Portugal - Cintra
( Originally Published 1891 )
October 15th.—I have just had a visit from the Mar-quis of Ailsa, whoso home is on the Clyde, and whose large landed estate of nearly 80,000 acres in Scotland resembles somewhat the great tract of picturesque territory which constitutes the pasture lands of Essex County. The Marquis came to Lisbon in his yacht Titania, on his annual cruise in the Mediterranean and Spanish waters, and brought a letter of introduction to me from Sir George Bonham, the Secretary of the English Legation, who is now in Lisbon. Ailsa presented his letter of introduction, which I should always recognize, and with his own quiet and self-possessed ways, won his way at once into my hospitality. I made with him excursions to all the remarkable and attractive spots in Cintra. We explored the Palacio da Pena carefully ; crept through the Cork Convent patiently ; made Sir Francis Cook a long morning call, at which we were treated with great hospitality and kindness, while we admired his graceful palace at Montserrate and his luxuriant garden, and grew enthusiastic over the great natural beauties of Cintra.
When the Marquis left Cintra I escorted him into Lisbon and dined with him on board the Titania, a beautiful steam yacht of three hundred tons, with most graceful lines, and an elegant outfit for a comfortable and gentlemanly cruise. She lay in the wide harbor of Lisbon, where the Tagus spreads out into a great bay, and all around her was gathered a fleet of merchantmen of every nationality, with here and there a man-of-war, while the lights of Lisbon and of the little villages along the curving shore were reflected in the smooth water, and a great full moon, " round as my shield," shed a pale and thoughtful light over the whole scene. The Great Bear lay low in the horizon, and the North Star looked down from his eternal and unchanging throne to remind me of that spot from which I have so often surveyed it and felt that it was a constant friend. The scene was dream-like, and as I was rowed ashore to take the train for Cintra I seemed to be transported to a land filled with heroic memories, great aspirations, valiant deeds, and romantic thoughts, over which was spread the hush and mystery of the recorded past. I forgot the material pleasures of the yacht, the Scotch hospitality and cheer, so in contrast with my daily experience in this land of dietetic expedients, and wandered through the ghostly streets of Lisbon in the moonlight, to return to the rich verdure and solemn crags of Cintra. My way lay along the quay, which stretches by the river-bank for miles, and is busy from sunrise to sunset with gallegos bearing heavy burdens of coal and wood, and oxen moving the great wains, and barefoot women carrying broad baskets of fish and vegetables on their heads, and sailors unloading their lateen vessels of the huge, widespread cargoes of straw, and great freight of fagots for burning, and long lumber from Norway, and Belgian blocks split. out from the ledges high up the river. It was all still and weird and moonlit now. I was making my way out of Lisbon along that path which led north-ward into the historic portion of the kingdom in which had been enacted nearly all the deeds which made Portugal great and all the tragedies which made her mournful. From Lisbon to Braga on the north, all along the Atlantic coast, the Portuguese character displayed itself for centuries. Here were the great sieges, here the bloody battles, here the warring factions, here the fleets of discovery were fitted out, here the armies for foreign conquest were organized, here the wealth of foreign commerce was gathered, and here the vast treasure poured into the kingdom by great merchants and brave captains was wasted by weak and extravagant monarchs.
The landmarks are all impressive. Belem, the great tower, erected originally as a defence against pirates, which has stood for nearly four centuries, armed with ancient cannon, a picturesque structure which first welcomes all who enter the Tagus, and fills them with admiration of its towers and Gothic arches, reminds you that on this spot Vasco de Gama first set foot on his return from the discovery of a new empire. From the rocky peaks of Cintra the King had witnessed the approach of his triumphant little fleet as it entered the mouth of the river and cast anchor off the shore of Belem. The story it told was fabulous. The circuit of the Cape had been accomplished, the prosperous regions of Africa had been explored, the Indian Ocean had been navigated, the secret designs of hostile tribes had been circumvented, the treasures of the 'East had been discovered, and were poured into the treasury of Portugal until she became the most powerful empire in the world and Lisbon the richest and busiest emporium in Europe. Hardly had the Western Continent been discovered when the gorgeous civilization of the East was reached by the bold Portuguese navigator. Born in a small seaport town on the coast of the Algarves, he had become so familiar with the sea and so brave and hardy under its influence that before he was thirty years old he had accomplished his great work, and dying at fifty-five, he had discovered and subdued great colonies in the East, had been appointed Viceroy of India, and had suffered from neglect at the hands of those he had enriched. His remains were brought from India where he died to Lisbon, and with the most solemn and imposing ceremonies were deposited in the Carmelite Church at Vidigueira, where they now repose in a magnificent mausoleum erected to the memory of the renowned Discoverer of the Indies. In memory of his great achievements and to mark the spot where he and his companions spent the night before their departure in prayer to God for his blessing on their undertaking, and in gratitude for the success of the voyage, King Manuel founded a church, dedicated to St. Mary, to the erection of which he devoted the first gold that came from India. All that art and architecture could do was done to give beauty and grandeur to the building. From the portico, which is profusely ornamented with statues, to the high-vaulted roof with its white marble pillars and its imposing cupolas, the symmetry is perfect. And the cloisters are not surpassed by any in Europe. As a monument to the great discoverer it is most interesting, and as a token of gratitude to God, who had given the King so great a subject, it represents the piety and ambition which characterized that age of ecclesiastical fervor and imperial power. And you have only to go on to Cintra, along the path we are now travelling, to look with admiration on the convent which the King also erected on one of the highest peaks, to mark the spot where he watched for the coming of the fleet which brought him his wealth and power. Vasco de Gama was one of the men who made Portugal great.
