in the supporting wall. The component parts of each truss are the two principal rafters and hammer-beams with struts, curved braces, and collars which vary in number and design. The hammer-beam itself is merely a lengthened sole piece (p. 363 K), 01 which the projecting part is supported by a curved brace from the wall piece, and in its turn it supports a vertical strut to the principal rafter. This rigid system of timbers, all tenoned and pinned together, is designed to resist the outward pressure of the rafters, and is supplemented in the Gothic period by external buttresses. It has been suggested that the hammer-beam was the result of cutting away the centre of the tie-beam after the introduction of the curved brace, but there is little in common between a hammer-beam and a tie-beam roof, except that, in both, the trusses are at intervals. Moreover the tie-beam was used even in con-junction with the hammer-beam, as at Outwell, where the alternate trusses have hammer-beams. The chief varieties of the hammer-beam roof are : (a) Those with hammer-beams, struts, collars, and curved braces, as at Little Welnetham, Suffolk. (b) Those in which the collar-beam is omitted and curved braces are carried up to a wedge-shaped strut at the ridge, as at Wymondham, Norfolk (p. 363 H), and Trunch, Norfolk (p. 363 F). (c) Those in which short hammer-beams support curved braces instead of struts, with collar-beams above, as at Capel S. Mary, Suffolk. (d) Those without collars or struts, in which curved braces rise from hammer-beam to ridge, as at Palgrave, Suffolk. (e) Those with an arched rib which, springing from wall piece to collar, gives additional rigidity, as at Eltham Palace (p. 409 G), and in that most magnificent of all timber roofs at Westminster Hall, which dates as early as A.D. 1399 (p. 409). (f) Double hammer-beam roofs, as at S. Margaret, Ipswich, Knapton (p. 363 L) and Middle Temple Hall (A.D. 1572) (p. 409 H), have a second range of hammer-beams further to stiffen the principals and transmit the weight through the first range to the wall.

(4) Collar-braced roofs (p. 363 D) are a simplification of the hammer-beam form, and include arch-braced roofs, in which the arched brace is carried to the ridge without the intervention of a collar (p. 382 c). In this form the braces are of the same thickness as the principal rafters of which they appear to form part, as at Brinton, Norfolk ; whereas in the collar-braced roofs they are not more than 4 ins. thick, while the principals may be lo ins., as at Fulham, Norfolk. These curved braces serve to strengthen the trusses, while they transmit the weight lower down the wall, which they thus help to steady. A roof of this class still exists at Stokesay Castle (p. 365 B).

(5) Aisle Roofs (p. 363 G), which were usually of a simple character, began as merely a continuation of the nave rafters, but trusses were soon introduced to support purlins, as at New Walsingham, Norfolk, and Ixworth, Suffolk. At North Walsham, Norfolk, the tie-beam of the aisle roof is carried through the nave wall to form a corbel for the wall piece of the nave roof, thus binding the whole together.


Just as the parish church is an indication of the religious life of the people, so is the English home, whether feudal castle or manor house, an index of social life under the feudal system, when every castle was not only a fortified stronghold, but also, like the manor house, a centre for administering justice and dispensing hospitality. Castles were built with little regard for domestic comfort and often retained their fortified character till the fifteenth century (pp. 364, 365, 366).

Norman period.—Anglo-Saxon castles had little architectural character, for they were chiefly earthworks, with a wooden tower and palisading, but the coming of the Normans and the feudal system necessitated a permanent stronghold for the feudal lord, and castles were therefore among the most important buildings of this period. William the Conqueror was the greatest of all castle builders in England, and the unsettled conditions which continued after his time are reflected in the enormous number of castles attributed to the reign of Stephen alone. These Norman castles were developed from the " motte and bailey " castle, which consisted of a bailey or court at the base of the motte or mound and a surrounding fosse or ditch. Next came the " shell " keep of the twelfth century, such as Windsor, Berkeley, Carisbrooke, and Pontefract, with its wall of stone which replaced timber palisading. Thus earthworks gave way to masonry and architecture came in. The rectangular keep, introduced from France, belongs to the same period, but was erected on sites other than those suitable for a " motte and bailey " castle. The Tower of London and the keep at Colchester both date from the reign of the Conqueror. The rectangular keep was usually four storeys in height and stood in a bailey Surrounded by a lofty wall and deep moat. The hall was usually on the third storey of the keep and was reached by spiral stairs, which were carried up to the " solar " or withdrawing-room above.

The Tower of London (A.D. 1081–90) (p. 364), built by Bishop Gundulf for William I, assumed its complete form only after successive reigns as a concentric castle, i.e. one surrounded by successive lines of fortifications and derived, it is believed, from Saracenic models. Here the keep of four storeys, 92 ft. in height, stands in the centre of an inner bailey, surrounded by a wall with thirteen towers, which is, in its turn, enclosed by an outer bailey and wall with eight towers and an encircling moat. The illustrations show the general arrangement of the keep and surrounding wards together with the interior of the Byward Tower (p. 364 F) and the Bloody Tower Gateway.

Other examples are Rochester, with wall fireplace in keep (p. 428 L), Kenilworth keep (p. 365 H), Dover, Richmond (Yorks), and Hedingham (Essex), recently damaged by fire. The cylindrical keep is another French form brought over by Henry II, which was, however, not adopted I for any castle of first rank in England, but there are examples at Conisborough with a fine fireplace (p. 428 N), Barnard Castle, and Launceston.

