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Household Clocks

( Originally Published Early 1900's )



THE marking of time has been a necessity since quite early days, and the ingenuity of man was very early brought to bear upon the production of some automatic timekeeper, something which did not require constant attention and frequent observation. The divisions of the year, the month, and the day, scarcely come within the purview of a review of domestic clocks, but the minor divisions are undoubtedly guides in clock-making. In some of the older clocks of the grandfather type the mechanical clock-work, indicated not only the marking of time according to the usual divisions of the hours and the minutes of the day, but told the day of the month and even the phases of the moon. Scientists who early penetrated into the mysteries of the solar system did their best to divide the solar year into parts, for the ready reckoning of time ; and when New Style was instituted the irregularities and discrepancies which had crept in were put right, the New Style being adopted in Britain in the year 1752, when by Act of Parliament the 3rd of September in that year was reckoned the 14th, and fresh regulations were put in force whereby leap year on a newer basis might regulate time in the future.

The Jews and the Romans, on introducing a division of the clay into twenty-four hours, assigned equal numbers to day and night, without regard to the varying lengths of the different portions of the solar day. Consequently, an hour was with them a varying quantity, according to seasons and latitudes. Ultimately, the plan which has been adopted throughout the civilised world ever since the beginning of domestic clock-making is an equal division, dividing each hour into sixty minutes, and a minute into sixty seconds. It is owing to the former irregularities of the lengths of the hours and the differing of divisional periods that such old distinctions as forenoon and afternoon, and morning and evening, arose. The clock can only be termed a calendar in so far as the old long-case clocks marked the days of the month as they came and went on a separate dial, distinguishing between the month of the calendar and the lunar month by the dial plate, which indicated the rise of the moon, and its wane as the lunar month passed by.

It may be interesting before passing to the distinguishing features of domestic clocks to point out that one of the early methods of marking time was that of the candle, the ancient illuminating light of the Saxons and of subsequent inhabitants of this country. Alfred the Great caused tapers to be made for his daily use. Each taper contained 12 dwts. of wax and was 12 in. long ; the whole length was divided into twelve parts or inches, and the size was so regulated that three inches would be burned in one hour, a full taper lasting four hours, and thereby in its use marking time. Incidentally, we learn of contrivances by which steady burning was secured by placing the candles in a lantern of horn. Of other early systems of marking time there have been many on record, for it is a long stride from the primitive candle to the domestic clock.

VARIOUS CLOCK PENDULUMS

Before considering clocks and their mechanism it will perhaps be useful to give a technical summary of the primary system by which the old clocks were governed. The law of the pendulum was regarded as an important scientific fact ; the problem—the solution of which put into the hands of clock-makers a principle upon which they could build up the clock mechanism—was early one of the chief results of scientific research by astronomers and others. Sir Robert Ball, in his " Story of the Heavens," referring to the law of the pendulum, says: "For its journey to and fro the pendulum requires a certain amount of time, which does not appreciably depend upon the length of the circular arc through which the pendulum swings. To verify this law we suspend another pendulum beside the first, both being of the same length. If we draw both pendulums aside and then release them, they swing together and return together, but if we draw one pendulum a great deal to one side, and the other only a little, the two pendulums still swing sympathetically. If the arc of vibration is increased we see the two weights occupying the same time for the swing." Sir Robert Ball then goes on to explain that it is the gravitation of the earth which makes the pendulum swing. The greater the attraction the more rapidly will the pendulum operate. He accounts for this fact in that if the earth pulls the weight down very vigorously, the time will be shortened ; whereas, if the power of the earth's attraction is lessened, then it cannot pull the weight down so quickly, and the period will be lengthened. The deduction derived from such scientific facts is that a clock pendulum swinging through its arc once in the space of a second, must be, and can only be, of one given length, with a period of half a second the length is only one quarter that of the second's pendulum. It is noteworthy, too, that the period of oscillation varies at different parts of the globe, according to the proximity to the pole or the equator, being longer at the latter and shorter at the former. Temperature also affects the time of swing of the clock pendulum. In the first instance the resistance of the atmosphere is lessened and the time is slightly shortened if the air be heated; whereas, as an irregular compensation, heat expands and lengthens the metal of which the pendulum rod is made, and thus protracts the time of the swing.