But a little farther on the way stands the Church of Bemfica, where repose the bones of John de Castro, the hero of a hundred battles, the Viceroy of India, who was born A. D. 1500, the year after Vasco de Gama returned from his great voyage, and died at the early age of forty-eight, twenty-four years after the discoverer of India had gone to his rest. Bemfica is about two miles from Lisbon, and stands a hamlet on a hillside, remarkable for its splendid aqueduct arches more than 250 feet high, and its windmills, its orange groves, gardens, and orchards. In the midst of a most verdant spot stands the church, containing the chapel of the Castros. The church is by no means an imposing building. It is simple and unpretentious externally ; but the interior is a fit resting-place for the great hero. It is one of the three buildings with which the name of John de Castro is intimately connected, and represents the different phases of his extraordinary character. After an early career of heroism, he sought repose in Pena Verde at Cintra, where, with agriculture and literature, he passed a few years of leisure and culture before setting forth on his great expeditions. Here he practised the most rigid economy, — living in the humblest apartment, refusing all compensation for his services, asking only as a reward that a rock, on which stood six trees, should be annexed to the estate. Here he exercised that extraordinary contempt of wealth, which he displayed in life, and of which he boasted in the hour of his death, by bequeathing this property to his descendants, with the express condition of their not deriving pecuniary advantages from its cultivation, saying, that even from the earth he would accept no reward for his labors. He condemned this favorite abode to leasehold, and Sir Francis Cook now has it on a lease of ninety years. De Castro seemed to be more proud of his poverty than of his achievements, and he provided in his will that his son should spend whatever recompense he received from the government in the erection of a convent for the Franciscan reformed friars (the Recollets). Out of this came the ecclesiastical burrow, known now as Cork Convent, abandoned even by the poor, for whom an impecunious man built it ; but possessing still, by special papal favor, the high privileges of the Church which made it attractive. This convent and Pena Verde remain, in memory of the great viceroy—one his abode, and the other the fruit of his pious devotion. The modest church, not far away, holds his bones, and, as a mark of respect, was spared when the convents of the kingdom were sequestered.
It is not easy in our day to comprehend a character like John de Castro. Possessed of powers which made him a great warrior and ruler, with the comprehension and capacity of an accomplished man of affairs, familiar with the luxury and state of kings at a time when royalty was the goal which the ambitious sought as the height of human happiness and success, he was obedient to that spirit of piety and self-sacrifice which belonged to the devotees of the Church; and which made starvation and stripes the fountains of ecstasy and joy.
He seems to have been indifferent to the refinements: of life, and superior to all its comforts and luxuries.The service of an acolyte was as dear to him as the accomplishments of a conqueror and ruler. He did not fight for the Church ; he entered upon no crusade. The service of the Lord gave no strength to his right arm. He fought for empire and power. And when he sheathed his sword, he left the battlefield and con-quests behind him, and retired to his sanctuary and penance. We have known many Christian warriors who fought for their faith ; but he was not one. He fought like a warrior, and he prayed like a parson ; but he never mingled the two characters together, nor did he call in either in aid of the other. He was not a reformer, or an independent ; he was a faithful subject, and a firm believer. And he was another of the great men of Portugal who builded his house upon the sand. He died and left no idea behind.
