The Evolution Of The Soul
( Originally Published 1904 )
SOME years ago I tentatively formulated a working hypothesis for the systematic study of the phenomena of the human soul, otherwise popularly known and designated as psychic phenomena. These include mesmerism, hypnotism, spiritism, demonology, mental therapeutics, and a thousand other things which need not be mentioned here, for I have no intention of troubling you with them on this occasion.
The central idea in my mind when I entered upon the study of this subject was that the phenomena of the soul could and should be studied just as the physical sciences are studied. In point of fact I had been deeply impressed by the opening sentence of Lord Bacon's Novum Organum. These are the words :
Man, the minister and interpreter of nature, does and understands so much as he may have discerned concerning the order of nature by observing or by meditating on facts : he knows no more, he can do no more."
It is true that these words were spoken in reference to the physical sciences but I confess that T never could understand why the same remark does not apply to the investigation of all truth, physical or spiritual. If there is truth in spiritual philosophy, there must be facts in existence demonstrative of that truth.
I hold that if there is in this world anything that it is important for man to know, he can, and will, eventually find it out by the processes of induction, that is, by reasoning from observable facts and phenomena. There are many facts in nature which man is curious to know, but which he never can know. But it will gene-rally be found that they are facts which it is unimportant that he should know. For instance, it might gratify a laudable curiosity to learn what is on the farther side of the moon; but it would be difficult to imagine what benefit humanity could derive from the knowledge. On the other hand, if man has a soul, it is of the utmost importance to him that he should know it ; and there are facts which can bear no other rational interpretation. It is of some of these that I purpose now to speak.
In my published works I have set forth many facts which seem to me to be demonstrative, not only that man has a soul, but that it is destined to a future life. These, however, are mostly psychical phenomena, which I do not now propose to consider, except incidentally. Not that I distrust their validity, for a psychic fact is just as much a fact as a granite mountain ; but as it is quite fashionable in certain highly respectable circles to deny the existence of psychic phenomena altogether, I intend, on this occasion, to confine myself largely to the universally admitted facts of the physical sciences, particularly those of organic evolution, and incidentally those of cerebral anatomy and experimental surgery.
My theme is Evolution and the Dual Mind, or the Genesis of the Human Soul. These two topics are inseparably connected, and must, therefore, be treated together.
The hypothesis upon which I base all, my conclusions is embraced in two fundamental propositions, the first of which may be stated as follows :
Man is endowed with a dual mind.
That is to say, in the sum of the faculties, capacities, powers, and limitations of the mind of man, there are two distinct phases of activity, or states of consciousness, each characterized by phenomena peculiar to itself. Stated thus conservatively, the proposition will not be seriously disputed by any student of psychology who has kept pace with the discoveries of modern science. I prefer, however, to state it, pro-visionally, thus:
Man is endowed with two minds.
I prefer this mode of stating the proposition for two reasons : First, because it appears to be true. That is, everything happens just as if it were true, and that is all any student pretends to expect in a working hypothesis. Secondly, I prefer it because it admits of clearer. . treatment, inasmuch as it requires less of roundabout phraseology to express my exact meaning. The conclusions derivable from the proposition are, however, precisely the same, whichever way it is stated. I adhere, therefore, to my usual way of putting it, and state, as my first proposition, that man is endowed with two minds.
Each of these two minds is capable of independent action, and they are also capable of synchronous action. But in the main, they possess independent powers and perform independent functions. The distinctive faculties of one pertain wholly to this life : those of the other are specially adapted to a higher plane of existence. I distinguish them by designating one as the Objective Mind, and the other as the Subjective Mind.
The objective mind is that of ordinary waking consciousness. Its media of cognition are the five physical senses. Its highest function is that of reasoning. It is especially adapted to cope with the exigencies of physical environment. It is the function of the brain ; and the latter is the ultimate product of organic evolution.
The subjective mind is that intelligence which is most familiarly manifested to us when the brain is asleep, or its action is otherwise inhibited, as in dreams, or in spontaneous or induced somnambulism; or in trance. or trancoid states and conditions, as in hypnotism. Any one who is in the least acquainted with the phenomena resulting from any one of these mental conditions is aware that wonderful exhibitions of intellectual power often result. The significant feature of the phenomena is that, other things being equal, the intellectual powers thus displayed bear an exact proportion to the depth of the trance (to use a generic term), or, in other words, to the degree in which the action of the brain faculties is inhibited.
Thus far I have not travelled outside the range of the observation and experience of any intelligent person; but I have made a prima facie case of duality of mind. There are thousands of illustrations that amount to demonstration of the law, which must be omitted for want of time, but which will be readily recognized on reflection.
The second proposition of my hypothesis is this :
The subjective mind is constantly amenable to control by suggestion. A corollary of this proposition is that the subjective mind is incapable of inductive reasoning. The meaning of this is that the subjective mind involuntarily accepts as veridical the ideas or statements of fact imparted to it. These statements or ideas may be imparted by the oral suggestions of another, or they may arise from the education of the individual. In the latter case they are termed auto-suggestions. There are no exceptions to this law, although there are some apparent exceptions. It will invariably be found, however, that the apparent exceptions are the clearest possible illustrations of the absolute universality of the law. A crude example of the power of suggestion is witnessed when a hypnotist declares to his subject that he is another person. The alacrity with which the subject accepts the suggestion, and the fidelity to nature with which he personates the character suggested, are matters of general knowledge and observation.
A third proposition which must be stated in this connection is this :
The subjective mind possesses the power of transmitting intelligence to other subjective minds otherwise than through the ordinary sensory channels. In other words, it possesses the faculty of telepathy.
I trust that no one will be startled out of his sense of propriety when I remark that the world owes much of the valuable knowledge it possesses of the subject of psychology to that much maligned practice, that bete noir of ignorance, hysteria, and malignant imbecility, known as hypnotism. It is to hypnotism that we are primarily indebted for the verification of the law of duality of mind ; although a vague and speculative idea of that law has been floating loosely in the minds of various philosophers for more than two thousand years.
It is known to everybody that when a subject is completely hypnotized his brain is asleep, that all the phenomena of natural sleep are present, including the inhibition of the senses and a more or less complete retirement of the blood from its channels in the brain. It is also well known that in this state the subject will often exhibit a preternatural intelligence, far transcending his normal powers. This intelligence is that of the subjective mind, of which the brain is not the organ, the action of the brain being at the time inhibited.
Telepathy was demonstrated to be a faculty of the human mind by the immediate successors of Mesmer. Owing, however, to the determined stand taken against mesmerism by physicians, who were frenzied because it had been demonstrated to be a valuable therapeutic agent, telepathy was ignored by the scientific world until the London Society for Psychical Research made it respectable to believe in it. Their demonstrations were made largely by means of hypnotism. I may perhaps be pardoned for remarking that I was the first to point out the fact that the power of telepathy belongs exclusively to the subjective mind.
The law of suggestion was also discovered by means of experimental hypnotism. In fact, it was supposed to be applicable only to persons in a state of induced hypnosis until, in my first published work, I called attention to the fact that it is a universal law of the subjective mind. I then made a generalization of the subject matter by formulating the proposition that the subjective mind is incapable of inductive reasoning.
I now invite your attention to a table, the result of many years of study of this subject. It classifies the faculties of the two minds in strict accordance with the facts of experimental psychology as developed by thirty years of my own experimentation, and of that of the Society for Psychical Research beginning in 1882.
1. Inductive Reasoning.
3. Perfect Deductive Reasoning.
4. Perfect Memory.
5. The Seat of the Emotions.
6. Telepathic Powers.
7. Kinetic Energy.
In undertaking an analysis of the faculties of the two minds, one broad and pregnant fact stands forth in bold relief and strikes one with the force of a revelation, and that is that the only faculty which belongs exclusively to the objective mind is that of inductive reasoning.
The other objective faculties set down in the list, namely, the power of deductive reasoning and of mem ory, are the necessary concomitants of induction. The obvious explanation is that inductive reasoning pre-supposes facts to reason from; and memory is the store-house of facts. Moreover, the power of deduction is obviously a necessary part of inductive reasoning.