Early English period.—During the thirteenth century, castles were enlarged by additional buildings which clustered round the Norman keep. These inconvenient four-storeyed keeps, necessary in turbulent times, were, owing to the increase of hospitality, frequently abandoned as residences in favour of a hall with large hooded wall fireplace and additional living-rooms conveniently placed in the inner court, as at Stokesay Castle, Shropshire (A.D 1240–90) (p. 365), which is a complete specimen of an Early English castle with gatehouse (since rebuilt) and surrounding moat. The Welsh castles of Edward I, such as Caerphilly, Beaumaris, Conway, and Pembroke were designed on the concentric plan. The portcullis under the massive tower and the encircling walls with battlements, alures, and machicolations, from which stones, hot tar, and quicklime could be dropped on besiegers, were the outstanding features of Early English military architecture.

Decorated period.—During the fourteenth century castles were increasingly adapted to meet domestic comfort on the model of manor houses.

Kenilworth Castle (p. 365), like many another, was much altered for new requirements, and although the Norman keep (A.D. 1120) was retained for defence, it was not incorporated in the new buildings, which included a magnificent entrance porch and banqueting-hall dating from A.D. 1392 with dais, screens, kitchens, and other offices. Henry VIII added certain portions, and during the reign of Elizabeth the Earl of Leicester built the great gatehouse, altered the Norman keep, and erected the portion known as Leicester's Buildings A.D. 1571.

Raby Castle, Durham, has a fine detached kitchen, probably so placed as a security against the spread of fire, while Haworth Castle, Yorks., parts of Broughton Castle, Oxfordshire (p. 374), and Ludlow Castle, Shropshire, also date from this period. The Pele towers on the borders both of Scotland and Wales, built to overawe those countries, were continued on the original defensive and comfortless lines as late as the sixteenth century.

Perpendicular period.—During the fifteenth century the castle was subject to further modifications, owing to the operations of new influences, such as the increase of the royal power and corresponding decrease in the rivalry of the nobles, the upward movement in social conditions generally, and changed methods in military tactics, which had already caused these feudal houses to assume a less fortified character. The gloomy old castles gradually gave way to more cheerful manor houses which, though still fortified, were designed for comfort rather than for defence. In the border counties, however, old castles, such as Alnwick, retained their fortified character and new ones were erected to meet the needs of districts where raids were frequent and racial strife recurrent.

Warwick Castle rises magnificently above the river Avon, and by reason of its portcullis, defensive walls, battlements, and machicolations was, before the time of gunpowder, well-nigh impregnable.

Warkworth Castle (p. 366), belonging to the Duke of Northumberland, is on the apex of a peninsula surrounded on three sides by a river, and originally dates from the twelfth century. The keep, rebuilt in A.D. 1440 by Henry Percy, son of Hotspur, on the Norman foundations, and recently restored, is of peculiar shape, square with projections on each face. The doorway on the south leads into the hall, with the guard-room on the left and the dungeon beneath. The great hall on the upper floor is 50 ft. long, 30 ft. broad, and 20 ft. high, and alongside it is the chapel. The courtyard (p. 366 E) covers an acre south of the keep, is protected by twelfth-century walls and approached through the gatehouse (p. 366 c), which was strongly fortified by a portcullis and machicolations. In the courtyard are the foundations of a hall, kitchen, and church, which last dates from the time of Henry VIII.

Other examples are Hurstmonceaux, Sussex, and Lumley Castle, Durham.

Tudor period.—Tattershall Castle, Lincolnshire (A.D. 1440) (p. 366) was rebuilt by Cromwell, Lord High Treasurer to Henry VI, but may be regarded as an early Tudor building. It is surrounded by a moat and consists of a keep (p. 366 H, L) about 112 ft. high, of excellent brickwork with octagonal angle turrets, and is a remarkable reversion to the Norman form of keep which had been discarded as inconvenient. The upper storey overhangs, and is provided with machicolations. The interior is of four storeys, reached by turret stairs, and on each floor is a large chamber and several smaller ones, and it is believed that the ground storey formed the entrance hall, the first storey the reception hall, and the upper storeys contained bedrooms. The castle possesses some fine chimney-pieces (p. 366 G, J), with carved heraldic devices of considerable interest, which, by the public spirit of Lord Curzon of Kedleston, have been here preserved for the nation.


Domestic architecture in England, as distinct from military, owed little to the Roman occupation, as the uncovered atriums of the villas of the officials of Imperial Rome were found to be unsuitable for the English climate. A distinctive type of dwelling-house was therefore evolved, in which the central feature was the covered hall or house-place. Throughout the Medieval period this hall served many uses, and in Saxon times it frequently formed the one and only room for the sleeping, eating, living, and cooking of the owner, his family, his guests, and his serfs. Such light as there was came through small windows with shutters, and the only heating was supplied by the log fire on the central hearth, the smoke from which found its way out through an opening in the roof.

Norman period.—The Norman manor house was often walled in and moated, and consisted of the great common hall with the private " solar " at one end and kitchens at the other. This was the germ of all future house plans, with their many and various additions. Boothby Pagnell, Lincs. (p. 369 c), S. Mary's Guild, Lincoln (p. 369 B), and the Norman house, Christchurch, Hants (p. 369 A), date from this period, but little domestic architecture remains from this remote time, as it was not protected by its sanctity, as were churches, or by the strength of its defences, as were castles.

Early English.—During the thirteenth century development took the form of an increase in the number of rooms, and improvement in the planning, especially in those manor houses which were the residences of royalty. We now first hear of the buttery, pantry, larder, wardrobe, and oratory, but these became more general in the fourteenth century. These more commodious houses were gradually supplanting the inconvenient keeps ; but it was still necessary to retain some defensive character, and many licences to " crenellate " or fortify manor houses were granted by Henry III. The hall with its rush-strewn floor and rude trestle furniture still remained the principal living-room and general dormitory. Glass slowly began to take the place of wooden shutters, though it was still an expensive foreign luxury.

