Architecture - The Gothic School
( Originally Published 1921 )
James Savage (A.D. 1779-1852).—S. Luke, Chelsea (A.D. 182o), an early attempt at revived Gothic, in which a galleried church of Renaissance type is clothed with Gothic details.
Sir Jeffrey Wyatville, R.A. (A.D. 1766-184o), nephew of James Wyatt.—Continued Ashridge Park (p. 766) (A.D. 1813-20) ; he also transformed Windsor Castle (A.D. 1826) and thus started a fashion for castellated mansions, battlemented and turreted in imitation of Mediaeval castles, while internally of Georgian architecture.
William Wilkins (A.D. 1778–1839) — New Court, Trinity College, and new buildings, King's College, Cambridge.
John Shaw (A.D. 1776-1832).—S. Dunstan in the West, Fleet Street (A.D. 1831), London, a fine treatment of a town church with steeple in imitation of " Boston Stump."
Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (A. D. 1812-52) .-Acquired an extra-ordinary knowledge of Mediaeval architecture through helping with his father's books. Published a rousing pamphlet contrasting the " degraded architecture of the day with what he called the " Christian " style, and sought to restore the fervour of faith and self-denying spirit which were the foundations of the artistic creations of the Middle Ages. This study of Mediaeval Church-building inaugurated a new era in the Gothic revival. Pugin erected over sixty-five churches in the United Kingdom, and many in the colonies, besides convents, monasteries, mansions, and schools, and also collaborated with other architects. His numerous buildings include S. George's Cathedral, Southwark (A.D. 1845), and Roman Catholic churches at Nottingham, Derby, Birmingham, and Ramsgate (A.D. 1855) Assisted Sir Charles Barry on the fittings, stained glass, and metalwork of Westminster Palace.
Sir Charles Barry (A.D. 7795–1860).—Birmingham Grammar School (A.D. 1833), an early example in the revived Gothic style ; Westminster Palace (A.D. 1840–60) (p. 770 B), in which symmetry of plan, simplicity of idea, and richness of character pervade the design, which is Classic in inspiration, Gothic in clothing, and carried out with scrupulous adherence to the architectural detail of the Tudor period. Barry was assisted by Pugin in the scheme of decoration and in the elaborate fittings in the Tudor style, and thus the building and its internal decoration form one harmonious design, the immediate influence of which, however, was slight ; for it was the outcome of the idea to perpetuate the Tudor or last phase of English Gothic, but by the time this great building had reached completion, public interest in architecture was concentrated on still earlier Mediaeval phases. Westminster Palace, on a site unequalled for historical associations, with its monumental plan and skilful grouping of external features—largely governed by the retention of Westminster Hall—remains one of the grandest and most imposing of modern buildings. The period of Sir Charles Barry marks the close of the Classic Revival, and Gothic influence was for a time paramount.
Philip Hardwick, R.A. (A.D. 1792-1870).—Hall and Library, Lincoln's Inn (A.D. 1843).
Sir Gilbert Scott, R.A. (A.D. 1810-77).--S. Giles, Camberwell ; S. Mary, Stoke Newington ; Martyrs' Memorial, Oxford ; church at Haley Hill, Halifax (A.D. 1855) ; S. Nicholas, Hamburg (A.D. 1846–63) ; S. George, Doncaster (A.D. 1853) ; S. Mary's Cathedral, Edinburgh (A.D. 1874–79) ; S. Mary Abbotts, Kensington (A.D. 1869) ; Albert Memorial (A.D. 1862–72) ; S. Pancras Station ; Glasgow University (A.D. 1866–70); Buildings in Broad Sanctuary, Westminster ; many churches, houses, and restorations.
Benjamin Ferrey (A.D. 1810–8o). —S. Stephen, Westminster (A.D. 1845) Dorset County Hospital (A.D. 1839).