The best sketch of John de Castro is given in a quaint volume, written in 1664 by Freire de Andrade, and translated into English by St. Peter Wycke, Kt., whose account is graphic, and whose style is admirably adapted to his subject. He says :
" Dom John de Castro, as illustrious for his family as virtues, was born in Lisbon the 27th of February of the year one thousand five hundred : He was second son to Dom Avaro de Castro, Governour of the House of Civil, and to Dona Leonor de Noronha, the daughter of Dom John de Almeyda, second Earl of Abrantes ; Grandchild to Dom Garcia de Castro, who was brother to Dom Alvaro de Castro, the first Earl of Monsanto ; these two were sons to Dom Fernando de Castro, grandchildren to Dom Pedro de Castro, and great-grandchildren to Dom Alvaro Pinz de Castro, Earl of Arrogolos, the first Constable of Portugal, brother to the Queen Dona Inez de Castro, wife to Dom Pedro the Cruel. This Constable was son to Dom Pedro Fernandez de Castro, called (in Castile) the man of Warr, who coming into this kingdome began here the Illustrious house of the Castros, which hath preserved itself in so much greatness ; Dom Pedro by the male line, descended from the Infante Dom Fernando, son to King Dom Garcia of Navarre, who married Dona Maria Alvarez de Castro, the only daughter of the Earl Alvaro Fanhez Minaya, the fifth grandchild in descent from Lain Calvo, from whom this family derives its beginning. Dom John de Castro, when very young, marry' d Dona Leonor Continho, her Cousin German once removed, greater for her quality than portion, with whom retiring to the Town of Almada, he by an antedated old age avoided the ambition of the Court : He went to serve at Tangier, where he gave the first, but extraordinary proofs of his courage, though of his actions there we have more from his fame than our knowledge. He returned to Court recalled by the King Dom John the third, and the Kingdom being too narrow for his Gallantry went to India with Dom Garcia de Noronha : He accompany'd Dom Estevan de Gama in his expedition to the mouth of the Red Sea, and made a journal of his voyage, a usefull, and acceptable work to Sea-men. On his return to Portugal he retied to his country-house at Sintra, recreating himself by Reading, in his solitudes and employments always Exemplary : He put on his sword again to follow the eagles of Charles the Emperor in the Battail of Tunis, where he raised his name with new Glory ; when this design was over, hiding himself from his own fame, he again retired to Sintra, knowing how to avoid, not keep himself from employments.
" Dom John made him Admiral of the Navy of the Coast, a service where his Courage was answered by Success. He went last of all to govern India, where by the victories we have related, he secured and brought into reputation the State. When the designs of Wan spared him, he in a large Card describ'd all the Coast betwixt Goa and Dio marking the Flats and Shelves, the Height of the Pole in which the Cities lye : the depth of water, Anchoring, and Creeks which form the Havens ; the Trade-winds, and Nature of those seas, the force of the Currents, the swiftness of Rivers, disposing the lines in different Tables, all with so minute and accurate Geography as only this work might seem to make him famous, if he were not so eminently for his great Fortitude. He look' t the same in his straights at Home, and prosperity in the East, appearing always the same man in diverse fortunes : his ambition was to deserve all Things, and ask nothing. He equally did reason and justice to all men, unbyast in his punishments, but so justifiable, that the Complaints were more against the Law than Minister. He was free to his souldiers, sparing to his Children, shewing more civility in his office, than nature. He us' d with a great deal of Ceremony the actions of his predecessors, honoring even those he put not in practice ; without prostituting his Civility, he preserved his Respect. He appeared above the great ones, and Father of the meanest : such was his life, as by that, more than by punishments, he reform' d extravagancies his first zeal was always in God's cause, then in the state's ; he past no virtue without reward, some vices without punishment: amending not a few, some by favors, others by Clemency. The presents he received from the Princes of Asia he put to the King's revenue, a Virtue all prais'd, few imitated : the maim' d souldiers found him Sollicitons in their cure and Compassionate of their condition : He obliged every one, yet seemed obnoxious to all : He kept the souldiers (as what would prove the Ruine of the State) from merchandizing : He set upon no action, which he did not atchieve, being ready in Execution, mature in Council ; amidst the employments of a Souldier, he preserved the virtues of a Religious man, was frequent in visiting Temples, a great honourer of Churchmen, mercifull and liberal to the Poor ; had great devotion to the Cross of Christ, which he reverenced in its Figure, by a low inclination without any difference of time or place ; and so Religiously was he fir' d with the Worship of this most holy representative, as he rather chose to build a temple to its memory than raise a House to his Posterity, leaving it in his Fatherly blessing to his Son Dom Alvaro, that if he found in the favour