Architecture - The Classic School
( Originally Published 1921 )
H. W. Inwood (A.D. 1794-1843).--S.
Pancras Church, London (A.D. 1819–22), in the Greek style, inspired by the Erechtheion, Athens (p. 100), with hexastyle portico, vestries resembling the Caryatid Portico, and a steeple, which is a two-storeyed version of the Tower of the Winds, Athens (p. III).
John Nash (A.D.1752–1835): Designed a fine London town-planning scheme represented by Regent Street and its colonnaded quadrant (A.D. 1813) (colonnades since removed) ; All Souls', Langham Place, London (A.D. 1822), with its spire over a Classic porch in a commanding position ; Portland Place and Regent's Park (A.D. 1821) with palatial blocks of symmetrical domestic architecture in which stucco was used with great effect ; the Marble Arch, London (A.D, 1825), Buckingham Palace (A.D. 1825)—altered by Blore, who added the east facade (A.D. 1846), and refaced by Sir Aston Webb, P.R.A.—Haymarket Theatre (A.D. 182o) ; Royal Pavilion, Brighton, in the Indian style.
William Wilkins (A.D. 1778–1839)—University College, London (A.D. 1828) with remarkable portico on a high podium ; the National Gallery, London (A.D. 1832–38), utilising the columns of old Carlton House ; S. George's Hospital, London (A.D. 1827) ; the Museum, York ; Downing College, Cambridge and Grange House, Hants (A.D. 1820).
Sir Robert Smirke (A.D.1780–1867).—Pupil of Sir John Soane. The British Museum (A.D. 1823–47), notable for the Ionic portico, and completed (A.D. 1855) by Sydney Smirke ; the General Post Office (A.D. 1825) (demolished) ; King's College, London (A.D. 1828).
George Basevi (A.D. 1795–1845). Pupil of Sir John Soane. Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (A.D. 1845), a scholarly composition in the Graeco-Roman style.
Decimus Burton (A.D. 1800-81). - Entrance Screen, Hyde Park Corner (A.D. 1828) ; Triumphal Arch, Constitution Hill (A.D. 1846) ; Athenum and United Service Clubs, Pall Mall.
H. L. Elmes (A.D. 1815-47).— S. George's Hall, Liverpool (A.D. 1839) (p. 770 A), the most perfect design of the Classic School, the great hall based on the tepidarium of the Thermae of Caracalla, Rome (p. 159), while externally a colonnade design is handled with great effect. Professor Cockerell completed the decoration of the interior (A.D. 1854)
Sir William Tite (A.D. 1798–1873).—Royal Exchange, London (A.D. 1842), one of the best instances in England in which a portico serves its purpose as a sheltered meeting-place.
Professor C. R Cockerell, R.A. (A.D. 1788-1863) .—The Taylor Institution, Oxford (A.D. 1845) ; Sun Fire Office, Threadneedle Street, London (A.D. 1841) (altered) ; Buildings for the Bank of England at Manchester, Bristol (A.D. 1844), and Liverpool (A.D. 1845) ; Hanover Chapel, Regent Street (A.D. 1825), since demolished ; Philosophic Institution, Bristol.
Sir Charles Barry (A.D. 1795–1860).—Travelled in Egypt, Greece, and Italy. He abandoned the fashion of useless porticoes and brought in-the " astylar " treatment in design. The Travellers' Club, Pall Mall, London (A.D. 1830), after the Pandolfini Palace, Florence (p. 576) ; the Reform Club, Pall Mall (A.D. 1837), inspired by the Farnese Palace, Rome (p. 575) ; Bridgewater House, London (A.D. 1849), with fine internal court and staircase ; Treasury Buildings (Whitehall facade, London (A.D. 1846) ; Town Hall, Halifax (A.D. 1862), which combines picturesqueness with symmetrical stateliness ; Trentham Hall with admirable formal gardens ; Highclere ; Cliefden (A.D. 1851) and Clumber.
Sir James Pennethorne (A.D. 1801-71). —Assistant to Nash and influenced by Barry, also discarded porticoes. He followed Renaissance rather than strict Classic lines, introduced the " Orders " sparingly, and laid stress on refinement of detail. Geological Museum, Piccadilly (A.D. 1837–48), after courtyard of Doge's Palace, Venice ; the Civil Service Commission Buildings, Burlington Gardens (A.D. 1866) ; Somerset House, Wes-tern wing (A.D. 1852) ; Record Office, Fetter Lane, in the Gothic manner—since enlarged.
E. M. Barry, R.A. (A.D. 1831–80).–Covent Garden Theatre; the Art Union Building, Strand ; Charing Cross Station ; the Temple Gardens, Victoria Embankment, London, in Early French Renaissance style.
F. P. Cockerell (A.D. 1833–78).—The Freemasons' Hall, London (A.D. 1866).
Sir Gilbert Scott, R.A. (A.D. 1810-77).-Government Offices, Whitehall, comprising the Home, Colonial, Foreign, and India Offices (A.D. 1860–75) originally designed in the Gothic style, but owing to Lord Palmerston altered to a Renaissance treatment —with courtyard to India Office by Sir Digby Wyatt (A.D. 1820-77) this gave a severe blow to the Gothic style for public buildings.
Charles Barry (A.D. 1823-1900).—Dulwich College ; Burlington House, Piccadilly (A.D. 1866) (with his partner, Banks).
Sydney Smirke (A.D. 1799-1877). British Museum Reading Room (A.D. 1857) ; Carlton Club, Pall Mall (A.D. 1847), after the Library of S. Mark, Venice.
