German Renaissance - Modern Architecture
( Originally Published 1921 )
In the nineteenth century here, as in other countries, a period of revivals interrupted traditional architectural development. The Greek revival, consequent on the enthusiasm for Greek literature and art, was conspicuously carried out in Munich, Berlin, and Dresden ; while many Neo-Gothic buildings, in town and country alike, reveal the natural German love of old Gothic art. This tendency was largely accentuated by the works of Goethe and his school, while the change in intellectual outlook, indicated by the philosophic writings of Kant, Schelling, and Hegel, and by the literary works of Lessing, Schiller, and Heine, has its counterpart in modern German architecture.
The Classic revival was introduced by the architect Klenze (A.D. 1784-1864), who is responsible for the Glyptotek, the Pinacothek, the Propylaea, and the Walhalla, all in Munich. The Brandenburg Gate, Berlin (A.D. 1789), by Langhams, was inspired by the Propylaea, Athens, and the celebrated architect, Schinkel (A.D. 1781-1841), made use of Classical forms and details in his designs for the New Theatre, the Museum, and the Polytechnic School in Berlin. The Museum, Dresden (A.D. 1847), and Opera House, Dresden (A.D. 1878), are characteristic buildings by Semper, and the Parliament House, Vienna (A.D. 1883), by Hansen, is an imposing edifice in the modern quarter of Vienna.
The Gothic revival in the nineteenth century produced numerous secular buildings throughout Germany, notably castles in Bavaria, on the Rhine, and buildings in the cities.