or justice of the King, any recompense for his services, he should with that build a convent for the Franciscan Recollets in the Mountains of Sintra, and name the House The Invocation of the Holy Cross [now Cork Convent in Cintra]. Dom Alvaro de Castro, Heir apparent to the virtues of so pious a Father, gave order for building the Convent, not so great for the Majesty of the Pile, as for the Sanctity of the Penitents who Inhabit there. Being the first time sent from King Dom Sebastian Embassador to Pope Pius the Fourth, he obtained of him to priviledge the Altar of the Convent for all Masses, and on the day of the Invention of the Cross, Plenary indulgence to all those who pray'd for the pressing necessities of thé Church, and designedly for the soul of Dom John de Castro ; so singular and unusual a grace as we have not known granted to sovereign Princes. It is apparent the Fame of his victories was as loud in Italy as that of his Virtues, attested by so illustrious a testimony from the Vicar of Christ ; for these and other virtues we believe he now enjoys in Heaven nobler Palmes in a more eminent Triumph. He had three sons who all exposed themselves to the dangers of Wan, as their Father's blessing ; Dom Miguel the Youngest, who in the Reign of King Dom Sebastian went to the Indies, and Dy' d in the Government of Malaca ; Dom Fernando burnt in the mine at Dio ; Dom Alvaro, with whom he seem' d to share his Palmes and victories, the son and companion of his fame, who, returning to the kingdom without any other Riches than the Wounds he received in the Warr, married Donna Anna de Attayde, Daughter to Dom Lewis de Castro, Lord of the House of Mon Santo : He was a particular Favourite to King Dom Sebastian, entrusted by him in the greatest affairs and places of the Kingdome, went on diverse Embassies to Castile, France, Rome, & Savoy ; was of the Council of State and sole Superintendent of the Exchequer, and in the midst of so eminent offices, Died poor, though he Deceast a Favourite.
" DEATH AND BURIAL, Or DOM JOHN DE CASTRO.
"As soon as the Vice-Roy perceived himself summon' d to a sharper Conflict, avoiding the importune diversion of Human Cares, he secluded himself with the Father Saint Francisco Xaverius, providing for so doubtfull a voyage to secure a Pilot, who all the time of his sickness was his Nurse, Reconciler, and Governour. As he had got no riches to make a new Disposal of, he made no other will than that he left (at his coming to govern India) in the Kingdome, in the hands of Dom Rodrigo Pinheiro Bishop of Angra, to whom he had communicated it ; and receiving the Sacraments of the Church he gave up his soul to God the sixth of June One Thousand five hundred forty-eight, in the eight and fortieth Year of his age, and almost three of his Government of that State. The riches he gained in Asia were his Heroick actions which Posterity will read in this book with tender memory. In his study were found three pieces of small money, and a Discipline which seem'd to have been often us'd, and the locks of his beard he had pawned : He ordered his body should be Deposited in Saint Francis Church in Goa, thence to be Translated to his chapel at Cintra : They immediately consulted on his funeral, which was to be not less compassionate than solemn, deserving the Illustrious and common Tears of the whole State.
" After some years his bones came to the Kingdome, where they were received with reverent and pious applause, as being the last benefit his country received with his ashes, and on the Shoulders of four of his Grandchildren carry'd to Saint Dominicke's Convent in Eisbone, where for many days were made costly Exequies ; thence they were Translated the second time to Saint Dominicke's Convent at Bemfica, where (though in another's Chapel) they remained some years in a decent Depository, till his Grandchild Francisco de Castro, Bishop and Inquisitor General made for them a Chapel and place of Burial ; for Design, Matter, and Adornment, but to the King's monuments, not second to any ; the relation of it will not perhaps seem tedious out of respect to the memory of the Grand-father and piety of the Grandchild."
Their bones are all that remain of these great men. The seas they explored have become highways for every trader ; the kingdom they enlarged has dwindled away to a mere shadow of the greatness they gave it. What they thought is forgotten, if it was ever known. They fill a most attractive page in history. They belong to the romance of the world. If they had only left a civil organization in which conventions, and caucuses, and legislatures, and presidential campaigns, and civil-service reforms, and free trade, and interstate commerce formed a part, how grateful the modern nations might be to them ;—anything besides a mere bone—some solution of home-rule for England—some way of disposing of political aspirants besides banishment for France—some security for the ballot-box to all who have a right to its blessings—some record of a constitutional convention—some Mayflower—some Plymouth colony. But now it is merely idle to tell us that heroic qualities can be remembered for their devotion to the age in which they live and labor, and can build a monument to themselves even on fleeting foundations—a monument which all the generations of men will admire.
