Color Photography - Motion Pictures In Color
( Originally Published 1938 )
IT was not the specific purpose of the author to cover the field of motion pictures in color in this book, but at the request of the publisher we are including a review of the various methods of making motion pictures in color, which has been prepared by Earl Theisen, associate editor of the International Photographer, Hollywood, Calif., and Chairman of the Historical Committee, S.M.P.E., from data furnished by the Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, and from the historical collection of motion picture films in the Los Angeles Museum, to whom we wish to give credit.
AGFACOLOR PROCESS.—A 16 mm adaptation of the lenticulated film principle (1932).
BREWSTER PROCESS.-A subtractive two-color process utilizing a double-coated negative film. A colored negative is printed on double-coated positive film, and the final silver images are bleached and dyed (1914).
BUSCH PROCESS.—An additive two-color process. The negative is produced by running 35 mm film horizontally through the camera. Twin lenses form a pair of images upon a single frame area, image pairs are superposed when projected (about 1928).
CINE COLOR PROCEsS.—A subtractive three-color process. Negatives are made with a beam-splitter camera using a single film and a bipack. Double-coated film is used for the red (dye tone) and blue (iron tone) images. The third (yellow) image is added to the film from a matrix by imbibition.
COLORCRAFT PROCESS.—A two-color subtractive process of cinematography. The negative is made by a beam-splitter or by a bipack method; the positive is on double-coated film. Print images are dye toned with the aid of an iodide mordant (about 1929).
DUFAYCOLOR PROCESS.—A regular mosaic screen-plate process for three-color additive cinematography (1931).
DUFAY PROCESS.-A regular mosaic screen-plate process using four constituent colors (1908).
DUPACK PROCESS.—A process using a combination of a green-sensitive film which bears a red filter layer upon its emulsion surface. The two films are run through the camera with their emulsion sides in con-tact. Exposure is made through the base of the green-sensitive film (about 1931).
DUPLEX-COLOR-PLATES.—Similar to the Paget screen-plate. The regular mosaic screen and the sensitive emulsion are on separate plates (about 1927).
FINLAY PROCESS.-A regular mosaic screen-plate process of color photography utilizing either a screen separate from a panchromatic plate (1929) or coated upon the same plate. The latter type is known under the trade-marked name, "Finlaychrome" (1931).
GASPAR PROCESS.-A three-color subtractive motion picture process. Prints are made on film coated with three emulsion layers sensitized to three different spectral regions. In each emulsion is incorporated a dye which is destroyed in a bleach bath to a degree controlled by the silver image density (1934)
GAUMONT TRI-COLOR ADDITIVE PROCESS.—An additive method of three-color cinematography using a triple lens system both in the camera and in the projector. The frames are of standard (silent) width and three-quarters the standard height (1912).
HANDSCHIEGEL PROCESS.—A process of applying color to local areas of black and white prints by imbibition, using one or more dyed matrices.
HARRISCOLOR PROCESS.-A two-color subtractive process of cinematography. Prints from color-separation negatives are made on single-coated film printed first through the back, processed, and blue-toned with iron. The residual emulsion on the front is subsequently printed, processed, and red-toned (1929).
HERAULT TRICHROME PROCESS.—An additive three-color process for cinematography. The three-color print, consisting of successive red, green, and blue dye-tinted frames, is projected twenty-four frames per second in a non-intermittent projector (about 1929).
HORST PROCESS.—An additive three-color process in which the three images are exposed and later printed within one standard frame (about 1929).
JOLY COLOR SCREEN.—A regular mosaic screen-plate consisting of ruled lines (1894—95).
KELLER-DORIAN PROCESS.-A three-color additive motion picture process. A banded tricolor filter is associated with the camera lens. The film support which faces the lens is embossed with small lens elements. Each lenticular element images the filter bands upon the emulsion surface. A filter of similar form is associated with the projection lens (Pat. 1908–9; introduced 1925).
KINEMACOLOR PROCESS.—A two-color additive process involving the use of a rotary shutter of color-filters before the lenses of both camera and projector (1906).
KODACHROME PROCESS.—A two-color subtractive process for still photography and 35 mm motion pictures, devised by the Eastman Kodak Co. Prints are made upon double-coated film ; the positive is bleached with a tanning bleach and dyed with dyes which penetrate soft gelatin preferentially (1915).