Charney-Basset Manor House, Berkshire (A.D. 1270) (p. 369), consisted of a hall and two transverse wings, but has been much altered. The southern wing still retains, on the first floor, a small chapel containing a piscina and two-light east window. The solar adjoining the chapel, and reached by steps from the court, still has its original roof of tie-beam, king-post, and struts (p. 369 E).

Little Wenham Hall, Suffolk (p. 369), is a brick structure dating from the end of the thirteenth century. The plan is L-shaped, with a tower and turret-stair in the re-entering angle. The vaulted ground floor supports a hall with a timber ceiling (p. 369 K, M) on the first floor, off which is a little chapel (p. 369 N), with its entrance flanked by traceried openings (p. 369 L). Both hall and chapel have interesting pointed windows (p. 369 H).

Decorated period.—A typical manor house of the fourteenth century was generally castellated and quadrangular, with a central courtyard entered through a gatehouse, protected by a portcullis and drawbridge over a moat which enclosed the whole group of buildings. Opposite the gatehouse a porch led to the entry or vestibule, separated from the hall by a screen with two doors, while on the other side there were three doors into the kitchen and offices. The term " screens " is usually applied to the whole of this entry, over which was the minstrels' gallery, a characteristic feature of the lofty Mediaeval hall, which was the whole height of the house. Beyond the dais end of the hall were the family apartments and the chapel. The hall, which attained its greatest development in this century, was still a sleeping-room for the retainers and had its floor strewn with rushes and its walls hung with tapestry and trophies of the chase, while glazed windows were still rare. Wall fireplaces with hooded canopies were usual, although sometimes the hall still had a central hearth with fire-dogs for charcoal, wood, and turf, and a smoke " louvre " in the roof, as at Penshurst. In this great hall the Lord of the Manor held his court and administered justice, and here too, on the dais, the family dined at the high table, while at a long table in the body of the hall his vassals took their meals. The dais sometimes had a lofty bay-window which gave additional dignity to this part of the hall. Of the three doorways in the " screens " on the side away from the hall, the central one generally opened into the kitchen, one into the buttery (Fr. bouteille = bottle, from which the word butler, i.e. bottler, is derived), and the other into the pantry (Fr. pain = bread), where butter, cheese, and bread, as well as platters and salt-cellars, were kept. The larder (lardarium), in which the meats were larded or preserved, was an important adjunct and formed a store-room. The old " solar," which now became known as the withdrawing-room, was frequently on an upper floor, and here from a spy-hole the master could survey the hall below (p. 371 A, F). A lady's bower and additional bedrooms indicate an increased desire for privacy. The chapel had a gallery for the master and his family, while the retainers were on the floor below. A small priest's chamber was sometimes added, as at Broughton Castle, Oxfordshire (p. 367). The kitchen of the Bishop's Palace, Chichester, the monastic kitchen at Durham, and the Abbot's Kitchen at Glastonbury give an idea of the culinary arrangements of the period.

Penshurst Place, Kent (A.D. 1388) (p. 370) is a typical, well-preserved manor house, in which the distinctive features may be seen. The fine hall (64 ft. by 39 ft. and 48 ft. hi h) has the usual screen at one end and dais at the other (p. 370 B), and is central hearth still exists, while in the open timber roof was a " louvre" for the smoke (p. 370 A). The original arrangements of dwelling and service rooms have been supplemented in Elizabethan and modern times.

Other well-known examples are Ightham Mote, Kent ; Sutton Courtenay, Berks (p. 409 c), and Prior Crauden's House, Ely ; while the Hall of Westminster Palace, with its traceried windows and magnificent timber roof, rivals any ecclesiastical building of the period (p. 409).

Perpendicular period.—In spite of the Wars of the Roses, the fifteenth century witnessed an improvement in social conditions and commercial prosperity. This was duly reflected in the architecture of manor houses by further provision for increased domestic comfort. The hall, with fine bay-window, canopied fireplace, and open timber roof, continued to be the principal feature ; furniture was still scanty, trestle tables were in use, aud the floor was only covered with rushes or matting. The withdrawing-room and lady's bower were now used only as sitting-rooms, while bedrooms increased in number, and the hall ceased to be the general dormitory. The kitchens at Stanton Harcourt, Oxon, and New College, Oxford, show the importance frequently given to this department, to which, besides buttery, pantry, and larder, were now added a scullery, bakehouse, brewhouse, and dairy, while corn mills, granaries, and stables became more numerous. Wolterton Manor House, East Barsham, Norfolk, of which the main building is on the usual plan, has a fine detached gatehouse.

Great Chalfield Manor House, Wilts. (about A.D. 1450) (p. 371), is a singularly picturesque example, though much restored. It is almost surrounded by a moat and forms part of a group of church, house, and stables, approached across the bridge and under the gateway which leads into the forecourt. It had no fortifications, as it stood in the peaceful county of Wiltshire. The groined two-storeyed porch leads through the screens to a typical hall (about 36 ft. by 20 ft. 6 in. and 20 ft. high) with bay-window and panelled ceiling of wood and plaster (p. 371 F). There were also curious masked openings (p. 371 A, B) through which those in the solar and the room at the other end could look down into the hall ; and west of the screens were the kitchen and offices. The facade has two oriel windows (p. 371 B, D), and gables with fine carved finials.