Perhaps we think more of Washington and Grant than we do of John de Castro—more of Farragut than we do of Vasco de Gama. We have a perfect right to.
October 26th.—Another royal death and another royal funeral. On the i 9th of October the King of Portugal, Louis Philippe Marie Ferdinand Pierre d'Alcantara Antoine Michel Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Xavier Francois d' Assise Jean Jules Auguste Volfande de Braganza Bourbon, known among the sovereigns of Europe as Luis I., the eldest surviving son of Dona Maria II. da Gloria, Queen of Portugal, and Dom Fernando, Prince of Saxe-Coburg, died. Yesterday he was buried. The first time I saw the King was at the reception given at the palace in Cintra on the birthday of Prince Affonso, and the last time I saw him was on my presentation as American Minister, August 29th, at the same palace. On both occasions his extreme illness was manifest. Shortly after my audience he left Cintra at midnight, probably to avoid observation, and was carried to Cascaes, where he died. He was a sailor by education and experience, and a soldier—as all monarchs in Europe necessarily are. He never forgot the sea nor lost his love for sea-life, was devoted to the navy, and was an active member of a yacht club in Lisbon. He turned naturally to Cascaes as his strength failed, and there, in view of. that beautiful little bay—very like the bay at Newport—and the sea beyond, sheltered by the high weather-stained bastions of the great fortress built by Affonso VI. in 1681, and converted in later years into a summer palace, he passed away.
Dom Luis I. was born October 31, 1838 ; and on October 6, 1862, he married Maria Pia, the youngest daughter of Victor Emanuel, by whom he had two sons : Carlos, born September 28, 1863, who has now ascended the throne ; and Affonso, born July 31, 1865. His reign was peaceful and prosperous, and with his encouragement Portugal advanced greatly in industry, education, and wealth. He began to rule when Portugal was fairly emerging from a long period of confusion and revolt, which had been partially closed by the amiable wisdom of his father, Dom Fernando, and the imperial force of his mother the great Queen Maria II. The Braganzas had not been distinguished for quiet and peaceful reigns. They had restored the power of Portugal, as I have stated, in 164o, had driven out the Spaniards, had spent enormous treasures, had expelled the Jesuits, had fled to Brazil, had accepted a charter and a constitution, had spent thirteen years, from 1821 to 1834, in a family fight for the throne, had seen more than a dozen uprisings, and had brought the kingdom through fire and sword and capital punishments and tortures and great energy to a stage of exhaustion and to a constitution as the last resort and a way to prosperity. When Dom Fernando came down from Saxe-Coburg and married the Queen he seems to have brought with him an element of German prudence and self-possession which cooled the ardor and steadied the purpose of the Braganza blood. The Queen reigned nineteen years, from 1834 to 1853, having accepted a modified constitution, having with the aid of Spain on land and England on the high seas subdued a revolution, and leaving her kingdom to a judicious prince consort, who knew enough to resist the temptation of the Spanish throne and to exercise a good influence at home. It was comparatively easy for the young King Dom Luis I. in 1861 to apply his peculiar faculties to the management of a kingdom which was beginning to enjoy the luxury of peace and was quite exhausted by intestine strife. For a state of affairs like this Dom Luis seems to have been peculiarly adapted. He possessed a constitution not easily disturbed or driven to nervous excitement, he had refined and scholarly tastes, he was fond of music, and he had reached a capacity for steady contemplation by the subduing influence of a life at sea. He had a due appreciation of the value of successful industry, and the peace of mind and heart which goes with it. He subdued the last insurrection which threatened his kingdom by force of wit and good sense and not by force of arms; and when the veteran conspirator Saldanha threatened a revolt in case his demand for a change of ministry was not complied with, he quietly submitted to the threat, notwithstanding, as it is said, a mild remonstrance from the spirited and resolute Queen, and sent the conspirator to represent him at the Court of St. James. He resisted the last Spanish temptation, and rejected the proposition of General Prim to bring the entire Iberian peninsula under the Braganza rule, fearing, I doubt not, a return to the storms and conflicts of the house. He saw that the work of restoring Portugal to any degree of her ancient grandeur was enough for one mind, and that the glory of even a partial accomplishment was enough for one reign. And so he devoted himself as a scholar to the Literary Congress at Lisbon, and the Archaeological Congress ; took an active part in erecting a statue to the poet Camoens, and in celebrating his centennial ; and as a believer in material development encouraged the extension of railroads and their sound organization and efficient equipment. He evidently understood his duty as a constitutional king, and maintained a scrupulous observance of all the duties and obligations of such a position, realizing that a king differs from the people over whom he rules only in his greater opportunity and the sacredness of his responsibility.