Lewis Vulliamy (A.D. 1790—1871).
Dorchester House, London (A.D. 1851), after the Villa Farnesina, Rome (p. 575), with decorative work by Alfred Stevens.
John Gibson (A.D. 1819—92).-National Provincial Banks in London (A.D. 1863) and the provinces ; the premises for the S.P.C.K., Northumberland Avenue, London (since altered); Todmorden Town Hall (A.D. 1870)
Child's Bank, Fleet Street, London.
Sir Horace Jones (A.D. 1819-87). — Smithfield Market, Guildhall School of Music, and new Council Chamber, Guildhall, London.
Capt. Fowke (A.D. 1823-65), General Scott (A.D. 1822-83) and Assistants. —Science College. South Kensington (A.D. 1872) and the Albert Hall, London (A.D. 1868).
W. H. Crossland, a pupil of Sir Gilbert Scott.—Holloway College, Egham, after Chateau de Chambord (p. 631) Rochdale Town Hall and Huddersfield Post Office.
John Whichcord (A.D. 1823-85) Stephen's Club, Westminster, in French Renaissance Style ; National Safe Deposit Building, London.
Davis andpEmmanuel.—City of London School (A.D. 1883).
William Burn (A.D. 1789-1870).—Buccleuch House, Whitehall, and many mansions.
Alexander Thomson (A.D. 1817-75) Known as " Greek Thomson." Buildings at Glasgow in revived Greek style.
H. Currey (A.D. 1820—1900).—S. Thomas's Hospital, London (A.D. 1868).
G F. Bodley, R.A. (A.D. 1827—1907), and T. Garner_ (A.D. 1839-1906)-London School Board Offices, Thames Embankment, in early French Renaissance style ; the reredos, S. Paul's Cathedral.
H. Gribble (A.D. 1847–94).--The Oratory, Brompton (A.D. 1888–97).
W. Young (A.D. 1843–1900).—Glasgow Municipal Buildings (A.D. 1889) ; Gosford Park ; War Office, White-hall (A.D. 1906).
Leeming Brothers.—New Admiralty
Buildings, Whitehall, won in competition, which practically sounded the death-knell of Gothic architecture for public buildings.
R. Norman Shaw, R.A. (A.D. 1831 1912).-New Zealand Chambers, Leadenhall Street, London ; numerous country houses, as " Wispers," " Craigside," " Dawpool," and " Bryanston " near Salisbury ; Lowther- Lodge, Kensington ; Alliance Assurance Office, Pall Mall ; houses at Queen's Gate, Bedford Park (Chiswick), and Hampstead ; Harrow Mission Church, Wormwood Scrubs, and the daring design for New Scotland Yard (A.D. 1891), which indicates the powerful personality of the man who perhaps influenced contemporary architecture more than any other single architect.
Sir Thomas Jackson, R.A.—Examination Schools and additions to colleges at Oxford in early Renaissance style.
Sir Ernest George, R.A., with his partners Peto and Yeates.—Houses in Collingham Gardens and Cadogan Square, London, which show the influence of Flemish Renaissance ; houses at Streatham Common ; Buchan Hill, Sussex, and elsewhere.
H. L. Florence.—Hotel Victoria, Holborn Viaduct Hotel, and Woollands' premises, Knightsbridge, London.
E. R. Robson (A.D. 1835–1917).-Schools for the London School Board in a characteristic style with stock bricks and red dressings ; Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours and the People's Palace, London.
Sir Robert W. Edis.— Constitutional (A.D. 1886), Junior Constitutional, and Badminton Clubs, London.
T. E. Collcutt.—Imperial Institute (A.D. 1887–93) ; Palace Theatre ; Wakefield Town Hall ; Lloyd's Registry Office, London.
E. W. Mountford (A.D. 1856-1908)-Sheffield Town Hall (A.D. 1897) ; Battersea Town Hall and Polytechnic ; Liverpool Technical Schools and Art Galleries ; Central Criminal Court, London (A.D. 1905).
J. M. Brydon (A.D. 1840-1901) Chelsea Town Hall and Polytechnic ; Bath Municipal Buildings, Art Gallery, and Pump Room ; Government Offices, Whitehall, London.
J. Belcher, R.A. (A.D. 1841-1913).-
Colchester Town Hall ; Institute of Chartered Accountants, and Electra House, Moorgate Street, London.
Sir Aston Webb, P.R.A.—Victoria and Albert Museum, London ; Royal Naval College, Dartmouth ; Buckingham Palace facade ; Victoria Memorial, Processional Avenue, and Admiralty Arch, London (A.D. 1910).
H. T. Hare (A.D. 1860-1921).—Municipal Buildings at Oxford, Stafford, Henley, and Crewe.
Sir Edwin Lutyens, R.A.—Town Planning and Government Buildings, Delhi, India ; Art Gallery, Johannesburg, South Africa; S. Jude, Free Church and Institute, Hampstead Garden Suburb ; Marsh Court, Stockbridge, Hants ; Heath-cote, Ilkley, Yorkshire ; No. 7, St. James's Square, S.W. ; New Place, Shedeld, Hants ; Little Thakeham, near Pulborough, Sussex, and many country houses ; the Cenotaph, Whitehall.
John W. Simpson, Lanchester Rickards, Sir John Burnet, A.R.A., J. S. Gibson, E. Guy Dawber, Paul Water-house, A. N. Prentice, and Sir Reginald Blomfield, R.A., are other contemporary architects who have carried on the traditions of the Classic School.