Science And Art
( Originally Published Early 1900's )
SCIENCE AIDED BY ART (see also IMAGINATION AS AIDING SCIENCE).
Many scientists have a subtle, even a pronounced disbelief, in that arrangement of nature in accordance with which matter and mind, knowledge and surmisal, always move forward on parallel planes with the mind and its surmisal some distance ahead. Their disbelief is owing to a lack of imagination, and this is often owing to a lack of the kind of culture which they might derive from giving attention to some phase of art. And yet the majority of them, perhaps, believe that art is a mere adjunct to intellectual training,—an ornamental adjunct, too, introducing, like the carving on the keystone of an arch, what may be interesting and pretty, but is not essentially useful. This is a mistake. In important particulars, it may be said that art is not the carving on the keystone, but the keystone itself, without which the whole arch would tumble. Essay on Art and Education.
SCIENCE AS AN AID TO ART (see also ART, BREADTH OF, GENIUS AND LEARNING, and INFORMATION).
Art is a development of natural tendencies, of which we are not always conscious. As a rule, it is only after science has brought these to light that they are recognized as sustaining the relationship, which they do, to the forms in which they have developed.-Rhythm and Harmony in Poetry and Music, III.
SCIENCE FOLLOWING THE LEADING OF ART (see also ART, THE CONNECTING LINK).
Pythagoras was studying music when he began the discovery of the laws of sound, and Leonardo and Chevreul were studying art when they made their contributions to the understanding of color ;and, though the time has now come when those composing the advancing army of science have moved into every remotest valley of the invaded country, apparently needing no longer any leadership of the kind, they never would have begun their advance unless, like the hosts of almost every conquering army, they had at first marched behind a standard that in itself was a thing of beauty.—Essay on Art and Education.
SCIENCE VS. ART (see also ARTISTIC VS. SCIENTIFIC MENTAL ACTION.
What causes the difference in aim between one who devotes himself to science and one who devotes him-self to art? This: the scientist must be an informer, the artist a performer. Science develops the powers of under-standing and increases knowledge. Art develops the powers of expression or execution, and increases skill.—Essay on Artistic vs. Scientific Education.
Science and art are different, and they satisfy different mental cravings, one demanding stimulus for knowledge and the other for imagination. Nor was there ever a time when the normal mind did' not demand both. To suppose that it can be satisfied with one of them is like supposing that thirst can be assuaged by giving food.—The Representative Significance of Form, XXVI.
SCIENCE VS. ART IN EDUCATION.
No man can use his eyes, ears, memory, as science necessitates, to say nothing of his powers of analysis and generalization, without learning a very great deal. But think how much more he can learn, when he is forced into the repetitious and conscientious practice which is always necessary before one can acquire that skill which is essential to success in art.-Essay on Art and Education.