The influence of Dom Luis I. during his entire reign has been for the development of Portugal and for her advancement to the commercial power which her intelligent people now desire. That the work he commenced will be continued by his successor, and son, there can be no question. The dignified and patriotic manifesto put forth by Dom Carlos I. on his elevation to the throne, combined with his expressions of esteem and respect for his father, indicates a determination to serve his country in accordance with the good example he has before him. At his first reception of the Foreign Ministers at the Ajuda Palace yesterday, I took occasion to assure him of the deep interest the government and the people of the United States were taking in his reign just now begun, and their readiness to respond to all measures for the intimate relations of the two nationalities. To this he responded most cordially. He has commenced his career as ruler in early life ; his queen has great equability and good sense as well as many charms ; and in everything calculated to maintain the peace and promote the prosperity of his kingdom I feel assured the people of Portugal are with him.
Dom Luis during his long and painful illness was attended most carefully and tenderly by the Queen, whose devotion to the dying monarch was untiring. When the King had drawn his last breath, the Queen rose from her knees, and embracing her son Dom Carlos, who stood beside her, said : "Le Roi est mort; vive le Roi. May you be as good a king as you have been a son." The scene was most touching. The body of the King was then embalmed, and preparations were made for the funeral, which was appointed for the following Saturday, leaving eight days in which special ambassadors could come to represent the sovereigns of Europe.
The funeral of the King was very imposing. He lay in state at Cascaes for a few days, and was then borne to the beautiful Igreja e Mosteiro de Santa Maria de Belem, not far from Lisbon, the Convent of St. Jerome. It was on this spot that Vasco de Gama passed the night before his departure on his famous voyage of discovery, in a small chapel, asking God's blessing on his perilous undertaking. Here are the tombs of the children of Dom Joao III., the greatest of all the kings of Portugal,. who brought the kingdom to the height of its glory ; the cenotaph containing the ashes of Dom Sebastian, as is supposed, the unfortunate young king who perished in Africa with an army of princes and nobles; the tomb of the great cardinal-king, Henriques; those of Dom Manoel and his queen Dona Maria, the daughter of Ferdinand the Catholic. From this beautiful and historic church the body of the King was borne to its final resting-place in St. Vincente in Lisbon, on Saturday, October 26th, attended by a long procession of the representatives of many of the courts in Europe, the royal family of Portugal, the ministers of state, the officers of the army and navy. The procession was led by a platoon of cavalry. They were followed by six heraldic ensigns bearing heraldic banners ; all the corporations which wished to join the procession ; a great number of ladies mourning for the King ; carriages of the presidents of the Cortes ; the carriage of the municipal council of Lisbon ; high officers of the court ; the foreign princes who had come to attend the ceremony, among whom were the Duke of Edinburgh, Duke de Montpensier, General Voisin, representing President Carnot, General Werfen, representing the Emperor of Germany, Prince Hohenzollern, peers of the realm, and councillors and ministers of state. The carriage of King Dom Carlos I. ; that of the Duke of Oporto, Dom Affonso ; the carriages of the royal house, in which were seated the doorkeeper of the royal chamber, gentlemen of the King, aides-de-camp of the military house of the King, the major-domo of the palace, with his insignia of office and the keys of the coffin, followed in the procession. The royal crown was carried on a cushion by an officer of the palace. High representatives of the clergy followed, preceding the funeral carriage, which was heavily draped in mourning and profusely ornamented with flowers. On each side of this carriage walked six servants of the palace carrying torches. The service of the grand huntsman, the grand equerry, the commander of the Royal Guard, and the Royal Guard, the officers and the military house of the King followed. Leaving Belem at nine o'clock in the morning, the procession reached St. Vincente de Fora at three, where a large assembly of foreign ministers in their tribune, senators, files of erect and sturdy young men from the navy, members of the press, and ecclesiastics were in waiting. I think every European nationality was represented, together with the United States, Japan and China, Brazil, and the Republics of South America.