William Butterfield (A.D. 1814–1900).—Keble College, Oxford (A.D. 1870) ; All Saints, Margaret Street (A.D. 1850), and S. Alban, Holborn (A.D. 186o), London, all of which show the use of colour decoration ; Restoration of S. Cross, Winchester.
G. E. Street, R.A. (A.D. 1824-81).-S. Mary Magdalene, Paddington ; S. James the Less, Westminster (A.D. 1861) ; house in Cadogan Square ; the Convent, East Grinstead ; house and church at Holmbury S. Mary, besides numerous other churches. The Royal Courts of Justice, London (A.D. 1874–82), his greatest work, designed on an awkward site, was the last great attempt to apply the revived Gothic style to public buildings, for which this treatment proved unsuitable.
W. Burges (A.D. 1828–81).--Cork Cathedral (A.D. 1870) ; Cardiff Castle (restoration) ; his own house, Melbury Road, London ; the Speech Room, Harrow. Churches at Stoke Newington, Skelton, and Studley Royal.
R. Brandon (A.D. 1817-77).--Catholic Apostolic Church, Gordon Square, London (A.D. 1854).
E. W. Godwin (A.D. 1833-86).—Congleton Town Hall ; Bristol Assize Courts and Northampton Town Hall.
A. Waterhouse, R.A. (A.D. 1830-1905)—Manchester Town Hall (A.D. 1868) and Assize Courts (A.D. 1864) ; Natural History Museum, South Kensington (A.D. 1879) ; Prudential Assurance Offices, Holborn ; Eaton Hall, Cheshire ; City and Guilds of London Institute, South Kensington ; National Liberal Club, London (A.D. 1887).
Sir Thomas Deane (A.D. 1828-99). — The Oxford Museum (with Wood-ward) (A.D. 1855-60), the direct out-come of Ruskin's teaching, and unsuitable for its purpose ; Library, Christ Church, Oxford.
Philip Webb (A.D. 1831-1915) "Clouds," Hampshire; Palace Green, Kensington, for the Earl of Carlisle ; offices in Lincoln's Inn Fields ; many country buildings.
W. E. Nesfleld (A.D. 1835-88).—A number of country houses, including Combe Abbey, Coventry, and smaller buildings, such as lodges at Kew and Regent's Park.
J. L. Pearson, R.A. (A.D. 1817-97)-Truro Cathedral; eight London churches : Holy Trinity, Bess-borough Gardens (A.D. 1850) ; S. Anne, Lower Kennington Lane ; S. Augustine, Kilburn ; S. John, Red Lion Square, with chancel modelled on Cathedral of Gerona, Spain (p. 536 c) ; S. Michael and All Angels, West Croydon ; S. John, Upper Norwood ; Catholic Apostolic Church, Maida Hill, and S. Peter, Vauxhall. Chiswick Parish Church (additions) ; S. John, Redhill ; S. Alban, Birmingham ; Astor Estate Office, London ; Westminster Abbey restoration.
James Brooks (A.D. 1825—1901). —S. John, Holland Road, Kensington ; Churches at Plaistow, Stoke Newington, Hornsey, and Gospel Oak, besides many others round London.
Goldie (A.D. 1829-87).—S. James, Spanish Place, London ; S. Wilfrid, York.
G. Gilbert Scott (A.D. 1837–97).—S. Agnes, Kennington (A.D. 1877) ; All Hallows, Southwark ; S. John, Norwich ; S. Mark, Leamington (A.D. 1879) ; additions to Pembroke College, Cambridge.
J. Oldrid Scott.—The Greek Church,
Moscow Road, London ; Selby Abbey restoration ; the fine Church at Norwich, and many other churches.
Basil Champneys.—Girton and Newnham Colleges, Cambridge ; Indian Institute (A.D. 1882) and Mansfield College, Oxford ; S. Bride's Vicar-age, London ; Rylands' Library, Manchester ; in the Georgian manner, Bedford College, Regent's Park.