It will be observed that these faculties, the concomitants of induction, are shared by the subjective mind; the only difference being one of degree. That is to say, they are perfect and inherent in the subjective mind,
whereas, in the objective mind they are exceedingly imperfect, and depend for their degree of development upon laborious cultivation.
Other faculties belonging primarily to the subjective mind are represented in the brain ; as, for example, the emotions. We are told that every faculty, every emotion, has its special compartment in the brain structure. This may be, and doubtless is, true. Whether each compartment has been correctly located, is another question. However that may be, our emotional experiences are registered in the brain. That is, each objectively conscious experience creates new brain cells, which in the aggregate constitute the brain memories of our experiences. But they are only memories. They are facts for the use of our inductive powers. They complete the mental organism of the brain. The seat of the emotional faculties is, nevertheless, in the subjective mind.
It will thus be seen that the aggregate of the faculties of the objective mind constitute pure intellect. They are the faculties of reason and judgment. They form the judicial tribunal of the dual mind. When properly cultivated and developed, they sit in judgment upon every act of our lives ; they regulate every emotion ; they restrain every passion and direct it into legitimate channels. In short, reason is at once the tenure by which man holds his free moral agency, and the power which enables him to train his soul for weal or woe in this world and the world to come.
Referring now to the faculties of the subjective mind, I will premise by saying that it is impossible to make a complete analysis of them without being compelled to consider them with reference to a future life. The reason is that many of them are wholly useless in this life. Others perform limited functions in this life, but each and all are perfectly adapted to the uses of the discarnate soul.
The limitations of power in the subjective mind consist in the fact that as long as the soul inhabits the body, it is normally amenable to control by suggestion. That is to say, it accepts as veridical every suggestion imparted to it. This apparent deficiency is to a great extent supplied in this life, and wholly in the future life, by the faculty of intuitive apprehension of essential truth.
I have now laid down a provisional foundation for the argument which is to follow. I am sensible that the proofs are thus far meagre and unsatisfactory from a scientific point of view, but I hope to be able to remove that objection before I conclude.
I shall first consider the subject from the evolutionary view-point. I do so for four good and sufficient reasons, namely :
First, because the known facts of evolution are demonstrative of duality of mind.
Secondly, because they are demonstrative that the brain is not the sole organ of the subjective mind.
Thirdly, because they show that in the lowest order of animal life is found the promise and potency of a human soul.
And fourthly, because the same facts reveal the Living God, and demonstrate the divine pedigree of man.
In dealing with these propositions I must take for granted what science so clearly shows, that man is the product - the highest possible product of organic evolution. That is, by a series of progressive changes, man was evolved from the lower orders of animal life.
I shall undertake to show that, in the history of organic and mental evolution in this world, the subjective mind antedates the objective mind by untold millions of years ; that the highest manifestation of intellectual power in mankind finds its embryotic prototype in the mental powers of the lower animals ; that, as the physical man descended in a direct line from the primordial germ, so do we fnnd therein the promise of a human soul, with all its God-like attributes and potentialities.
In undertaking this task I shall not tax your credulity by propounding unsupported dogmas or undemonstrable propositions. I purpose to deal with the simplest of the well known facts of organic and mental evolution. The only thing that I shall take for granted is that every intelligent person present accepts the fundamental doctrine of evolution. There are two theories to choose from :
One is that the Great First Cause is an infinite intelligence, and as such is capable of impressing the universe of matter with such laws as result in the creation of worlds and of men by a process of gradual, progressive development or evolution.
The other theory is that God is a being of somewhat limited intelligence, and is, consequently, compelled to supplement his work from time to time, by special creations to supply deficiencies or meet unexpected emergencies.
I take it for granted that most of us are capable of entertaining the grander, nobler conception of the Deity and his attributes embraced in the theory of evolution. I shall not, therefore, weary your patience with a long dissertation on the subject of evolution. It must suffice to say that the accepted theory is that man is descended from the lower animals by a line so direct and obvious that the scientific investigator is compelled to yield instant assent to the doctrine. Happily, the time is past when belief in evolution subjected one to, the charge of religious skepticism, of materialism, or of atheism. Enlightened people are no longer frightened at the progress of science, or regard it as the enemy of religion, or fear that a demonstration of the truth of the doctrine of evolution will annihilate God or subvert the teachings of the Man of Nazareth. In point of fact, the study of purely organic evolution, whilst it gives a higher conception of the powers and attributes of the Great First Cause, neither proves nor disproves any of the essential doctrines of Christianity.
It begins with the primordial germ and ends with man ; but it can neither prove nor disprove the doctrine of spontaneous generation of life in the germ, nor can it either prove or disprove the doctrine of the immortality of man. It traces his pedigree from a microscopic, unicellular organism up through a thousand gradients to the grand culmination of physical perfection; and it has demonstrated that he is the highest possible product of organic evolution ; but it pauses, helpless and impotent, before the grander problem, that more momentous question," Is this all there is of evolution? Is there nothing in your science to inspire a hope that in some higher realm evolution may still carry us forward to a grander and nobler destiny?"
Thus far the study of organic evolution has failed to throw more than a faint sidelight upon the problem. The manifest reason is that its students have confined their attention to the physical aspect of the question, leaving the mental and spiritual sides unexplored. Even those who have sought to link the problems of the soul with the facts of organic evolution have generally begun at the wrong end of the subject and lost their bearings in a maze of metaphysical speculation.
It will eventually be found that it is in the study of the evolution of the mind, beginning where animal life begins, that we come into contact with the facts which not only reveal the Living God, but proclaim the divine pedigree of man. It is there that the facts may be found, which demonstrate the existence of a soul in man; which reveal its genesis, and by which can be traced its rise, progress, and development from the be-ginning of organic life on this planet up to its perfection in man as a self-existent entity.
Let us begin, then, with the lowest form of animal life the protozoa. These exist in vast numbers and in considerable variety. They are unicellular organisms, microscopic in size, and are composed of protoplasm. The latter term is applied to a viscid, contractile, semi-liquid, more or less granular substance, which forms the principal portion of an animal cell. It is, according to Huxley, " the physical basis of life." To be more exact, it should be said that it is the basis of the material medium through which life manifests itself.
Of the protozoa there is one group called the Monera. These, according to Haeckel, appear to be the lowest of the protozoa, for the reason that they are without nuclei, and hence, without visible organs.
To use the language of Haeckel :
"The Monera are the simplest of permanent cytods. Their entire body consists merely of soft, structureless plasson. How-ever thoroughly we examine them with the most delicate chemical reagents and the strongest optical instruments, we find that all the parts are competlely homogeneous. The Menem are, therefore, in the strictest sense of the word, 'organisms without organs'; or even in a strictly philosophical sense, they might not even be called organisms,' since they possess no organs, since they are not composed o various particles. They can only be called organisms in so far as they are capable of exercising the organic phenomena of life, of nutrition, reproduction, sensation, and movement. If we tried to construct, a priori, the simplest conceivable organism, we should always be compelled to fall back upon such a Monet-6n."
Here, then, we have the very lowest form of animal life, "an organism without organs," a simple mass of plasson, minus even the nucleus which belongs to the true cell ; and, therefore, absolutely without a physical organization. And yet it is endowed with a mind a conscious intelligence. In view of the function it per-forms, this is necessarily true. Any adaptation of means to ends is perforce the result of a mental process. A living creature is a mind organism ; for it is mind, and mind alone, that distinguishes the animate from the inanimate. A cell is a living creature : therefore, the cell possesses a mind.
This, quoting largely from memory, is the reasoning of Professor Gates, of Washington, who has for the last twenty years given more intelligent study to the subject of cellular psychology than has any other man living.
In an article in the Therapist, for December, 1895, he says:
"Unicellular organisms possess all the different forms of activity to be found in the higher animals. Thus, the simplest cell can transform food into tissue and other metabolic products, and this is the basis of all the nutritive activities and processes of the higher animals; the cell can move parts of itself and is capable of locomotion, and this is the basis of all movement in the higher animals brought about by bone and muscles; the cell can feel a stimulus and respond, and this is the basis of the sensory faculties of the higher animals; the cell can reproduce itself by segmentation, and this is the basis of reproduction in the higher animals ; the cell on dividing inherits the actual qualities of its parent mass, and this is the basis of heredity; in short; the cell contains in simplest form all of the activities to be found in man."