Clock-makers understand the varying vibrations of the pendulum in different latitudes. Greenwich time is taken as the basis of English calculation and time. Thus it is computed that a pendulum with a swing of one second must have a length of 39.1393 in. in the latitude of London, such measurements differing at other parallels, being at the greatest length at the pole where the attraction causes the clock to go quickly. On the other hand, the measurement is shortest at the equator.

The effective length of a clock pendulum requires a calculation. By so-called shortening of the pendulum the disc is simply screwed a little nearer the point of swing. Although technically the measurement given is correct the exact points of measurement can rarely be deter-mined, and some adjustment of the pendulum has to be performed.

Summarised by an expert, it has been stated that the effective length of the pendulum is calculated from the bending point of the suspension spring to the centre of gravity of the entire pendulum. The centre of gravity is that point in a body or system of bodies rigidly connected, upon which the body or system, acted upon only by the force of gravity, will balance itself in all positions. The effective length being, therefore, from the point of swing to the centre of gravity, it is obvious that when the disc is removed the centre of gravity is also removed higher up the pendulum rod. The effective length is shortened, causing the clock to go faster in consequence. Such principles govern the pendulum clock. There is, however, another phase in connection with the pendulum in actual practice which requires attention by those who have under their care the regulation of domestic clocks. It is the effect of expansion by heat and contraction in consequence of cold, for as it has been explained the clock will go faster in cold weather and slower in hot.

Different clock-makers have at various periods invented pendulums to counteract atmospheric changes. Among the principal types are the mercurial pendulum of George Graham (1673-1751) ; the grid-iron pendulum of John Harrison (1693-1776) ; Ellicott's compensated pendulum (1706-1772) ; the wood rod regulator pendulum, in which dry pine, which is little affected by changes of temperature was used ; and the ordinary seconds' pendulum common in long - ease clocks. These different pendulums may be described briefly in that Graham's pendulum provided for a jar of mercury, the principle of which was that mercury inserted in the jar, accurately proportioned to the length of the rod and its stirrup, restored the centre of gravity to its original position, and thereby the pendulum was unaffected by any change of temperature. The grid-iron pendulum was composed of steel and brass rods which acted upon the disc, the principle of compensation by the employment of two metals being based upon the fact that an increase of temperature causes the steel rod to expand, and the brass rods to contract, the position of the pendulum thus remaining the same.

Ellicott's compensation pendulum was based upon expansion and contraction, the principle of construction being that the bob rests on two levers unequally balanced, the shorter ends being acted upon by the expansion of the brass fillet attached to the front of the pendulum rod by screws. As the brass fillet expands and presses on the shorter arms of the two levers, the latter are depressed, raising the pendulum bob in an equal degree. These facts, briefly narrated, will help the home connoisseur to better understand- his antique clock, and to distinguish from the outline given the different pendulums enabling him to decide into which class his own clocks must be placed.

CLOCK MECHANISM

The collector is scarcely expected to pose as an expert in clock mechanism, and few are bold enough to undertake the putting in order of an old grandfather clock, or of any other antique clock they possess. It is, however, useful to possess some slight knowledge of clock mechanism, and there are amateurs who have sufficient mechanical knowledge to enable them to adjust any slight disarrangement of the old works when once they have mastered the principles which underlie the work of the old clock-makers. Quite recently a connoisseur of old furniture bought a grandfather clock in a town in one of the Eastern counties of England, and returned home well satisfied with the appearance of the bargain he had secured. A few days later the clock arrived at his London residence. To his amazement the clock had been taken to pieces, and instead of the complete whole there were many parts, and even the works had been disarranged " for the convenience of packing." Had our friend possessed some little knowledge of the mechanism of grandfather clocks, of the arrangement of the weights and pendulums, and of the mechanism of the wheels and of striking parts, he would doubtless have been enabled to reerect the old clock instead of incurring a somewhat costly visit to a local clockmaker, who evidently did not appreciate the antique, and would much have preferred selling a cheap clock.

The mechanism of clocks is not very difficult to understand, although experimental work, such as the taking to pieces of the works, cleaning the wheels, and readjusting the bell, will impart practical knowledge better than book study. Nevertheless a little technical knowledge should be helpful to the collector.

The early square dial grandfather clocks of the seventeenth century, encased in fine old oak, are of the eight-day type, and frequently have the simple seconds' pendulum, without any of the complicated compensations to which reference has been made.