G. F. Bodley, R.A. (A.D. 1827-1907), and T. Garner (A.D. 1839–1906).
Church at Hoar Cross, Staffordshire ; Clumber Church ; churches at Hackney Wick, Castle Merton, Brighton, Cambridge, Pendlebury, Oxford; Leeds, Folkestone, Brent-ford, Kensington ; college additions, Oxford and Cambridge ; Washing-ton Cathedral.
John F. Bentley (A.D. 1839–1902). — Roman Catholic Cathedral, Westminster (A.D. 1895–1903), a modern Byzantine church of monumental proportions with plan founded on that of Angouleme (p. 278), and with impressive brick interior, now gradually being lined with marbles and mosaics ; Church of the Holy Rood, Watford ; Jesuit College, Beaumont, near Windsor ; S. Luke, Chiddingstone Causeway; S. Francis, Notting Hill ; S. Thomas's Seminary, Hammersmith ; S. Mary, Clapham, and many others, as well as buildings at Oxford and Cambridge.
Sir Arthur Blomfield, R.A. (A.D. 1829-99).—S. Mary, Portsea ; All Saints, Brighton ; Church for the Blind, Oxford Street, London, and many other churches; Sion College, Thames Embankment (A.D. 1886) ; the Church House, Westminster, and the Bank of England, Fleet Street, in the Renaissance style.
E. G. Paley (A.D. 1813–95), with his partner Austin.—Churches at Stock-port and elsewhere ; churches in Lancashire ; church at Bettws-y-Coed and other mountain churches.
J. D. Sedding (A.D. 1837–92) —Holy Trinity Church, Chelsea (A.D. 1890) ; Church of the Holy Redeemer,
Clerkenwell (a new version of the Wren style) ; S. Clement, Bourne-mouth, and adjacent houses; Children's Hospital, Finsbury, and S. Michael, Shoreditch, London, and (in conjunction with H. W. Wilson) S. Peter, Ealing.
Sir Aston Webb, P.R.A.—Metropolitan Life Office, Moorgate Street, and French Church, Soho Square, London ; and, with his partner, Ingress Bell, Birmingham Assize Courts (A.D. 1891) and Christ's Hospital, Horsham.
Ernest Newton, R.A. Houses at Haslemere, Wokingham, and elsewhere.
Leonard Stokes.—Churches and Schools at Folkestone, Liverpool, and else-where.
W. D. Carne.—Churches at Exeter, Fordington, and elsewhere ; Bishops' Palaces at Bristol and Canterbury ; besides a large number of church restorations.
G. H. Fellowes Prynne.—Churches at Staines, Dulwich, and elsewhere in a simple and restrained style.
Giles Gilbert Scott, A.R.A.—Liverpool Cathedral (begun A.D. 1903), remark-able for its double transepts flanking the large central space, its great north, south, and west entrances, its breadth of treatment externally (with boldly projecting buttresses), and the beautiful completed Lady Chapel.
Somers Clarke, W. Niven, A. H. Skipworth, Temple Moore, Cecil Hare, W. Tapper, C. Harrison Townshend, Sir Chas. Nicholson, Prof. E. S. Prior, A.R.A., Hodgson Fowler, and H. P. Burke Downing are other contemporary architects carrying on the traditions of the free Gothic style.
A further account of present-day architects and a record of architectural tendencies and achievements during the last fifty years are to be found in the professional journals which give plans and details of the principal buildings. A perusal of these journals would seem to show that a style or manner in architecture is being worked out which will resist artificial revivals and passing fashions and become the free expression of our civilisation and the outward and material symbol of the twentieth century in England.
There is no doubt whatever that the great World War (A.D. 1914–19) through which we have passed will influence every aspect of human life and affect the character of modern architecture. It is difficult at the moment to point out the exact nature of this influence, except to say that the happiness, comfort, and well-being of the great mass of the community has now become a predominant factor in determining the direction of future architectural developments.