Before taking leave of Professor Gates, I desire to remark that he has demonstrated by a series of experiments that the cell has a capacity to acquire knowledge ; that is to say, it can be educated. I have no time, how-ever, to dwell upon that branch of the subject. It is sufficient for our present purpose to know ,that the unicellular organism, of the lowest order, is endowed with a mind.
What is this intelligence which so unerringly adapts means to ends and enables the creature to perform all those acts which are preservative of its life and of its species ? The ready reply is, " Instinct." True, we have a name for it that is in the mouth of every schoolboy. But names do not explain anything. What is instinct? Before defining it -in set phrase, I must remark that instinct in the lower animals and intuition in man are identical, the latter being merely a higher and more complex development of the former. I define it as follows :
Instinct; or intuition, is- the power possessed by each sentient being, in proportion to its development and in harmony with its environment, to perceive or apprehend, antecedently to and independently of reason or instruction, those laws of nature which pertain to the well-being of the individual and of the species to which it belongs.
Like every other faculty, organ, or agency in nature or in human affairs, it had a simple beginning. Like everything else of value to mankind, it has developed by a series of progressive steps to a state of wonderful complexity. It has kept pace with the physical development of animal life and with the mental development of humanity, until now it is the most wonderful faculty known to man ; it is the most potential force below that of omnipotence ; it is the most gigantic intellectual attribute below that of omniscience; it is the subjective mind of man; it is the mental organism of the immortal human soul.
Let no one be frightened at the prospect of being compelled to find the genesis of his soul in such simple beginnings. When the theory of organic evolution was first promulgated, many sensitive persons revolted at the idea of tracing their physical pedigree back through a simian ancestry to a microscopic mass of protoplasm; but facts are the words of God ; and the pedigree of the physical man is too plainly written in his organism to be misinterpreted by Reason.
But no one has cause to be ashamed of the origin of his soul, for its first manifestation of intelligence in the protoplasmic cell was essentially divine. In other words, it exhibited the essential attribute of omniscience, differing only in degree. The mental power that enables the moneron to perceive or apprehend the laws of its being is a power antecedent to and independent of reason, experience, or instruction ; and, I submit, no other terms are required to define the essential attribute of omniscience.
The profound significance of this one fact cannot be overestimated. Standing on the very threshold of sentient life, Science beholds indubitable evidence of an antecedent, omniscient intelligence; and, in the primordial germ, the embryo of physical man and the promise and potency of an immortal soul, endowed with God-like attributes and powers.
Step by step this intelligence expanded and became more and more complex as animal life rose in the scale of being and increased in mental and physical complexity, until man appeared the crowning glory of sentient life, the ultimate product of organic evolution. Nor did the process stop here. It is still going forward, reaching into higher and higher realms as man approaches the higher civilization.
Much has been written on the subject of instinct by Darwin, Spencer, Huxley, Romanes, and a host of lesser lights. Many facts have thus been accumulated; but it seems to me that no adequate generalization has yet been made, nor have the phenomena been correlated with cognate phenomena in such a way as to give us a true conception of the far-reaching significance and importance of the faculty.
There are many and variant definitions of the word " instinct "; but none of them seems to me to describe the full scope and province of the faculty. All authorities agree, however, that it is antecedent to reason, and yet that it impels to just such acts as reason would approve; that its sphere of usefulness among the lower animals is to preserve the life of the individual and to perpetuate the species to which it belongs.
Is this all there is of instinct? Is that faculty con-fined, in its sphere of operations, to the preservation of physical life? I think not.
It is within the knowledge of every one that instincts can be cultivated and their scope enlarged. Every step from the lower animals upward is marked by a corresponding enlargement and a constantly increasing complexity of the instinctive faculty. Heredity plays an important role in this development ; and up to the time when the brain appeared as a factor in organic evolution, heredity was doubtless the prime factor. When the brain appeared, however, instinct did not cease its functions. On the contrary, it developed the more rapidly, and the more rapidly enlarged its sphere of activity and usefulness.
In fact, the brain seems to have been evolved in response to the necessities of animal existence in the " great struggle for life " then going on, just as other weapons of offence and defence were evolved. When it appeared, it immediately became the educator of the subjective mind, which is the mind of instinct or intuition, and which, under the law of suggestion and by means of its perfect memory, accepts, assimilates, and retains whatever is imparted to it by the objective mind. The subjective thus becomes a vast storehouse of memories, habits, and principles, good or bad, that flow into it through the education of the objective mind. Hence it is that when the subjective faculties are roused into activity, they pour forth their accumulated store of knowledge, often displaying unsuspected ability and learning.
I am aware that it has been held that as intelligence increases, instincts decrease in number and complexity. Cuvier, for instance, maintained that instinct and intelligence stand in inverse ratio to each other. On the other hand, it has been shown by Pouchet that those insects with the most wonderful instincts are certainly the most intelligent. In the vertebrate series the least intelligent members the fishes and amphibians do not possess complex instincts. And, acording to Morgan, the mammal most remarkable for that faculty, namely, the beaver, is highly intelligent. In point of fact, the exact opposite of Cuvier's dogma is demonstrably the truth ; and when we come to include man in the category of animals possessing the faculty of instinct, it will be obvious that intelligence and instinct stand in direct ratio to each other in all the broad realm of sentient life.
Darwin made a partial statement of a great truth when he said: " Some intelligent actions, after being performed during several generations, become converted into instincts and are inherited." (See Descent of Man, p. 67.)
If he had said that " all intelligent actions, whether of animals or of men, which are promotive of the well-being of the individual or of the race, physically, mentally, morally, or religiously, after being performed during several generations, become converted into instincts and are inherited," he would have made a more complete statement of the principle, and would have defined the higher limitations of the faculty of instinct as developed in this world.
Among the lower animals, instincts are comparatively fixed and stable in their operation from generation to generation. But as animals rise in the scale of intelligence, their instincts are modified from time to time to meet the exigencies of changing environment. Some are wholly lost when there no longer exists a necessity for their exercise. Others are radically changed, and innumerable new ones are acquired. Romanes, in his great work, Mental Evolution in Animals, cites numerous examples illustrative of these propositions.
As before remarked, man forms no exception to these rules. The acquisition of a brain by the lower animals did not destroy the mind previously existent: on the contrary, it only served to give it greater scope, complexity, and power. Neither did the wonderful development of the brain in man destroy that mind through which instinct had manifested itself from the moneron upward. It only served to modify the old instincts, eliminate those which were no longer useful, and add new ones suitable to the environment and the stage of intellectual and moral development.
In man, instinct is no longer confined to mere physical self-preservation. It reaches up into the intellectual realm into the domain of sociology, morality, religion, conscience into all the higher activities which distinguish man from the brute creation. All the acts resultant from these higher activities of the mind, in the language of Darwin, " after being performed during several generations become converted into instincts and are inherited."
In the meantime, the general function of instinct is the same in man as it is in the lower animals.
Let me not be misunderstood on this point. What I desire to be understood as saying is this: that all impulses, desires, or emotions which are promotive of the well-being of the individual or of the species to which he belongs, appertain to the domain of instinct or intuition. And this is true whether they are manifested in the lower animals in the impulses of self-preservation and reproduction, or in the noblest acts of man when they are promotive of the general welfare of humanity, physically, mentally, morally, or spiritually.
Moreover, the memory of the subjective mind being-perfect, all the experiences of the individual, all the learning which he may have acquired, however superficially it may have been impressed upon the brain, contribute to the grand sum-total of the intellectual and moral equipment of his soul.
Unperverted instincts are always promotive of the highest interests of the individual and of the general welfare of the race. But it will be readily understood that even the higher instincts, in common with the lower, may be perverted by a wrong education or pernicious environment. A perversion of the instinct of religious worship has drenched the earth with blood. A perversion of conscience lighted the fires of the Inquisition, and still peoples the earth with cranks, who would relight those fires if they had the power.