This delightful group bears some resemblance to the neighbouring manor' of South Wraxall.

Oxburgh Hall, Norfolk (A.D. 1482) (p. 371), is a fine specimen of brick-work, but it has been partly restored. The plan is quadrangular, with the buildings arranged round a court and surrounded by a moat. The magnificent brick gatehouse is flanked by towers, seven storeys high, and is reached across a bridge which spans the moat, and leads to a courtyard and on to the great hall through the usual screens. The King's Room (p. 371 H) in the gateway tower is said to have been occupied by Henry VII in A.D. 1487.

Haddon Hall, Derbyshire (p. 370), nestling on a hill-side amidst pastoral scenery, is famous both from historical .associations and architectural interest. Dating from the Norman period onwards, its plan (p. 370 H) somewhat resembles an Oxford or Cambridge college (p. 384), for the banqueting-hall, of the fourteenth century, is between the two courts, while the long gallery, south of the upper court, is Elizabethan (p. 708). The stepped entrance in the north-west angle is in an unusual position, with no driving way, and reminds us that in the Mediaeval period riding on horseback was a usual mode of travelling, but a carriage entrance leads into the upper court. The banqueting-hall, with its fine windows, great fireplace, and open timber roof, together with the long gallery and the severe and simple chapel, give one a good idea of this stately, semi-fortified manor house amid its balustraded terraces and raised gardens.

Hever Castle, Kent, South Wraxall Manor House, Wiltshire (A.D. 1440), and Ockwells, near Windsor, show the gradual change from the older fortified type to the later, comfortable dwelling-house. The Bishop's Palace, Wells, though a semi-ecclesiastical building, has a fortified wall with gate-house and moat, while the old Archbishop's Palace, Croydon, still retains its fine timber roof.

Tudor period.—Manor houses of the first half of the sixteenth century were principally erected by new and wealthy trading families, who were taking the place of the old nobility, while the suppression of monasteries by Henry VIII provided him with both money and lands with which to enrich his favourites, who vied with one another in the building of fine houses. The Tudor house, with its increased number and variety of rooms, was usually still built round a quadrangular court from which many rooms were entered direct. Under the changed conditions such features as battlemented parapets and fortified gateways were retained for ornament rather than defence, while the addition of numerous ornamented chimneys is evidence of the increased comfort within (p. 376 A). The entrance to the quadrangle was under a gatehouse, opposite which on the other side of the court was the porch leading to the " screens " of the great hall, which now definitely declined in importance, owing to the addition of other rooms, and also to the reduction by legal enactments of military retainers. The hall, however, still remained a feature on which much artistic skill was lavished, and this is seen especially in the richly carved wall fireplace, oak-panelled walls, and timber roof, while the furniture, which became more plentiful, followed, as in previous periods, the architectural style (p. 428 D, E, F, M). We now first hear of such additional rooms as the study, summer and winter parlours, and private dining-rooms ; while bedrooms, though often only " thoroughfare " rooms, were multiplied so much that Hengrave Hall had no fewer than forty. The kitchen offices also increased, and the inventory of Hen-grave Hall includes pastry-room, laundry, linen-room, and still-rooms, in addition to those of the previous period. Gardens were now laid out on definite architectural plans to form fitting frames for the houses, with paved alleys, yew hedges, stone steps, and balustraded terraces.

Athelhampton Hall, Dorset (p. 372) is a very fine Tudor structure, dating -from the reign of Henry VII, and its notable features are the gatehouse (with oriel window), since destroyed, the beautiful octagonal bay-window of the hall, and the projecting porch, with its pointed arch-way. The hall (P.372 B), which measures about 38 ft. by 22 ft., is of the usual type, with bay-window, panelled walls, and timber roof.

Bramhall Hall,. Cheshire, commenced in the reign of Henry VIII, is one of the many half-timber houses of Cheshire. Its bay-window is characteristic, but the hall (36 ft. by 26 ft.) is somewhat peculiar in being only 12 ft. high, and in having no minstrels' gallery. It has some beautiful leaded glass, but the pendant plaster ceiling no longer exists.

Speke Hall, Lancashire (p. 375 B), is one of the best-preserved half-timber houses so characteristic of this part of England, and owes its charm to the disposition of the timbers, the quatrefoil filling, and the carved barge-boards and finials, which are in marked contrast to the style of brick and stone buildings.

Compton Wynyates, Warwickshire (A.D. 1520) (p. 376), one of the finest of Tudor mansions, was completed by Sir William Compton, a London merchant and favourite of Henry VIII. The entrance, under a low square battlemented tower, has a four-centred archway, surmounted by a three-light mullioned window. Opposite the entrance, on the other side of the court, are the screens, with the minstrels' gallery over, and from these access is obtained to the buttery and kitchens, and to the hall with its bay-window (p. 376 B). South of the court are the drawing-room and chapel, while numerous turret stairs Communicate with upper rooms. East of the hall are the eighteenth-century additions. The exterior shows a charming mingling of red brick, stone, and half-timber work, to which time has given beautiful and varied tints.