NEW KODACHROME PROCESS.—A three-color subtractive process in which the separation of the light into the three components is not accomplished by placing the separate components in juxtaposition; they are separated in depth. The film for this process is coated no less than five times. Nearest the base, an emulsion is coated which is strongly red-sensitive. This is then overcoated with separating layer of gelatin containing some dye to act as a filter. Above this is coated a green-sensitive emulsion. This is overcoated again with an-other separating layer. Finally, there is applied a top coat which is blue-sensitive and which contains a certain amount of yellow dye. The five coatings are so thin that the total thickness of the film is little more than that of ordinary Kodak film. The color pictures are obtained by an extremely complex processing system and the final image consists of three superimposed dye pictures. The process is the invention of Mr. Leopold Mannes and Mr. Leo Godowsky, Jr., well-known musicians, who studied color photography as a hobby (1935).
KODACOLOR PROCESS.—A 16 mm adaptation of the Keller-Dorian process (1928).
LIGNOSE PROCESS.—An irregular mosaic three-color process applied to roll film and film-pack (1927).
LIPPMANN PROCESS.—A process of direct color photography based upon the interference of light. An exceedingly fine-grained panchromatic emulsion is exposed in intimate contact with a metallic (mercury) mirror. A standing-wave pattern is produced through-out the depth of the emulsion layer, the silver being reduced in the anti-nodal planes, forming a system of reflecting laminae. The plates are viewed by reflected light (1891).
MAGNACHROME PROCESS.—A two-color additive process of color cinematography. Half the normal picture height is used for each of the pairs of pictures.
MAGNACOLOR PROCESS (Consolidated Film Industries).—A two-color subtractive process for cinematography. Bipack negative and double-coated positive films are used (1930).
MORGANA PROCESS (BELL AND HOWELL).—A two-color additive process of color cinematography for 16 mm reversal pictures. In the projector, the film is moved two frames forward, one backward, and so on. Effective camera and projection speed is twenty-four frames per second, although the special projector movement produces seventy-two alternations per second (1932).
MULTICOLOR PROCESS.—A two-color subtractive 35 mm cinematographic process. The negative is made with a bipack. The colored print is made on double-coated film (1929).
PATHECHROME PROCESS. —A cinematographic process in which color is applied to a black and white print through a celluloid film stencil (1928).
PHOTOCOLOR PROCESS.—A two-color subtractive process using a twin lens camera and dye-toned prints on double-coated film (about 1930).
PILNEY PROCESS.—A two-color subtractive cinematographic process (1930).
PINACHROME PROCESS. —A printing process based upon the use of leucobases which oxidize on exposure to light, yielding color images which are assembled by superposition.
RAYCOL PROCESS (ENGLAND).-A two-color additive process of cinematography. The image pairs are exposed (one-quarter standard size) on each frame and disposed in diagonal corners of the frame. The image pairs from contact positives are superposed by a suit-able optical system (1930).
SENNETTCOLOR PROCESS.-A subtractive cinematographic process using a bipack negative and a double-coated film for the print (1930).
SIRIUS PROCESS (GERMANY).-A two-color subtractive cinematographic process in which alternate frames of the negative are exposed with the aid of a beamsplitter, and the positive print is made upon double-coated film (1929).
SPLENDICOLOR PROCESS.-A three-color subtractive process in which the three-color separation records are printed as follows: blue record upon one side by iron toning, and the yellow and red as successive color layers upon the opposite side by dyed bichromate methods (1928).
TECHNICOLOR PROCESS.—A trade-name applied to various types of subtractive cinematographic color processes (about 1915). At one time marketed as a two-color relief process ; more recently as a three-color imbibition process.
UTOCOLOR PROCESS.—A three-color subtractive transfer process using the bleach-out method for making a color print by printing from a color transparency. It depends upon the bleaching property of certain wave-lengths for certain dyes (1895).
VITACOLOR PROCESS.--An additive two-color cinematographic process similar to Kinemacolor (1930).
WARNER-POWRIE PROCESS.—A three-color regular line-screen process (1905).
ZOECHROME PROCESS.—A three-color subtractive process of color cinematography with a black and white key. In the camera every alternate frame is normally exposed; on each remaining frame, three images are exposed through primary filters. The standard size image is printed first, and each of the color-images in succession is enlarged and superposed upon the first. Between successive printings, the film is varnished and recoated with emulsion. Each image layer is dye-toned before the next layer is added (1929).