There are two distinct aims in the manufacture of such a clock, the first being the correct operation of the dial hand, and the other that of the striking on the bell. The elementary work in making a clock is to assemble a set of wheels, which, properly geared, working in con-junction with the pendulum, will record on the dial by fingers or hands, seconds, minutes, and hours ; in some of the earlier clocks, hours only.

The motion work, as it is called, the functions of certain portions, are incorporated. There is the pendulum which swings once in a second, the minute wheel which revolves once in an hour, and the hour wheel which revolves once in twelve hours ; then, lastly, there is in most old clocks of the period under consideration the day-of-the-month wheel. Technically described, in brief, as set forth in " English Domestic Clocks," by Herbert Cescinsky and M. R. Webster : " The pendulum is carried on a ` crutch' which is attached to a horizontal arbor' or rod. To this arbor is fixed the anchor, the pallets of which engage with the escape-wheel as the pendulum swings, two oscillations of the anchor—i.e. two seconds of time releasing one tooth of the escape-wheel. In speaking of revolutions of clock wheels, we are only concerned with the number of teeth in each ; the site of the wheel itself can be disregarded. The escape-wheel having 80 teeth, and each requiring two swings of the pendulum to release it, the wheel must make one revolution in 60 seconds. To a prolongation of the escape-wheel pinion, beyond the face of the dial, is attached the finger of the usual seconds' dial, each swing of the pendulum impelling it forward one space on the dial. To the escape-wheel is attached a pinion of 6 ` leaves,' engaging with a wheel of 48 teeth, known as the ` third' wheel. The time of revolution of the 6-leaf pinion—i.e., the escape-wheel being one minute, that of the third wheel is in the proportion of 6 to 48, and, is, therefore, eight minutes. The third - wheel pinion has 8 leaves, engaging with a centre-wheel of 60 teeth ; 60 is to 8 as 74 is to 1; the centre-wheel, therefore, makes one revolution in 8 x 74=60 minutes. It is obvious that this must be the wheel to which the minute hand of the clock is attached, which makes one revolution round the dial in an hour. Before, however, considering this centre-wheel further, we will trace the progression of wheels to its conclusion — the main-wheel. The centre-wheel has a pinion of 8, engaging with the main-wheel of 96; the latter, therefore, makes one revolution in 12 hours. Supposing that the barrel be wound with the gut line to its fullest capacity, and that the space for the fall of the weight be ample, the clock will go for a period of 12 hours multiplied by the number of complete turns of the gut line on the barrel. This latter is grooved to facilitate the even winding of the line, and, having 16 spiral grooves in its length, the clock will go, therefore, for 8 days of 24 hours each between windings."

The collection of wheels described in the foregoing paragraph is known technically as the "motion work," which has to be connected to the striking portion of the clock. The wheel which makes one revolution in an hour has a projecting pin just the same as the day-of-the-month wheel, and this once every hour raises the lifting piece. The great wheel of the striking train engages the pinion of the pin wheel, attached to which are eight projecting pins which each in turn as the wheel revolves raise the lifting piece, causing the arbor which is connected with the lifting piece to make a partial revolution. To the arbor is fixed the tail of the bell hammer, which is raised until the pin on the wheel releases the lifting piece on the arbor, when the hammer falls and strikes the bell. In the striking mechanism there are the great wheel, the pin wheel, the hoop wheel, and the warning wheel which is adjusted so as to warn the hour one or two minutes before it is struck. The striking work is controlled by the hoop wheel between each blow of the hammer. The fly wheel acts as a governor, resisting the tendency to gather in power during the time the hammer takes to rise and fall. It may here be pointed out that there is usually a wheel placed between the main and the centre wheel, which transforms the eight-day clock into a month, being geared as 1 to 4.

There is yet another form of weight clock of some importance to the collector of old furniture, who delights in the beautiful lantern clocks with verge escapements and bob pendulums. Necessarily all weight-driven clocks require space under the dial. It was so in the lantern clocks, and in the later developments from which the long-case clocks sprang. The authors of "English Domestic Clocks " explain the principle of the bracket clock as follows :