Hampton Court Palace (pp. 377, 378 E) is one of the most remarkable and interesting domestic buildings in this country, and much of it (p. 377 G) remains as built by Cardinal Wolsey (A.D. 1515-30). Fitted with gorgeous furniture and tapestries, the palace seems to have excited so much royal envy that the Cardinal made it over to Henry VIII, who added north and south wings (A.D. 1532-36), but the eastern portion was pulled down by Sir Christopher Wren and rebuilt in the Renaissance style (p. 726). The Palace has a delightful position on Thames-side (p. 377 H), with the grand avenue through Bushey Park intended by Wren as an approach to the great hall, while on the east are the radiating avenues and Long Water. The original part of the palace is of mellow red brickwork, in diaper pattern, with battlemented parapets. The smaller courts and the Tudor chimneys (p. 377 c) well exemplify the beauty of brick architecture in the time of Wolsey. Its ancient walls are invested with the glamour of kings and queens, poets and scholars, courtiers and ecclesiastics ; they testify to the vanished pomp and glory of bygone ages. Entering by the Trophy Gates on the west, we pass through an outer court on to the bridge, over the ancient moat which surrounded the palace, and on through the great gatehouse, with angle turrets, oriel window, and terra-cotta medallions of Roman emperors obtained by Wolsey from the sculptor Majano (p. 312). Underneath the gateway to the Clock Court (p. 377 A) steps lead to the great hall of Henry VIII (106 ft. by 40 ft., and 6o ft. high) (p. 377 E), entered as usual through screens. Its walls are hung with tapestry, and the hammer-beam roof is one of the richest of its type. This hall still retains its dais, and an oriel window (p. 377 F) which forms a great feature of the exterior of the hall seen from the Clock Court (p. 378 E), so called from a curious astronomical clock over one of its gateways. To the east of the great hall is the so-called Watching Chamber, with its plaster ceiling (p. 378 c), and still farther east is the Tudor chapel with linen-fold panelling, Renaissance altar-piece, and coloured pendant roof. The famous Fountain Court, surrounded by cloisters, and the Ionic colonnade (A.D. 1690) in the Clock Court are striking and restrained examples of the art of Sir Christopher Wren, and near the latter a grand staircase leads to the state rooms (now the picture galleries) in the east facade (p. 377 n). On the south of the palace, extending down to Thames-side, are the Privy Garden, with its handsome iron gates by Tijou, and the Pond Garden, and to the north is the wilderness, near the famous Lion Gates. Since the time of George II, Hampton Court has ceased to be a royal residence, but comprises suites of rooms for fortunate pensioners of the Crown.

Sutton Place, Guildford (A.D. 1523–25) (p. 376), was built by Sir Richard Weston, a trusted counsellor of Henry VIII. The plan was quadrangular, formerly entered through a central gateway which has been demolished. The entrance to the great hall, placed centrally on the axis of the former gateway, is an early instance of a desire for symmetry as opposed to convenience, and is flanked by bay windows in the corner of the facade. The terra-cotta work shows the influence of Italian Renaissance.

Other typical examples are Hengrave Hall, Suffolk (A.D. 1538), Layer Marney Towers, Essex (c. A.D. 1500–25) (p. 312), and Moreton Old Hall, Cheshire (A.D. 1559).

The Elizabethan mansions of the latter half of the sixteenth century, though they incorporate many new features, are based on these Tudor models (pp. 701, 708).


The feudal system provided quarters for vassals and retainers within the castle walls, and in a similar manner monastic communities lodged their dependents and labourers in various conventual buildings, and both these great Mediaeval institutions not only housed their dependents, but also protected them against marauders and outlaws. As population increased and conditions changed, more accommodation was required, and, nestling close under the protecting walls of the castles, primitive dwellings were erected to meet the simple requirements of an unexacting age, and as commerce expanded these tenements increased in number and were formed into thriving trading towns. Townships also grew up round the wealthy monasteries which formed refuges in case of danger, and these rising communities waxed strong enough to enter into conflict with the monastic authorities under whose protection they had developed. In some of these new towns the interests of the feudal lord conflicted with those of the mitred abbot, and this resulted in divided allegiance, as in Rochester, which is an instance of a town which grew up under both castle and monastery. The origin of these towns, with their consequent lack of municipal freedom, is accountable for the absence of town halls which are such characteristic buildings of the period in the free towns of Belgium, Italy, and Germany. A typical house of the townsman consisted of a shop opening on the street, and there he plied his craft or sold his wares, and behind was the kitchen and stair to the sleeping-rooms above. The character of the buildings depended on local conditions and the materials at hand. Thus in stone districts the houses are solid and substantial, and the Jew's House, Lincoln (p. 381 A), is a splendid relic which has come down from Norman times. In the clay lowlands of East Anglia the local brick gives colour and warmth to many a Medieaval building. In districts where timber was plentiful, half-timber houses were common, and the interesting group of Mediaeval Houses, Chiddingstone (p. 381 B), Butcher's Row, Shrewsbury (p. 381 F), and a House at Tonbridge (p. 381 c) give a good idea of the black and white blending of beam and plaster, while Colston's House, Bristol (p. 381 H), forms another interesting type. There are also many smaller houses which date back to Tudor times, such as those at Finchingfield, Bletchingley, Mayfield (p. 381 E, G, J), and Coggeshall with its wide open fireplace (p. 381).

In the country, besides castles and manor houses of the nobility and gentry, there were the homesteads of small free-holders or yeomen of the Middle Ages, which were based, as far as means would allow, upon the manor-house model of general living-room with kitchen at one end and private rooms at the other. The homes of the peasants, of which few remain, were more primitive and often had only one room, which met the requirements of those who had previously been lodged in castle or monastery buildings. It was not till after the Reformation that the change in the ownership of land gave an impetus to agriculture, and so to the building of labourers' cottages.