At eleven o'clock we drove through the crowded streets filled with a noiseless multitude dressed in black ; even the poorest peasants were in mourning, for Dom Luis had been a good king and much beloved. Every quarter of an hour for eight days and nights the great guns on the ships on the Tagus had been firing, as they were continuously during the procession, making it almost impossible to sleep in Lisbon. When we reached the church of St. Vincente we entered at a side door, and were taken by a priest, dressed in violet, to a reception-room, where we met the nuncio who is the head of the diplomatic corps, and who led the procession of foreign ministers as they entered the church with their wives, who in deep mourning occupied the front seat of the tribune. The nuncio wore a violet silk gown with a rochat of most beautiful lace and a large cross of aqua-marine stones set in diamonds.
The church was hung with gold tapestries edged with black velvet. Three stationary catafalques had been erected along the nave, covered with gold and black, on each side of which eight candles, six feet high, burned in golden candlesticks. The first catafalque was near the door, and there the coffin was placed while a chant was sung. It was then borne to the second, in the centre of the church, at the head of which. stood the cardinal in his scarlet robes holding a high gilt cross, many archbishops and bishops being around him. The coffin was borne thence to its last resting-place—in the church in front of the high altar. A black velvet pall with a large white satin cross embroidered with gold was thrown over it, and the crown of the kings of Portugal on a satin cushion was placed at the foot. Dom Carlos, the new king, dressed in full uniform and covered with jewelled decorations, walked alone at the head of the procession. Behind him came the Duke d'Aosta, Duke de Montpensier, and Dom Affonso. Every one was in uniform, and the church was soon filled with a glittering throng of courtiers and officials. In the royal box sat the widowed queen hidden behind her long crape veil, through which gleamed the pink satin ribbon of the royal Order of St. Isabel worn across her breast. By her side sat the Princess Letitia Bonaparte, the Duchess d'Aosta. The King stood through the service in front of the box. As the mass progressed numbers of lighted candles were brought in and distributed until nearly every one standing on the floor held one. Their light made the gold hangings and the uniforms brilliant, while high up in the vaulted roof long rays of sunlight were streaming through the oriel window across to the gleaming altar. The effect of the whole scene was wonderfully grand and imposing. At the end of the service the cardinal, followed by all the other high clergy, walked twice around the coffin, swinging upon it a great censer, and then proceeded to the Pantheon, the royal tomb, the priests chanting, the organ pealing, and heavy salutes of cannon being fired as they moved on. The widowed Queen followed the coffin on the arm of Dom Carlos.
The cardinal patriarch officiated, and at the close of the high mass pronounced a short eulogy on the character of the King. Accompanied by funeral chants by the choir of the royal chapel, the body was borne into the Pantheon to rest with the long line of Braganza kings entombed there. By the ternis of the royal decree, the grand marshal of the palace, before delivering to the cardinal the mortal remains, took the oath required by law that the body was that of His Majesty Dom Luis I. He presided at the ceremony of interment, and kept a key of the coffin, which, with a copy of the procès verbal, is to be deposited in the archives of the Pantheon. All the high personages present signed the procès verbal, and a duplicate key was given to the cardinal. Amidst heavy salvos of artillery the body was deposited in its last resting-place, and the apartment of the royal dead was closed.
I have spoken often of the commanding position Portugal held among the nations of the earth in her days of great colonial possessions and vast commerce, long before the wealth and power of our own day were even founded. But during the last century she has held as important a position in the political world as she formerly held in the world of exploration and commerce. The contests between freedom and right, between imperialism and constitutional independence, were constant and severe on her soil. The rigor of arbitrary rule and the license of revolution were displayed in Portugal with almost as much cruelty and strength as in France. Human life and human conscience counted for little. She was the field, moreover, on which Napoleon was met by that force which ultimately destroyed his empire, and Portugal was almost as fatal to him as Russia„ For the preservation of her integrity England accomplished some of the greatest achievements on land and sea, and manifested the parental as well as the imperial power when she sent Sir Charles Stuart to represent, in the factious councils of Portugal, the practical wisdom of her own statesmen. The normal condition of this little kingdom was one of revolutionary conflicts from the close of the Peninsular war to the death of Maria II., a period of nearly forty years. The peace which has followed is due, as I have said, to the good sense of Dom Fernando as regent, and still later for a quarter of a century to the admirable qualities of the King who has just died.