" The lantern is really the true bracket clock by reason of this fact, although the term has, through custom, been used to designate the spring-driven, small, wood-cased clock of the types with which we are all more or less familiar. It is obvious that the functions of the weight-driven and the spring clocks being identical, the principles involved must also be similar. There is one point, however, which merits description. The fall of a weight suspended from a line wound round a drum is more or less constant in quantity, hence the pull on the main-wheel of the Iong-case clock is about the same whether the clock be fully wound or nearly run down. With a spring coiled inside a barrel, the uncoiling of which supplies the motive-power to drive the clock, this is not the case ; the spring is more powerful when fully wound than when nearly exhausted. It is here where the system of the barrel and fusee comes into play. The principle involved can be readily understood from the following illustration ; if we take two drums fitted on to shafts or axles so that they will revolve, the one twelve inches in diameter and the other only three, and wind a line round each, it will be found that a greater pull will be required to unwind the line by pulling the drum round in the case of the smaller than in the larger one. It is on this principle that the barrel and fusee of the spring-driven bracket clock is constructed. The winding of the clock pulls a gut line—or in the later examples a fine-linked bicycle chain—from the barrel on to the spiral fusee. The winding begins from the large end, and finishes on the smaller one. When the power of the clock is at its greatest—when fully wound —the line has to be pulled from the smaller end of the fusee ; but as the spring grows weaker the fusee offers an ever-increasing diameter to the lessening power, and the rate of the going of the clock remains approximately uniform."

BRASS LANTERN CLOCKS

Collectors are very keen on the possession of an old brass lantern clock, which having no case scarcely comes within the scope of furniture. Being, however, practically the parent of the long-case clock, the bracket, or as it is sometimes called "Cromwellian " clock, may be admitted as having some locus standi among household furniture. It was necessary to place such a clock either against the wall or on a bracket in order to provide for the fall of the weights or the swing of the pendulum. The brass case clock dating from Cromwellian times continued to be made for some time after the introduction of the long-case clock. The pendulum appears to have been introduced in this country about the year 1660, and from that time onward swung below the bracket clock in many an old English home. The chief interest in these clocks lies in the beautifully fretted brasses, which formed the chief ornament round the square turret, which was surmounted by the striking dome held in position by an arched frame, usually surmounted by a spiral ornament. The older form of balance-wheel clocks are so scarce that they scarcely need be mentioned, as they appear to have been quickly superseded by the pendulum ; although such clocks are to be found, dating probably from 1630-1660. Some of the pendulum clocks show signs of having been adapted from the earlier balance wheel. Unfortunately the signing of clocks at the earlier date was by no means common, and comparatively few are dated, for it was some time afterwards that the practice of signing and dating clocks became general, especially so among members of the Clockmakers' Company. Among the varieties of the older clocks are clocks which chime as well as strike ; the large bell being used for the striking of the hour, and four small bells for the chimes. Some had even more elaborate arrangements, consisting of provision for musical chimes and tunes being played on a barrel. The engraving of many of the old dials is curious as well as remarkably clever. The floral scroll-work is very beautifully executed, and the fretted fingers or hands very decorative.

The production of clock hands is in itself an interesting study ; those used on lantern clocks are described as falling under one or other of four separate heads, viz., the arrow head, the spear, the open loop, and the spade.

LONG-CASE GRANDFATHERS

There are several points of interest in the long-case clocks, which followed in succession the lantern or Cromwellian clocks. There are those who revel in the beautiful metal-work and the mechanical construction of the clock, and others who judge their antique from the standpoint of the cabinet-maker, and point out with pride the marqueterie and inlay on their treasures The clock dial is undoubtedly a feature of interest, either from an engraver's or an artist's standpoint, for many of the clocks were beautifully painted and enamelled, and some charming little pictures are noticeable. At the time when long-case clocks were in vogue the Clockmakers' Company was exercising control over the manufacture of clocks, maintaining a high standard of excellence in workmanship and finish. The clocks of those days were of the very best, and their lasting properties are known full well to collectors, who are proud of the excellent timekeepers they possess. It was in the year 1681 that Charles I. granted a Charter to " the Master, Wardens, and Fellowship of the Art or Mistery of Clockmaking of the City of London." As in the case of other City companies they had power to examine and destroy faulty work. Curiously enough, in olden time clocks had been made by blacksmiths. We can well understand, therefore, that when the new company was fairly launched they went ahead and did their utmost to show how clockmaking could be raised to a higher pitch. Very beautiful indeed were the dials on which the artists of the Company concentrated their efforts. In the engraving and decoration, as well as in the fashioning of the dial plate, there appear to have been fashions, for certain schemes of ornament were in vogue at different periods. The more elaborately engraved dials were made between 1690 and 1705.