Thus far I have confined my remarks to those instincts which pertain to the well-being of the race, and which may be classed under the generic title of the " instinct of self-preservation," although they include the broadest altruism in their ultimate development and application. It is, however, with the higher intuitional powers that we are most concerned for the purposes of this argument. I have said that instinct and in-tuition are identical. They differ only in degree and sphere of activity, and even in these they merge by imperceptible gradations. They are both concerned with general laws and essential truth. They both pertain to the welfare of the individual and his -species. But intuition is concerned with the welfare of the soul in the future life as well as with that of the body in this life.
I now approach another class of instincts or intuitions of a more purely intellectual character. I provisionally classify them separately for the reason that they do not, save in a very indirect way, contribute to the preservation of life or of the race. It is, nevertheless, but a higher development of the same faculty, and it is generally denominated " intuition."
I refer to that power or faculty in man which enables him, under certain conditions, not yet clearly understood, to perceive or apprehend certain fixed laws of nature by intuition that is, antecedently to reason and independently of objective education. It is a faculty rarely developed, and only appears under abnormal, or at least exceptional, conditions. A sufficient number of cases, however, have come to light to enable us to be certain that the faculty exists, and to lead inferentially to some very broad generalizations.
The instances of its development which are most familiar to the general public are in mathematical and musical prodigies, of whom Zerah Colburn and Blind Tom are, respectively, representatives. Colburn could solve the most intricate arithmetical problems instantaneously when he was a mere child and before he had been taught the powers of the nine digits ; thus demonstrating the fact that he possessed the intuitive power of perception of the law of numbers.
Blind Tom was an idiot, and hence was incapable of receiving an education, and of reasoning in the objective sense of the term ; and yet, when a child, and absolutely without instruction of any kind, or the brain capacity to receive instruction, he was able to improvise the most delightful and harmonious strains of music on the piano.
From this case alone two very important conclusions are to be derived :
First, it is demonstrative that Blind Tom possessed an intuitive knowledge of the laws of harmony of sounds ; for he had no education, musical or other; nor was he capable of receiving an education depending upon a brain structure, for he was a microcephalus an idiot.
Secondly, it is demonstrative that the brain is not the organ of the subjective mind; for all real music has its origin in the soul.
On this latter point I particularly desire to make myself clearly understood. I have assumed that the subjective mind of man is directly descended from that mind which is found in the lowest order of animal life, differing only in its degree or stage of development ; that it existed millions of years before a brain was developed; and that, consequently, the brain never was its organ and is not its organ now. Startling as this hypothesis may be to materialistic scientists, it is, nevertheless, demonstrably true, as I shall proceed to show.
There is, in fact, no a priori reason why it should not be true. On the contrary, it would require a violent stretch of the imagination to conceive the idea that an organized intelligence once existent could be destroyed by- progressive development. Moreover, it would re-quire very strong affirmative evidence to convince a reasonable being that an intelligence once located in a physical structure could change its organ of manifestation. Since we know, therefore, that the subjective mind once existed independently of a brain, we must suppose that it continues to do so, at least until the contrary is demonstrated.
I say we know that it once existed independently of a brain structure. That is, we know that the instinctive mind of the lower animals is identical with the subjective mind of man; for the reason that the faculties are the same in both. A glance at the list will make this proposition clear.
The first is intuition, which is identical with instinct in animals. The second is deduction, which is a concomitant of instinct or intuition. Inerrant deduction is the instinctive logic of the subjective mind; and this is as true of the lower animals as it is of men. Next come the emotions, which are obviously the same in men and animals, being differentiated only by the restraining powers of reason and conscience. The next on the list is telepathy. There are many who hold that telepathy is largely employed by the lower animals to supply their deficiencies in oral means of communication. I do not pretend to know whether this is true or not, never having investigated that subject with sufficient thoroughness to enable me to venture an opinion. However this may be, the faculty of telepathy clearly belongs to the subjective mind of man, and, like many other faculties of that mind, it contains the promise and potency of powers indispensable to the discarnate soul.
I must not forget to mention in this connection that the limitations entailed by the law of suggestion are precisely the same in animals as in men. Were this not true, man could never have obtained dominion over animals stronger than himself. In other words, but for that law man could never tame a tiger or harness a horse.
It will thus be seen that all a priori reasons sustain the proposition that the brain is not the organ of the subjective mind.
Fortunately, however, the materialistic scientists themselves have unwittingly demonstrated this fact by the use of the scalpel. The scalpel, you know, is their favorite instrument of search for the human soul. They have cut and carved, weighed and measured and chemically analyzed the brains of men living and dead ; and because they have failed to corral a soul by those means, they have dogmatically declared that man has no soul.
But, as I said, they have, without realizing it, demonstrated the fact that they have all along been looking for it in the wrong place. Thus, more than twenty years ago, ex-Surgeon-General Hammond, in the President's address delivered before the New York Neurological Society, showed that certain faculties of the mind are seated in the spinal cord, and not in the brain. In his great work on Insanity he reiterates his declaration and demonstrates by manyoriginal experiments that the brain is not the organ of the instinctive faculties. Among other experiments, he totally eliminated the brains of certain living animals, and found that the instinctive functions were performed precisely as before.
He quotes many eminent authorities to sustain his position, and explicitly declares that the instinctive faculties do not reside in the brain. He further declares that they are seated " exclusively in the medulla oblongata, or in the spinal cord, or in both those organs."
Now, be it remembered, those faculties which are found not to be located in the brain are all faculties of the subjective mind.
I am not disposed, however, to agree with Dr. Hammond in his confident statement that those faculties are located exclusively in any organ of the human body, much as I admire him for his genius and his vast learning. That declaration was doubtless made without duly considering all the facts collateral to the subject he was then investigating. Be that as it may, he has succeeded in demonstrating duality of mind by the use of the scalpel.
He doubtless felt that it was incumbent upon him to locate the instinctive faculties somewhere, since he had shown that they do not reside in the brain. This, however, is a fallacy which the Doctor will probably admit freely when his attention is called to the consequences it involves.
Materialistic scientists have succeeded in demonstrating that the objective mind is a function of the brain, and that it is, therefore, inherent in the brain. It follows that when the brain dies the objective mind ceases to exist.
This is unquestionably true. But it does not follow,. as they would have us believe, that the subjective mind is inherent in any one or more organs of the body. On the contrary, there is every reason to believe that the subjective mind exists independently of any specialized organ whatever. That its control of the body is not dependent upon any specific physical organization, is shown in the moneron. Haeckel tells us that the moneron is a simple, homogeneous mass of plasson, and is entirely destitute of any organs whatever not even containing the nucleus, which is the earliest development of a physical organ in animal life. Yet this moneron is animated by the intelligence of which I have been speaking, this God-like intelligence which materialistic science has dismissed under the name of instinct or intuition, without accounting for either, but which, wherever it appears in animate nature, is the symbol of Divinity.
Now, it seems to me to be self-evident that the power which is capable of animating a homogeneous mass of plasson with life and intelligence, is certainly not dependent upon specific organs for its capacity to animate the human body and to control its functions. There is, therefore, no a priori reason for supposing that the brain is the organ of the subjective mind.
Again, this is demonstrated in experimental hypnotism by the well-known fact that when a hypnotic subject is deeply entranced, he retains no recollection of what has occurred during his sleep, however exciting, or even tragic, may have been the scenes through which he passed. Now, every student of cerebral anatomy knows that every brain-thought, every experience of which the brain takes cognizance, causes a modification of brain cells, thus creating brain memories. The absence of brain memories immediately following an ex-citing experience is, therefore, demonstrative that the brain was not cognizant of the experience.
There are, in short, thousands of good and sufficient reasons, backed by facts beyond dispute, for declaring that the brain is not the organ of the subjective mind; and not one fact or valid argument has ever been adduced to show that it is.