Chapels varied in treatment according to the type of building to which they were attached and the special purpose for which they were erected, but a nave, to which aisles were sometimes added, was common to all. Some were attached to royal castles, as S. John's Chapel (Tower of London) (p. 364 C, D, E) ; to royal palaces, as S. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster (A.D. 1349-64) (p. 459 c) ; to manor houses, as Compton Wynyates (p. 376) ; to colleges, such as Merton College, Oxford (A.D. 1274) and King's College, Cambridge (A.D. 1446-1515) (p. 383) ; to schools, as Eton College (p. 382) ; to ecclesiastical palaces, as Lambeth Palace (A.D. 1250) ; or to bridges, as at Wakefield (fourteenth century) ; while others were specially designed as mortuary or sepulchral chapels, such as S. George's Chapel, Windsor (A.D. 1473–1537) (p. 382) ; the Chapel of Henry VII, Westminster (A.D. 1502–12) (pp. 353, 358), or mortuary chapels of noble families, such as the Beauchamp Chapel, Warwick (A.D. 1443-64), which, in its general idea, suggests the Chapel of Henry VII. The Pilgrim's Chapel, Houghton-le-Dale, Norfolk (A.D. 1350) (p. 382) is a complete example.

Lady Chapels in most of our English cathedrals form a church within a church, as at York, Winchester, Salisbury (p. 332 B, C, E), Worcester, Gloucester (p. 333 A, C), Exeter, S. Albans, Chichester (p. 334 E, F, G), Chester, Lichfield, and Bristol (p. 335 F, J, K). The Chapel of the Nine Altars, Durham (p. 333 E), and at Fountains Abbey (p. 359), and the Trinity Chapel and " Becket's Crown," Canterbury (p. 333 B), are unusual eastern terminations, due to special circumstances.

Chantry Chapels were frequently endowed, previous to the Reformation, for the saying of masses for the souls of the pious founders and their families. These chapels were most numerous in abbeys and cathedrals where the privilege of burial could only be obtained by some beneficent offering. In English cathedrals, chantry chapels often occupied one or more bays in an aisle, and were enclosed by open screens, or were external additions to the original building, while others were independent structures within the edifice. The Chantry Chapel, Worcester Cathedral (A.D. 1504) (p. 387), to Arthur, son of Henry VII, is a remarkably fine internal structure, of which the whole surface is covered, both externally and internally, with tracery and sculpture ; while the roof is a fine specimen of fan vaulting in miniature. This. chapel never received the recumbent figure for which it was designed. Tewkesbury Abbey is famous for the number and richness of its chantry chapels ; and among many others elsewhere are the Ramryge Chantry Chapel, S. Albans Cathedral (p. 387 A), and Abbot Islip's Chapel, Westminster (p. 387 c), and Chaucer's Tomb, Westminster Abbey (p. 387 x), with its prayer place, seems to be a rudimentary chantry.

Shrines also figure largely in English cathedrals, such as S. Alban's Shrine, S. Albans Cathedral (p. 387 G), and the Shrine of S. Thomas de Cantelupe, Hereford (p. 387 J).


The University of Oxford appears to have been formed by English scholars from the University at Paris, and it dates from about A.D. 1167, while that of Cambridge (A.D. 1209) arose through a migration from Oxford. Colleges were similar in general equipment to monastic establishments, and were based on the plan of the Mediaeval house, with hall and rooms grouped round a quadrangle ; so that the colleges of Oxford and Cambridge and the Inns of Court, London, still give a good idea of the arrangement of hall, screens, and dais, with the bay-window and timber roof, of a Mediaeval manor house.

Halls of residence, or colleges, for communities of teachers and students to promote discipline and common interests date from the thirteenth century.

The approximate dates of some of the Colleges are appended :

Oxford : University College, A.D. 1249 ; Balliol, A.D. 1263 ; Merton, A.D. 1264 ; Worcester, A.D. 1289 ; Exeter, A.D. 1314 ; Oriel, A.D. 1326 ; Queen's, 1340 ; New, A.D. 1379 ; Lincoln, A.D. 1427 ; All Souls', A.D. 1437 ; Magdalen, A.D. 1458 ; Brasenose, A.D. 1509 ; Corpus Christi, A.D. 1516 ; Christ Church, A,D. 1546 ; Trinity, A.D. 1554 ; and S. John's, A.D. 1555.

Cambridge : Peterhouse, A.D. 1284 ; Clare, A.D. 1326 ; Pembroke, A.D. 1347 ; Gonville, A.D. 1348 ; Trinity Hall, A.D. 1350 ; Corpus Christi, A.D. 1352 ; King's, A.D. 1441 ; Queen's, A.D. 1448 ; S. Catherine's, A.D. 1475 ; Jesus, A.D. 1497 ; Christ's, A.D. 1505 ; S. John's, A.D. 1511 ; Magdalene, A.D. 1542 ; and Trinity, A.D. 1546.

S. John's College, Cambridge (A.D. 1511) (pp. 378 B, 384), may be taken as typical of the plan of Oxford and Cambridge Colleges, though they vary in size and lay-out. The typical entrance gateway bears the arms of the founder, Lady Margaret Beaufort (mother of Henry VII), and a statue of S. John, and, with its four angle turrets, forms a fine outstanding feature of the College, which is of patterned brickwork. To the left, on the upper floor, is the library, with its pointed windows, while to the right is the chapel, since rebuilt by Sir Gilbert Scott, and forming the north side of the first court. Immediately opposite the entrance are (on the left) the kitchen and butteries, and on the right the hall, with its pointed traceried windows, buttresses, and large bay-windows. The second court, with its time-worn plum-red bricks, and containing the Master's Lodge, was added in A.D. 1598, and from this, through a second gateway tower, is reached the third court, on the north side of which is the second library, built in A.D. 1623, and on the west side is the Renaissance loggia (A.D. 1669). The remainder of the buildings round the three courts are students' rooms, while a covered bridge from the third court crosses the river to the New Court and College grounds.