It is evident to those who carefully observe her course at the present time that the energy and enterprise of Portugal are as ready to assert themselves now as they have been in times past. She counts her claims and enterprises in South Africa and makes her observations along the coast of Congo. She is growing watchful of her commercial relations. Not yet recovered from the financial prostration into which extravagant monarchs and exhausting wars have thrown her, her taxation is organized more for revenue than for its effect upon her industries. But of her resources there can be no doubt. Already the work of renovating a worn-out soil, one of the great problems of agriculture, has been profitably conducted on areas which were tilled in the days of the Romans and the Moors. The profits of well-conducted manufactures have already been demonstrated. In an article published in the Formal¬ do Commercio of Lisbon upon the address I made to the King on my presentation I find the following comments :
" From the discourse which the Minister Resident of the United States of America pronounced on delivering his credentials, which accredited him to this court, we take the following passages, to which we attach the greatest importance at the present time ; and which prove how deeply the government of that flourishing state desires and takes interest in the encouragement of agriculture :
"In his communication to my faithful and distinguished predecessor announcing my appointment to the post which he has so honorably filled, the Secretary of State informed him that I have held an important official relation to the agriculture of the United States as Commissioner. In this service I have learned the value of national industries to the welfare of the state, and I trust I may be allowed to observe and investigate the methods by which Your Majesty's people preserve and develop that occupation which is the fundamental calling of all nations, the central pillar in that social system of which commerce and manufactures are the associates, and which bind all peoples together in a common brotherhood.'
" The discourse of the Minister, abandoning the narrow limits of a mere exchange of compliments to which such discourses have usually been restricted, presented the programme of his mission, which appears to have for its object a special study of our agriculture and industry.
" We hail with enthusiasm and faith the new American Minister, who during some years dedicated himself to the study and analysis of the manifold questions of agriculture, upon which he made an important report, which served to enlighten his government and led to the adoption of measures leading to the development of agricultural industry.
" At the present time, when agrarian questions so greatly occupy the governments of all European nations, it is truly agreeable to record that the choice of the new Minister of the United States should have fallen upon a gentleman possessing such excellent qualifications.
" To develop our commercial relations with the United States is a mission which long since should have attracted the attention of our government, for the purpose of drawing to our port the presence of North American shipping, which would confer upon us such great benefits
" The enormous and unparalleled progress which this nation has attained plainly demonstrates not only its great and expanded commercial, industrial, and agricultural development, but as well in its monetary resources, which reacts and is powerfully felt in the markets of Europe. Our country from its geographical position should be prepared in every way to become the entrepot of inter-oceanic communication ; and therefore our relations with the United States should be strengthened and made closer in all respects. The great expansion of the industry of North America renders home consumption inefficient for the great production ;; and hence the exportations of products demand the greatest care from the government of so prosperous a nationality. The port of Lisbon is the nearest station from the American continent, and if in it the commerce of the United States should meet with facilities it would certainly lead to the establishment of an entrepot or warehouse for the deposits of their manufactures des-tined for the European markets.
" We are enthusiastic partners of mercantile development, so that agriculture and industry may prosper; and in the prosecution of our programme we have always the greatest satisfaction when we see new advocates present themselves who concur in encouraging commerce.
" We are convinced that the treaty of commerce with the United States will bring great advantages to our country, not only by reciprocal exchanges of agricultural productions, but because a great number of manufactured articles would meet in this country with ready sale.
" At present the Minister who made so favorable a presentation will meet with an obstacle in carrying out his mission—that is, the coercive regulations as regards the importation of wheat which were enacted mainly in reference to the American market. This obstacle, which originated before the arrival of the worthy diplomat, will certainly not lead him to cool the enthusiasm which our country created within him, where he will find the most cordial greeting in the discharge of his high duties by the sympathy and friendship which our people accord to the formidable athletes of the Democracy and of material progress."
Portugal possesses many advantages for industrial enterprises. Her climate is mild throughout the year. A large portion of her soil is capable of cultivation ; and the cultivators are a hardy, industrious, and temperate people. The harbor of Lisbon is unequalled on the European coast of the Atlantic for its spaciousness and safety, and is approachable at all seasons without exposure to the severe gales, the ice, and the fogs of the northern Atlantic. Lisbon is connected now with the interior of Spain by a well-organized railroad arrangement, and thence to France. and the north of Italy. Commerce to and from the Mediterranean can centre at this port ; and Mediterranean commerce now means the way opened by the Suez Canal to the great markets of the East. The channels of trade may not as yet lie in this direction ; but the time is coming, as I firmly believe, when New York will be the centre of exchange, and the necessity of shipping by the way of Hamburg and London will cease. The future of Lisbon should be, and undoubtedly will be, as great as its past ; and that the commercial and financial power of the world will be on the American continent, who can doubt ?