These facts alone demonstrate the duality of mind. These facts alone go far to demolish the last stronghold of materialistic science in its efforts to prove the impossibility of a future life. A few words will make my meaning plain :
Their argument is based upon the hypothesis that the mind is the soul, the question of duality of mind, of course, not being considered. Their next proposition is that mind is the function of the brain and is inherent in that organ. Then they proceed to demonstrate by cerebral anatomy and experimental surgery that each faculty of the mind is controlled by a certain portion of the brain ; and that when one of these brain centres is eliminated or paralyzed by accident or design, the part or faculty of the mind controlled by that brain centre is forever destroyed. This, they argue, is demonstrative that the mind (and soul) is inherent in the brain and necessarily perishes with that organ. They also point out the fact that when the body is wasted by disease the mind grows correspondingly feeble; and they draw the not unnatural conclusion that body, brain, and mind perish together. In these premises and in these conclusions they are unquestionably right ; and vain would be our hope of a future life if it depended upon the continued existence of the objective mind. That necessarily shares the fate of the physical organ of which it is the function. On the other hand, as I have already pointed out, the subjective mind is not the function of any physical organ. It is not an effect, but a cause a cause antecedent to physical organization : an entity dependent upon organization only for the means of its phenomenal manifestation, and not for its existence. In other words, it is immanent and not inherent in the body.
A further illustration of the entire distinction in the sphere of the subjective from that of the objective mind is afforded by the involuntary functions, over which the former exercises an absolutely undivided sway. The objective mind cannot directly control one purely involuntary muscle. It cannot hasten or retard one vital process. All the marvellous co-ordination of the vegetative functions is effected through the dominion and sleepless vigilance of the subjective. Its medium of control is the sympathetic nervous system. The objective mind, on the other hand, normally directs the voluntary muscles and functions of the physical organism. Its medium of control is the cerebro-spinal system.
Now, a very important fact in this connection is that the functions of the two minds are not interchangeable. Thus, whilst the objective mind cannot, of its own volition, move a single involuntary muscle, the subjective mind can, and often does, take possession of the entire body and wield it at its will. This can be brought about experimentally by means of hypnotism, when the brain functions are held in total abeyance. It almost invariably occurs when the body is in imminent and deadly peril. At such a moment the objective faculties are benumbed ; but, under the control of the subjective mind, the body acts with preternatural rapidity and precision, and feats of strength are often performed that would be impossible under normal conditions. Spontaneous somnambulism furnishes many familiar illustrations of subjective control over both the voluntary and involuntary muscular systems.
I have cited these well-known facts for the purpose of showing how much more intimate and pervasive must be the connection' between the subjective mind and the body than that subsistent between the objective mind and the body.
This difference being thus provisionally established, we might reasonably expect to find that the time of re-action to sensorial stimuli would be materially decreased during hypnosis. Accordingly, we learn from the experiments of Professor Stanley Hall and others that the time of reaction is decreased nearly one-half.
These evidences, however, are merely subsidiary; but they are such indications as we might expect to find if the hypothesis is correct that the soul is immanent in the whole body and not inherent in any one part of it. The demonstrative evidence of the truth of this hypothesis is found in the phenomena immediately preceding that divine event to which the whole world moves death.
When that supreme hour approaches we find that the observable phenomena are precisely what we should have a right to expect if it is true that the soul of man is immortal, and that it is, therefore, immanent, and not inherent, in the body.
We also find that the objective mind, on the approach of death, exhibits precisely the phenomenon that we should have a right to expect if it is true that it is inherent in the brain, and therefore perishes with that organ. The respective phenomena of the two minds then exhibited are simply these: the objective mind, in exact proportion to the growing weakness of the bodily organs, ceases to perform its functions in perfection. And it is generally, if not always, completely obliterated before final dissolution. Materialistic scientists have taken great pains to demonstrate that fact, believing it to be a conclusive argument against the doctrine of immortality. We may, therefore, accept their facts without further question, but not their conclusions.
On the other hand, the phenomenal manifestations of the subjective mind become more and more pronounced as death approaches and the body grows weak, and its strongest ones are at the very hour of dissolution. This fact is attested by all the records of psychic phenomena, including those of the Society for Psychical Research.
It is, in fact, the ultimate phenomenal demonstration of the universal law that the more perfectly quiescent the brain becomes, the stronger become the manifestations of the subjective mind. At the hour of death, therefore, after the brain has ceased to act and the objective mind is totally extinct, there is an interval before the soul takes its flight, in which it shines forth with transcendent lustre, to give the world assurance that the death of the body is but the birth of the soul into a more perfect life.
This is somewhat of a digression, but it was necessary, in order to make my position clearly understood in reference to a vital point in the evolution of the soul.
As I have before remarked, many instances are re-corded of intuitive perception of the laws of physical nature that are fully as remarkable as those I have mentioned. The conditions most favorable to the development of the power are not known. It seems probable, however, that comparative freedom from the suggestions embraced in the technicalities of objective education is one, at least, of the necessary conditions ; for it is sometimes developed in idiots and frequently in children. When it is developed in children possessing a normal brain structure, it is always found, as in Zerah Colburn's case, that an objective education in the line of the development results in the loss of the subjective power. In Blind Tom's case an objective education was impossible, and hence he never lost the subjective faculty which distinguished him.
An instance illustrating this proposition was that of Jedediah Buxton, recorded in the Encyclopedia Britannica. It was thoroughly investigated by the Royal Society of London, in 1754. This person lived to about the age of seventy years, but never had the brain capacity to learn the first four rules of arithmetic. His abilities were equally limited in every other direction save one : he had a perfect intuitional perception of the laws of numbers. He would walk across a piece of land and tell its contents in acres as exactly as it could be measured with the appliances of the surveyor's art. " In this manner," says his biographer, he measured the whole lordship of Elmton, consisting of some thousands of acres, and gave the contents, not only in acres, roods, and perches, but even in square inches." After this he reduced them to square hair-breadths, reckoning forty-eight to each side of the inch. " His memory was so great," continues the account, " that in resolving a question he could leave off and resume the operation again at the same point after the lapse of a week, or even of several months."
In other words, the memory of his subjective mind was absolute, as it is, potentially, in all of us.
It must be remembered that all this, as in Colburn's case, was done without any of the extraneous aids ordinarily employed in arithmetical calculations. It was subjective mental arithmetic.
These same intuitional powers are often developed, in various directions, in savages, many instances of which will be readily recalled by those who are familiar with savage traits and characteristics. Again, the fishermen of Nova Scotia, when fishing on the banks off the coast of Newfoundland, will drift about in fog and storm for months at a time, without paying the slightest attention to their bearings ; but when their craft is laden they will hoist their sails, and without having seen the sun for weeks, will steer with unerring exactitude for any port they wish to make. This faculty is so well known to the other Grand Bank fishermen that many a Yankee skipper having lost his reckoning in the weeks of thick weather has picked up a homeward bound Nova-Scotiaman and followed him into port, with as much confidence as he would have had in his own observations. The faculty has become hereditary, and it is said that a compass, or any instrument, is as superfluous to an old Nova Scotia fisherman as it would be to a homing pigeon. In fact, the homing instinct, as developed in these men in obedience to the requirements of their vocation, is precisely the same as it is in the bird. Thus is Darwin's law confirmed and carried forward to the human race in as great perfection as it exists in the lower animals. The possibilities of its development are -infinite. It is generally confined in this life to a single faculty; but not always.
I now approach the highest development of subjective power that ever has been, or ever can be, manifested in this life. It was developed to a limited extent in the long line of Israelitish prophets. It was equal to the highest demonstrations of their prophetic power. It was equal to all that can be properly interpreted as Messianic prophesies. But in no one else on this earth has it ever been manifested in such perfection as in Jesus of Nazareth.
His power of perception of the laws of nature ex-tended into higher realms into the domain of the human soul ; into the eternal principles of right and wrong; into the true relations of man with his fellow-men ; into the normal relations between God and humanity. It enabled him to invoke successfully the powers of the soul to heal the sick. It enabled him to bequeath to humanity the true, the absolute religion ; a religion for all men and for all time ; a religion which all the ages of eternity can never improve.
