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Types And Breeds Of Swine

( Originally Published 1915 )



Types and Breeds of Swine.—There are two types of swine —the bacon and the lard types. The bacon is a lean type, should be an active hog and grown on pasture and a narrow protein ration. The lard hog is, like the beef cattle, a round, fat animal. The body should be a square prism or a cylinder with the sides slightly flattened. Among the bacon breeds, the Tam-worth is a leader. Other breeds are the Large Hampshires and the Large Yorkshires. European laborers do not use butter three times a day as we do in America. They use a slice of bacon between two pieces of bread for at least two meals a day. This makes the meat of the bacon hog in demand in Europe. For supplying this market the Danes are far ahead of us in America, and yet we can produce a pound of pork for less than the Danes can.

The fat hog is popular in America. We can get nearly as much for the lard considering what it costs us as we can for the lean meat or bacon. Among the lard hogs are the Chester Whites, the Duroc-Jersey, the Poland China, the Berkshire, and smaller Hampshires.

Alfalfa pasture makes the best place on which to raise pigs. They need milk while young and corn when older to supplement the alfalfa. The hog is not as dirty an animal as man forces it to be. Naturally it ranged the woods and lived on acorns, nuts and roots. There is no good reason why we should try to raise our hogs in small, filthy pens.

Judging Hogs.—Judging swine, like judging other animals, is selecting. We aim to select the animal that will grow most on a given amount of feed, the animal that will " dress " the most, and hence bring the highest price.

FAT HOG SCORE CARD

[From " Productive Su Line Husbandry."—DAY]

A. GENERAL APPEARANCE:

Size—Well developed for age

Form—Deep, thick, smooth, 1o* set, good length, but compactly built, standing on well-placed legs. Top line straight, or slightly arching; under line, straight; belly, trim and neat.

Quality-Hair, fine; skin, smooth, showing no tendency to wrinkle; bone, clean and fine; flesh, smooth and mellow but showing no flabbiness.

Condition—Deeply and evenly covered with flesh, but not overdone for the purpose for which the animal is intended.

Style—Active and sprightly, walking without a swaying movement, and standing well up on toes. Breeding animals should show strong character.

B. HEAD AND NECK:

Snout—Moderately fine

Face—Broad between eyes; poll, broad and full.

Eyes—Good size, full, and bright.

Jowl—Full, broad, deep, smooth, and firm, carrying fulness back near to point of shoulder !

Ears—Medium size, fine, and soft.

Neck—Short, thick, and deep. Rounding and full from poll to shoulder top.

C. FORE QUARTERS:

Shoulders—Broad and compact on top, deep, well fleshed, blending smoothly with neck and body.

Breast—Wide, deep, and full.

Fore Legs—Set well apart, short, tapering, and straight; pasterns. upright; bone, clean and fine; feet, medium size and strongly formed.

D. BODY:

Back-Broad, straight or very slightly arched, medium length, uniform width from shoulder to ham, thickly fleshed, even and smooth, without crease$ or projections.

Loin—Broad, strong, full, and thickly and smoothly fleshed.

Ribs-Long and well sprung.

Side—Medium length, deep, smooth, even between shoulder and ham.

Heart Girth—Large, full back Of shoulder, and deep and full at fore flanks.

Flank—Deep and full.

E. HIND QUARTERS:

Rump-Same width as back, long, smooth, slightly rounded from loin to base of tail.

Ham-Broad, deep, heavily fleshed, plump, and reasonably smooth; flesh carried well down to hock on inside as well as at rear.

Hind Legs-Short, straight, set well apart and squarely under body; bone, fine and clean; pasterns, strong; feet, medium size and strongly formed.



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