There were, according to Bede, schools in England in the seventh century, as early as there were churches, but it appears that they were not monastic in origin, though often associated with cathedrals and collegiate churches. The first were probably at Canterbury (A.D. 598), Dunwich, Rochester, and York (A.D. 630), where Alcuin (Charlemagne's educational expert), a secular clerk and not a monk, was master in the eighth century, and where later the song " school was divided from the original " grammar " (i.e. for Latin classics) school. Then came the grammar school at Winchester, which, we are told, was attended by one of the sons of King Alfred " with other boys of gentle birth." From his time onwards there were many grammar schools attached to cathedrals, churches, hospitals, and guilds. After his conquest of the Danes (A.D. 897) more schools were founded, as at Bedford, Derby, Stafford, Bridgenorth, and Warwick, and even in A.D. 1123 the last appears to have been in continuous existence for 400 years. Even King Canute is credited with establishing schools, as at Bury S. Edmunds, while King Harold founded one at Waltham Cross. These were pre-Conquest schools. After the Conquest the secular schoolmaster or chancellor held a clearly defined position, and we find that in A.D. 1138 Henry the Schoolmaster gave teaching licences for the City of London. There were also grammar schools in towns founded by guilds—that at Louth is mentioned in A.D. 1276, that at Stratford-on-Avon in A.D. 1295, and that at Boston in A.D. 1326, and it is recorded that Thomas a Becket attended S. Paul's School in A.D. 1127. Further schools followed the increase of Colleges at the Universities ; and when William of Wykeham founded New College, Oxford, he also started Winchester College (A.D. 1382) to feed it, and he there standardised the type of English public school, which was followed by Henry VI when he founded Eton (A.D. 1442). In addition to public grammar schools and monastic schools for novices, a new type of charity schools sprang up in the fourteenth century for choristers, as at Durham, Reading, Coventry, and Westminster (A.D. 1364), and the present Westminster public school was founded (A.D. 156o) on the model of other grammar schools, of which there were at least 200 before Edward VI, while there were between 300 and 400 grammar schools, free and open to all classes, in most towns by A.D. 1535. During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries other schools were kept by priests of newly endowed chantries, as at Oswestry (A.D. 1406), Middleton (A.D. 1412), Durham (A.D. 1414), Sevenoaks (A.D. 1432), City of London (A.D. 1442), Alnwick (A.D. 1448), Hull (A.D. 1482), Chipping Campden (A.D. 1487), Macclesfield (A.D. 1502), and S. Paul's (A.D. 1509). There were also schools of hospitals, as of Ewelme (p. 397), and of S. John's Hospital, Coventry (A.D. 1545). With the reaction against the secular clergy, some schools had fallen under monastic rule, and these suffered severely on the Dissolution of the Monasteries (A.D. 1536-40), so that it became necessary to start further schools, as at Sutton Goldfield (A.D. 1544) and Tonbridge (A.D. 1553). The Chantries Act (A.D. 1548), which abolished guilds and chantries, was also disastrous for schools, while " song " schools too were mostly suppressed as superstitious. Some schools, however, survived, some were re-established by King Edward, others owed their rise to Reformation influences in his reign, and all these were called " Free Grammar Schools of King Edward VI," such as Berkhamsted (A.D. 1549) and Sherborne (A.D. 1550). Shrewsbury (A.D. 1551), Bedford (A.D. 1552), and Christ's Hospital (A.D. 1553) are conspicuous among many schools that were started after the Reformation.


Hospitals, Almshouses, and Bede Houses increased in number on the decline of the monasteries, some of whose lost service they were designed to meet, and thus there was much similarity between them in purpose and design. These buildings were founded in the main by persons charitably inclined, as refuges for the infirm and destitute, and were endowed with revenues for their support.

The Hospital of S. Cross, Winchester (A.D. 1136) (p. 388), believed to be the oldest almshouse in England, was founded by Bishop Henry of Blois for thirteen poor and aged men. It is a remarkable group of massive gatehouse, fine cruciform late Norman church, and quadrangle around which are the master's house, refectory, and dwellings.

S. Mary's Hospital, Chichester, founded for thirteen poor persons, dates from the end of the thirteenth century. The doorway leads into the hall (p. 388 E) flanked by dwelling-rooms and covered by a wide-spreading timber roof (p. 388 F), while behind the screen of the hall is a chapel, with ancient seating.

Ford's Hospital, Coventry (A.D. 1529) (p. 388), is a fascinating old-world refuge in the traditional half-timber style, founded by William Ford for five poor men and one woman. The living-rooms range round an inner half-timber court and the exterior has fine carved barge-boards.

The Almshouses, Cobham (A.D. 1598) (p. 389), also called the Priests' College, form a most attractive group close to the parish church. They were founded by Lord Cobham on the site of a chantry, and consist of a quadrangle round which are the dwelling-rooms, while there is a large hall with canopied fireplace and arched timber roof.

The Hospital, Ewelme (A.D. 1436) (p. 389), founded by the Duke of Suffolk, consists of rooms round a quadrangle with cloister walk, above which rise dormers with carved barge-boards. Steps lead at the upper end to the church, in which are the tombs of the founders, while to the south are the school buildings in fine patterned brickwork. The triple group of hospital, school, and church on rising ground is one of the most picturesque in England.