The recorded accounts of his methods of healing the sick are demonstrative of his perfect mastery of the laws of the soul in its relations to the body ; and the vitality of his religion, in spite of all the adverse circumstances surrounding its birth and growth, is evidence, little short of proof, that it is founded upon the Rock of Eternal Truth. Otherwise, it could never have survived the mistakes of its friends, to say nothing of the assaults of its enemies. It is safe to say that no other system of religion has ever flourished amid so many adverse conditions as has the Christian religion. It had its roots in a region remote from the centres of civilization, and among a nomadic race who were poor, despised, reprobated, and persecuted by their more powerful neighbors. From the first it encountered the refined philosophy of the most enlightened and cultured nations of the earth ; and it has its literary setting in a volume which teaches an absurd astronomy, an impossible geography, and a cosmogony the crudeness of which is detected and exposed by the learning of every schoolboy : and yet it exists, not in decrepitude and decay, but as a vital and essential element in every civilization worthy of the name. Its theologians in times past have thrust it into conflict with every science, and it has been defeated in every encounter. Yet it is not relegated to the domain of ignorance, but flourishes in the greatest luxuriance of growth and vitality in those nations whose people are the most enlightened and progressive.
That there is to be found, within the realm of natural law, some adequate reason for this paradox, is not to be doubted. The explanation proffered in the doctrine of a continuous miracle must be rejected as scientifically untenable. It seems to me that the following propositions afford at least a partial solution of the problem :
1. Jesus was endowed with the faculty of intuitional perception of the laws of the human soul; and he proclaimed to mankind, in a few simple statements, the essential principles which govern the relationship of man to his fellow-men and to God.
2. All men are endowed with the same intuitional powers, differing only in degree; and by this means they are enabled to recognize, when once presented, any truth which is essential to the welfare of the soul.
3. It follows that when a normally constituted per-son reads the simple but all-comprehensive philosophy of Jesus, his soul intuitively and instantaneously recognizes its essential truths.
We have now passed from the lowest manifestations of instinct to the highest manifestation of intuitional power ever witnessed on this earth. We may now pause for a moment to contemplate the profound significance of the facts thus presented. The first great lesson that it teaches is that God governs this universe by immutable law ; and that the soul, as well as the body, is the result of evolutionary development. Indeed, the evidence that the soul has been thus developed is infinitely more perfect than that which is offered in support of the theory of organic physical evolution. There are many missing links in the chain of evidence to sustain the latter, which can only be supplied by speculative philosophy and a priori arguments.
On the other hand, there are no breaks in the chain of evidence of the soul's origin and development. More-over, its inherent attributes and powers proclaimed its divine origin the moment it was ushered into existence.
I have now briefly discussed three of the four propositions with which I started out, relating to the light which the facts of evolution shed upon my fundamental hypothesis. I have shown that those facts reveal the dual mind of man ; that they demonstrate that the brain is not the organ of the subjective mind; and that they disclose the genesis of the human soul. It remains to show that the same facts reveal the Living God and record the divine pedigree of man.
I have already invited attention to the psychology of micro-organisms. I have shown that the mental structure of the moneron, the lowest of animal life, is built after the same general plan as that of Omniscience. That is to say, it possesses the same power of intuitional perception of essential truth, with a difference only in degree and not in kind. I have traced the power from the moneron to man, showing that the difference is only one of gradation and complexity.
In tracing this ascent to man, there is one consideration that must not be lost sight of, for it is of vital import in tracing the origin of the mind of the moneron. It is that in that mind resided the potentiality of a limitless development through the processes of organic and mental evolution. We have a logical and scientific right to consider these potentials, for the reason that, whenever it is possible to know what they are, all possibility of doubt as to the origin of the thing under consideration is removed. Thus, it is impossible, by means of any instrumentalities known to science, to distinguish the germinal cell of man from that of the lower mammalia. In point of fact, it requires months of development to reveal the distinction; for every organism, in the course of its individual ontogeny, repeats the history of its ancestral development. In other words, God has stamped upon the embryo of man the salient facts of the history of organic evolution.
It is self-evident, therefore, that if its potential of development could be ascertained, it would instantly determine the question of the origin or ancestry of a germinal cell.
Fortunately, the potential of development of the moneron has been well ascertained, for it has been traced in one unbroken line, through a thousand gradients, to the subjective mind of man.
We have found, then, in the lowest and in the highest development of animal life, powers that correspond in kind to the attributes of omniscience. Now, let us see what powers reside in the subjective entity that correspond to the attributes of omnipotence. The latter term, of course, implies power over the material universe and over the forces of nature. Moreover, it is a spiritual power, and not a physical force, as these terms are commonly understood.
In the first place we must assume, provisionally, that the energy resident in the mental organization of the moneron is a spiritual energy ; that is, that it is an attribute of an intelligent spiritual entity as distinguished from matter that it is a property not inherent in matter. The moneron was, therefore, the first in-stance tangible to our senses, where an organized spiritual entity exerted power over matter. It overcame the inertia of protoplasm and endowed it with life. In every step in the progress of organic evolution that power was manifested in a constantly increasing ratio, for every modification of physical structure was in answer to demands from within. That is to say, every weapon of offence or of defence was evolved in response to the necessities arising from physical environment and the great and universal struggle for life. The brain itself was not an exception, and it is the most potent weapon of all. Like every other means of offensive and defensive warfare, it was evolved in response to the necessities of physical environment ; and it is especially adapted to that use and purpose, and to no other.
This, then, is an exhibition of the power of spirit over matter as shown in the processes of organic evolution. Guided by that God-like power of intuitive perception of the essential laws of its being, the embryotic soul impelled the development of physical structure, step by step, until the final goal was reached and imperial Man stood revealed. There the process of physical evolution ceased by virtue of the very law that brought it into being. Thus, when man attained sufficient intelligence to build a fire and to fashion artificial weapons, the demand for increased effectiveness in natural weapons ceased; for the artificial appliances were far more formidable in war and effective in peace. Hence it was that swords and ploughshares and spears and pruning-hooks became concomitant factors in the evolution of civilization; and hence it is that man is the highest possible product of organic evolution ; and that the great law of progressive development must now expend its energies in the evolution of a nobler manhood, a purer morality, a higher and more enlightened religion, and a more altruistic civilization the religion of Jesus, and the civilization of which he was the harbinger.
It was, however, reserved for man to manifest, phenomenally, those powers of the soul which correspond to the attributes of omnipotence. These powers have been manifested in thousands of ways throughout the ages. The phenomena have excited the wonder and fostered the superstitions of all races of mankind. Science wrestled with the problem for centuries and then gave it up in despair. Materialistic scientists once contented themselves with a wholesale denial of the phenomena, and a refusal to investigate. Others admitted the phenomena, but ascribed them to all manner of agencies, from demons to the spirits of just men made perfect. I need not say that I refer to so-called spiritistic phenomena.
Science has at last succeeded in unravelling the whole mystery, removing every phenomenon from the domain of superstition, and demonstrating that all the manifestations, of whatever name or nature, proceed from the subjective minds of living persons. I cannot now enter into details, but must content myself with saying in the most emphatic manner that all that is mysterious, all that is uncanny and diabolical, all that is inane and idiotic, all that is false and infamous, all that transcends reason and common sense in psychic phenomena, is due alone to ignorance of the fundamental laws that govern the relationship between the body and the soul. The law of suggestion is of the first importance, but the last to be learned and comprehended. To remove that ignorance, and nourish the subjective mind from the pure, perennial fountain of truth alone, would be to elevate the soul to its rightful supremacy. Its intuitive powers would then be released from the trammels imposed by an environment of error and false suggestion, and it would become a " cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night," leading to the promised land of Truth and Right.
This is a slight digression, but I wish to make my-self as clearly understood as possible, especially in the fundamentals.
We will first consider the control which the subjective mind exerts over the matter of which our bodies are composed. In the first place, it has complete control over all the functions, sensations, and conditions of the body, and is the therapeutic agent in mental healing. It can exercise that therapeutic power in pursuance of suggestions emanating either from the objective mind of the individual, or from that of another person. And, let me say, en passant, that this is the fundamental law of mental healing, and all systems owe their success to this law, consciously or unconsciously applied. It possesses the power to inhibit pain, even to the extent of rendering a capital surgical operation painless, and that without the necessity of hypnotizing the subject. It can inhibit pain or it can cause it. It can heal the tissues or it can cause them to disintegrate. Many experiments have been made by European scientists which demonstrate this fact. Professor Bernheim records his testimony that he has caused a blister to be developed on the back of a hypnotized subject by applying a postage stamp and suggesting that it was a fly plaster. The same authority states that he was able, by suggestion, to neutralize the effect of an electric current which was otherwise absolutely unbearable, perfectly inhibiting all sensation. Professor Crookes, the eminent London physicist, declares that he witnessed, under test conditions, the handling of live coals of fire with bare hands, not the slightest injury or discomfort resulting.
The phenomenon that possesses the greatest interest in this connection, however, is that of levitation of ponderable bodies without physical contact or appliances. This I have repeatedly witnessed under the most exacting test conditions. Now, for the purposes of this argument, I care not whether that phenomenon is caused by an embodied or a disembodied spirit. I will say, how-ever, that there is absolutely no valid evidence that it is to be referred to a supermundane origin. Everything conspires to show that it is a power resident in the subjective mind of the psychic in whose presence the phenomenon is produced. The point is that it is a spiritual energy, inherent in the souls of men, that is competent to modify or set at naught the action of the physical forces of nature. In the cases reported by Professor Bernheim it neutralized a powerful current of electricity. In the case reported by Professor Crookes it defied the laws of combustion. In cases of levitation it defeats the law of gravitation. Thousands of cases might be mentioned of even more startling import; but time for-bids. All the ages have witnessed these phenomena, and the man who doubts their verity is not entitled to be called a skeptic. He is simply ignorant of what he might know if he would conduct an intelligent investigation.
Thunder was once believed to be the voice of an angry god. The bolts of lightning were forged by Vulcan as instruments of wrath in the hands of Jupiter. Inductive science has explained the thunder, enslaved the lightning, and demonstrated that its phenomena are of far more startling import than was dreamed of in the philosophy of mythology.
Psychic phenomena have been ascribed to angels and to devils, to spirits of health and to goblins damned. Inductive science has discovered their proximate origin, and utilized some of the forces for the benefit of mankind. It is now seeking the Ultimate Cause, and to demonstrate that the truth is of far more wonderful significance than were the wildest dreams of superstition.
Let us, then, pursue this inquiry in strict accordance with the inexorable rules of logic and scientific induction. They cannot lead us astray if facts are the words of God.
Let us now, by way of recapitulation, group these faculties and forces, mental and dynamic, with which we find the subjective entity to be endowed.
Leaving out of present consideration all its faculties except those of intellect and kinetic energy, we find a being endowed with a mind the inherent powers of which cannot be adequately described except in terms that are definitive of the essential attributes of omniscience ; and with a dynamic or kinetic energy that can-not be adequately described except in terms that apply with equal pertinency to the attributes of omnipotence.
On the other hand, and I wish it distinctly to be understood and remembered, the one distinctive faculty belonging exclusively to the objective mind that of inductive reasoning cannot be ascribed - to omniscience without employing contradictory terms as gross and palpable as it would be to speak of a rectangular circle. Omniscience is knowledge of all things. Induction is an inquiry. Obviously, therefore, it is but a statement of a truism to say that omniscience is incapable of inductive reasoning. Neither is the subjective mind of Man capable of induction, and for precisely the same reason. Its very limitations, therefore, stamp it with the sign-manual of Omniscience.
Whence come this God-like intelligence and dynamic energy? Materialistic science tells us that we inherited it from the moneron; and that the moneron inherited it from inorganic matter, minerals. At this point some of them become agnostic." Agnosticism, you know, is aggressive ignorance. Hence, some of the agnostics set themselves to write books to show that beyond a certain point there exists the great " Unknowable. Others take the lecture platform and " split the ears of the groundlings " with vociferations of their aggressive, uncompromising ignorance.
Another class of scientists dismiss the whole subject by an oracular statement that these powers are inherent in matter. The great bulk of them, however, belong to the school of scientists which finds its great exemplar in the late lamented " Topsy." Their explanation is that " it jest growed."
In the meantime the great mass of civilized mankind have reached the conclusion, by this same process of intuitive perception of which we have been speaking, that the Great First Cause of all things is a being endowed with infinite intelligence and an infinite potential energy. This of itself is a prima facie evidence of its verity, for it is an essential truth if it is a truth, and intuition deals with Essential Truth. The burden of proof, consequently, rests upon those who deny the proposition. If, therefore, all the other facts confirm this intuition, the evidence will be conclusive.
The logical propositions bearing upon the question may be formally stated as follows :
1. There are but two known ways of acquiring knowledge. The first is by intuition, and the second is by education. I employ the word " education " in its broadest sense, exclusive of instinct or intuition, and inclusive of every other means of acquiring knowledge.
2. Instinctive or intuitive knowledge is acquired by heredity.
3. Hereditary knowledge presupposes an antecedent mind possessing identical faculties with those inherited. These three propositions are axiomatic and will not be disputed, for they are confirmed by everyday observation and experience. Thus, when we see a bird build its nest we know that the immediate ancestor of that bird possessed the identical faculty and built its nest in precisely the same way. When we see a new-born animal shrink from its natural enemy, we know that it
inherited the knowledge thus evinced. We know that its ancestors possessed the identical instinct. Now, we can trace this line of heredity back from Man to the moneron ; and we know also that the monera reproduce themselves by segmentation, and transmit their instincts. But what of the first moneron? For there must have been a first moneron, and it must have had in perfection the instinct of self-preservation. It must have felt the impulse to seek nutrition and the power of locomotion ; and it must have possessed the power of digestion and assimilation, or it could not have lived. It must have felt the impulse to perform the function of reproduction, or there could never have been a second moneron, and so on. In short, the very first sentient being that appeared on earth must have possessed such a knowledge of the essential laws of its being as were necessary to preserve its own life and to perpetuate its species, or the progress of organic evolution would have been for-ever arrested at the very threshold of sentient existence.
This is a self-evident proposition ; and no refinement of sophistry can weaken its force. No vague speculation as to the possibility of tracing its ancestry back through the vegetable to inorganic matter can destroy its significance. Trace it back as far as you will, the same principles hold good, and the same crucial question arises, and that is this:
Where is the antecedent mind capable of transmitting the essential attributes of omniscience and omnipotence to the first sentient being on this planet?
There is, and there can be, but one rational answer. It is self-evident that such qualities must be inherited from a Being who possesses them, an Almighty, All-wise Creator.
Thus far I have spoken only of the intellectual powers and the dynamic energy of God ; and thus far we find that they correspond exactly to the conceptions of Christianity. But there are other attributes with which Christian faith has invested the Supreme Being. Jesus told us of a God of love, mercy, and benevolence, the Universal Father. Science confirms the latter declaration, for it traces the ancestry of Man, in one unbroken line, back to that Universal Father. This demonstrates, what scientists have thus far failed to note, that the law of heredity is universal. That is to say, it is not confined to race or species ; nor is it con-fined to the earthly plane of existence. Thus, we have traced the power of intuitive perception of essential truth back through the protozoa to Omniscience ; and we have traced the kinetic energy which is inherent in the soul of Man back through the protozoa to Omnipotence.
This is demonstrative of the truth of the following proposition :
Whatever faculties are found to exist in the subjective mind of any sentient being necessarily existed, potentially, in the ancestry of that being, near and remote.
This is axiomatic, and its truth will be instantly perceived and assented to. It follows that whatever faculties are found to exist in the soul of Man existed potentially in all its ancestry, and actually in all its ancestral minds that were sufficiently developed to manifest them.
It is a corollary of this proposition that whatever faculties we may find to exist in the subjective mind of Man must necessarily exist, potentially, in the mind of God the Father Almighty.
We may, therefore, confidently revert to that congeries of faculties and 'powers which science has demonstrated to be inherent in the subjective mind of Man.
Before doing so, however, I desire to invite your attention again to the inductions and deductions upon which the great lights of evolutionary science lay the greatest stress. I allude especially to such scientists as Haeckel, who fancy that they have eliminated God from the Universe by proving that Man was not specially created out of nothing, but is simply the product of organic evolution.