The Bede House, Stamford (A.D. 1490) (p. 389), was founded by Alder-man Browne, for ten poor men and two nurses. The dignified entrance porch (p. 389 J) leads into a quadrangle, south of which is the dormitory, arranged, like that of S. Mary's, Chichester, as a long hall with cubicles on either side and a chapel at the end, with large transomed windows ; while to the north are nurses' and wardens' quarters.

Other examples are to be found throughout the towns of England such as S. John's Hospital, Northampton (A.D. 1140), the Great Hospital, Norwich (A.D. 1246), S. John's Hospital, Sherborne (A.D. 1437), Christ's Hospital, Abingdon (A.D. 1553), and they owe their origin to local benevolence.


Inns of the Middle Ages, as well as monasteries, provided accommodation for those on a journey, whether the king and his retainers, merchants, wandering scholars, or pilgrims, while many inns were used as posting houses.

The Guesten Hall, Worcester (A.D. 1320) (p. 393), must have been a most beautiful building situated south of the cathedral, but it is now a ruin. It appears to have been set apart for strangers, because the monastic rules did not allow guests to sit with monks at the table. The roof (p. 393 c) now covers Trinity Church, Worcester.

The George Inn, Glastonbury (p. 390 J), is a substantially built structure with mullioned and traceried windows.

The Feathers Inn, Ludlow (p. 390 N), is a delightful bit of half-timber construction and a pleasant reminder of the local style of building.

Among the smaller inns which still exist (p. 390) may be mentioned the Fighting Cocks, S. Albans ; the George, Norton S. Philip ; the Bell Inn, Woodbridge ; the Anchor Inn, Ripley ; the Six Bells, Hollingbourne ; the King's Head, Sissinghurst ; the Eagle and Child, Alderley Edge ; the Star, Alfriston ; the Fox and Hounds, Barley ; the Falstaff Inn, Canterbury, with its fine wrought-iron sign, and the Dolphin Inn, Norwich.


The Guildhall, London, dating from A.D. 1411, is the most important of all the halls erected by the Guilds in the Middle Ages ; and, although partly burnt down in the Great Fire and altered by Wren, has latterly been restored to its original aspect (p. 743). It has been the stage upon which some of the most important events in English history have been enacted. The Guildhall, Cirencester (p. 393 D), the Guildhall, Lavenham (p. 393 G), the Hall of the Butchers' Guild, Hereford (p. 393 E), and the Guildhall, York (fifteenth century), with its fine oak columns and hand-some roof, are other examples of the secular architecture of the period.


Markets were established in most provincial towns where the farmers could bring their produce for sale, and Domesday Book records about fifty such markets, while annual fairs provided other facilities for commerce, and sometimes, like the markets, were held in churchyards. The Market Hall, Ledbury (A.D. 1633) (p. 393 F), has a covered market with sixteen oak pillars, over which is the Town Hall. The beautiful Market Crosses, Salisbury (p. 394 A) and Chichester (p. 394 c), still serve their original purpose, which was akin to that of the market halls, and show the similarity in type of the commercial and ecclesiastical architecture of the period.


Many old tithe barns throughout the country are fascinating in the simplicity of the rough but honest craftsmanship which went to the making of their walls and primitive timber roofs. The Abbot's Barn, Glastonbury (p. 394 D–F), and the Old Barn, Fullstone (p. 394 G–J), show the sturdy character of this type of building and the carpenter's skill in framing up the timbers, both in wall and roof, while the barns at Bradfordon-Avon (A.D. 1350), Frocester, and Preston-Flucknett display similar directness in construction.


Towns which date from the Roman period and earlier were surrounded by defensive walls and gateways, but most have been destroyed to allow for expansion. The Mediaeval wall of London was raised in part on the Roman foundations, fragments of which still exist. Thus London, Canterbury, Colchester, Lincoln, Gloucester, Chichester, and Winchester among others remind us of their Roman origin.

The City of Chester (p. 395) still possesses its walls in fine preservation to a height of about 12 ft. They are about two miles in length and entirely surround the city, and are strengthened at intervals by towers, of which King Charles' Tower is an example ; both this and the Pemberton Tower show the walking way behind the parapet on which the defenders could keep watch.

The City of York (p. 395) still retains about two and a half miles of its Mediaeval wall on both sides of the River Ouse, principally dating from the reign of Edward III. The ramparts (p. 395 F) are protected and strengthened by battlemented towers. Micklegate Bar, Bootham Bar, and Walmgate Bar, dating from the time of Edward I, are among the six imposing defensive gateways, each of which has portcullis, turrets or bartizans, and cross loop-holes crowned by battlements.


Bridges, which were important means of communication, were often semi-religious in character, and their maintenance was imposed on various authorities. Old London Bridge (A.D. 1176–1209) (p. 395 L), commenced by the religious fraternity of " Fratres Pontis," was one of the most famous of all Mediaeval bridges, and must have presented a strangely picturesque appearance. It rested on eighteen solid stone piers, strengthened by " starlings " to protect them against the scour of the tide. These piers, connected by arches, supported the roadway with its houses and shops which paid for the upkeep of the bridge, while on the central pier was the chapel of S. Thomas of Canterbury. The bridge lasted over 600 years and was pulled down A.D. 1832 when the present structure, designed by John Rennie, was completed 20o ft. farther west. Stopham Bridge (p. 395 H), Kirkby Lonsdale Bridge (p. 395 K), Aylesford Bridge (p. 395 M), Wakefield Bridge, with a chapel, and Warkworth Bridge; Northumberland, are in good preservation. The Bridge, Crowland (P. 395 J), is a peculiar triangular structure with three pointed arches, carrying three roads over three waterways.

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