One great law upon which they build their super-structure is that of heredity. Upon that they lay the greatest stress, declaring it to be a universal law, and in the end seek to prove that it is not universal. Thus, they trace the ancestry of Man, through an unbroken series of gradients, back to the moneron, They even descant upon the wonderful psychic powers of that organism, and trace the development of those powers up to man. Haeckel declares, truly, that Man's place in nature can never be accounted for on any other hypothesis than that of hereditary transmission and development from that unicellular organism. But when asked " whence comes that God-like intelligence with which the moneron is invested?" he abandons the hereditary hypothesis and tells us that it can be accounted for only on the theory of " spontaneous generation."
" Spontaneous generation from what? you ask. From inorganic matter, of course. Can matter think? The question answers itself.
His scientific attitude is this: he adheres to an immutable law up to a certain point the crucial point and then abandons it in favor of a palpable absurdity.
His logical attitude is even worse; for he has committed the one unpardonable sin for which all guilty logicians are, or ought to be, cast into outer darkness. When he declares that the intelligence evinced by the moneron is the result of " spontaneous generation," he simply begs the question. For that is the very question at issue between the Christian evolutionist and the atheistic or agnostic evolutionist. At that point comes the parting of the ways. And it cannot be denied that the Christian evolutionist has decidedly the advantage in the argument; for it is yet to be shown that such a phenomenon as spontaneous generation of life is possible. It has often been tried, but the experiment has never yet succeeded. On the other hand, the Christian evolutionist can well place himself squarely on the proposition that the law of heredity is universal and immutable; and that intelligence in any sentient creature presupposes an antecedent intelligence transmitted under the universal law. Moreover, he may reinforce himself with that other axiom that " a stream cannot rise higher than its source "; and further, that " nothing comes from nothing." All these laws and axioms must be set aside as idle verbiage if we are to suppose that the God-like intelligence of the moneron did not proceed from an infinite antecedent Mind, and not from a fortuitous chemical compound of inorganic matter.
Another favorite argument of the agnostic evolutionist is based on the ontogeny of the germinal cell of Man. They tell us, what is undoubtedly true, that the ontogeny of the human embryo is a repetition of the salient features of the phylogeny of the primordial germ. That is to say, the human embryo begins as a unicellular organism, and the stages of its development correspond to the principal steps in the development of animal life from the moneron to Man. This is one of the strong points of evidence insisted upon by evolutionists in favor of the evolutionary hypothesis. It cannot be denied that its evidential value is immense. But its true value has never yet been measured by those who have -most strongly insisted upon it. Like the argument from heredity, when carried to its legitimate conclusion it is and but demonstrative of the existence of the God of Christian faith. Thus, the human embryo, in its first stage of existence is a unicellular organism, microscopic in size, and differs in no perceptible respect from the embryo of any of the lower mammalia. But there is a difference between the human germinal cell and that of one of the lower mammalia; for one is endowed with the potentials of a human organism and the other is not. No instruments known to science can enable one to detect the difference between the two. As between two germinal cells there is but one way by which any one can know which of them is endowed with the potentials of a human organism, and that is by ascertaining the parentage of the two cells. In other words, the human cell is endowed with the potentials of a human organism because it had its origin in a human. organism.
Now let us begin at the other end of the line of heredity. When a scientist beholds a human being he knows the ontogenetic history of that being, from the germinal cell up to the fully developed man. By analyzing the faculties of that being, he can say with certainty just what faculties were possessed by the parent organism in which the germinal cell had its origin.
These are all self-evident propositions in fact, truisms. But now let us carry the same process of reasoning into the phylogenetic series. When an intelligent evolutionist beholds a man, he can recite the steps of his development from the moneron upward to the fully developed man. He knows that the unicellular organism from which he was descended, in the phylogenetic series, was endowed with the potentials of man-hood. He knows that, because he can trace the line of its development from the moneron to Man.
But how did it happen that the moneron became endowed with the potentials of a human organism? This is the crucial question. Haeckel, in common with all other atheistic evolutionists, tells us that it was by spontaneous generation. That is to say, at that-crucial point he abandons his comparison of the phylogenetic series with the ontogenetic history of the human embryo.
We have seen that the human germinal cell contained the promise and potency of a human organism solely because it had its origin in a human organism. In other words, there was an intelligence antecedent to the germinal cell, which was endowed with faculties identical with those of the organism that was developed from the cell. It is self-evident that the germinal cell could not have developed into a human organism had there not been an antecedent intelligence at least equal to the human intelligence from which the human germinal cell derived its potentialities.
Carrying the comparison to its legitimate conclusion, therefore, we must suppose that there was an antecedent intelligence back of that of the moneron at least equal to the intelligence that eventually developed from the moneron. In other words, since we know that the moneron was necessarily endowed with the potentialities of a human organism, we also know that there must have existed an antecedent intelligence at least equal to a human intelligence. Otherwise, we must suppose that something can come from nothing, and that a stream can rise higher than its source.
It will thus be seen that the essential law of evolution, namely, heredity, and the strongest argument in favor of that hypothesis, namely, the comparison of the ontogeny of the germinal cell with the phylogeny of the species, each, when carried to its legitimate conclusion, leads inevitably to the Living God as the only tenable explanation of the facts of organic evolution.
Bear with me while I carry the ontogenetic argument one step further. I have already shown that an analysis of the faculties of Man necessarily reveals the faculties of the parent organism of the germinal cell of Man. This is self-evident. Now if an analysis of the faculties of Man's immortal soul in like manner reveals a God-like entity, antecedent to the moneron, the evidential value of the facts we have considered will be enhanced a thousand-fold.
Let us turn, then, to the table exhibiting the faculties of the subjective mind, and see what evidence they afford of the Living God what proofs they present that Man was made in the image of God.
Now, do not for a moment imagine that I am going to present an anthropomorphic conception of the attributes of God. Such conceptions are common enough ; but they always arise from an attempt to realize the attributes of God from a contemplation of the objective man, or, at best, of the faculties of the objective mind. It is obvious that a multiplication by infinity of the power of inductive reasoning would not relieve the conception of its anthropomorphism. Induction is a method of inquiry. A God possessed of infinite powers of induction, therefore, would be a God of limited intelligence, an infinite inquirer, an infinite searcher after information. Our boasted " God-like Reason " is of the earth earthy, the very antithesis of omniscience.
Now, let us turn to the mind of the soul; the mind which antedates the objective mind by untold millions of years ; the mind which is our heritage direct from omniscience; the mind which bore the sign-manual of Divinity when it first appeared on this earth.
Intuition heads the list the power of immediate perception of Essential Truth, a power that is antecedent to and independent of reason, experience, or instruction. Then follows inerrant Deduction - the power to correctly interpret the laws and truths that are intuitively apprehended, and follow them to all legitimate conclusions. Add to these two faculties a perfect memory, and multiply the sum total by infinity, without changing the essential character of either, and the product is Omniscience.
Descending now to the bottom of the list, we find Kinetic Energy, the power of moving and being moved; of moving ponderable bodies without physical contact or appliances ; the power that controls the physical forces of nature, and enabled Jesus and Peter to walk upon the water. Multiply this power by infinity and the product is Omnipotence, that Infinite Energy that controls the correlated forces of nature, assembles matter, and creates a Universe.
With a difference only of degree, therefore, we find in the soul of Man every essential attribute of Omniscience, and every power of Omnipotence.
Turning now to the emotional nature of Man, we find that which purified and increased by the sum of infinity, gives us a God of infinite love, mercy, and benevolence.
Last, but by no means least in importance, we find the faculty of telepathy, which we must suppose to be a divine potential. Science pauses here and asks this question, which each must answer for himself : Does not the possession of this faculty involve the logical deduction, not only that it is the obvious means of social communion in the future life, but that it is the ever open channel of communion with God through prayer; and not only that, but is it not the potential agency of divine inspiration?
These questions each must answer for himself in the light of the evidence before him. But of one thing we may be certain, when I tell you that it has been demonstrated that two persons, as far apart as the antipodes, can communicate by means of telepathy just as easily as if they were in the same room ; and that the power thus manifested, when expanded to infinity, is Omnipresence.
If, therefore, the intuitions of the prophet of old were inerrant; or if he was divinely inspired, when he declared that Man was made in the image of God," we know that God is an Omniscient, Omnipotent, Omnipresent God of Love, Mercy, and Benevolence; for we find in the soul of Man each of these divine attributes, differing only in degree.