A marked advance was made when the minute finger was added. Indeed, finger - making seems to have been a different branch, in which the artist vied with the decorator in producing beautifully wrought fingers, some of them wonderfully delicate and remarkable achievements in wrought or perforated metal work. The spade form was generally adopted, but as time went on the simple spade became very elaborate. The next important point to note is the spandrel corners of the clock dials which were evidently obtained from brassfounders and finishers. Many of the London clockmakers supplied country makers, and as some of these would keep sets of corners in stock for some time it is possible they may have used an earlier type on clocks made at a subsequent period. Generally speaking, however, the dials made by leading makers indicate the period by the style of ornament. The earlier forms were those appertaining to wood - carving in Carolian times, the central feature being cherubs with outspread wings, and reclining cherubs holding up in their hands a crown. Sometimes a mask was held up or supported, and that gave the cue to the next development in that the larger and more elaborate corners then being used consisted of scroll work springing from a central mask. Afterwards a heavier type of ornament prevailed. In all cases some chasing is noticeable upon the cast corner pieces, which were usually finished with water-gilt.

The case is the next consideration. The evolution from the lantern clock was easy to understand, for over the bracket was placed a hood which gradually became a fixed hood, and eventually developed into the long case. Much has been written upon the subject, and a vast number of clockmakers have been recorded as occupying important positions in the trade during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The collector of furniture usually contents himself with a grandfather clock, typical of the changes in furniture which may be represented by marqueterie, lacquer, and inlay ; and the variety of woods used for clock cases consisted mainly of oak, walnut, and mahogany. During the years of Charles II. some very remarkable clocks were produced, and not only was much labour expended upon the case, but the hood itself followed the trend of fashion. There were the turned supporting columns of the earlier days. Afterwards, instead of the spiral columns, there came the beautiful fluted columns, showing Adam influence. Then in the later Georgian pediments there is much to admire, some very remarkable clocks being sketched in Sheraton's " Cabinetmakers' and Upholsterers' Drawing Book."

It would be impossible here to enter into the details typical of certain makers, for the variety of ornament is considerable, even among marqueterie cases ; and as makers multiplied the variety became greater, until individual characteristics were almost lost.

No doubt at first many of the marqueterie cases were imported from Holland, but it was not long before English clockmakers supervised the entire construction of the clocks they produced. The arched dial is seldom seen before 1715, and in some instances examples are met with in which the arched dial has been added to an earlier square dial, generally by riveting on behind. As in the earlier types of clocks there are some of the " grandfathers" which show curious eccentricities, such for instance those exhibiting the signs of the zodiac. The engraver, too, made good use of his opportunity, and showed his skill in metal - plate engraving in the quaint and delightful script he employed to elaborate the numerous mottoes on the dials, many of them, like Tempus fugit, being copied from the earliest sun-dials. As in the ornament of other furniture, marqueterie declined about 1720, when the plain walnut cases came into vogue. Lacquer work predominated from about 1785 to 1755, after which mahogany cases were in the ascendancy. The Chinese taste was applied to clock cases as to other furniture, and English lacquer followed the vogue of the oriental. The mahogany cases were frequently veneered on oak, and it was not until later years that solid mahogany doors and frames were used for the fronts. It was not until the end of the eighteenth century that inlays were much employed, and carving was somewhat sparingly applied to clock cases and hoods in the days of Chippendale.

There seems to have been no special district in which clocks were made, for clockmakers were to be found in almost every town. There are a few peculiarities of locality, among which may be mentioned the central alarm disc of the Lancashire clock dials, seldom met with on London-made clocks. There were silvered as well as water-gilt dials, and a variety of ornament which became exceedingly varied before grandfather clocks and the smaller " grandmothers" went out of fashion.

The earlier types of bracket clocks that were in vogue before timepieces as understood in modern days, were made side by side with the long-case clocks, and range from 1700 - 1800. There were enclosed clocks usually standing on brackets, following as bracket clocks the " Cromwellian " clocks, differing of course in that instead of being worked by weights and long pendulums they were simply pendulum timepieces, the first introduced in England being made by a Dutch clockmaker in the middle of the seventeenth century. The timepiece faces or dials and their cases were in line with the then prevailing styles. These often beautiful clocks are welcome additions to a collection of household furniture, and are fully appreciated by the home connoisseur who happens to possess one.

REPRESENTATIVE EXAMPLES

The collector of old clocks naturally confines his attention very largely to domestic clocks. It is difficult, however, to separate them altogether from the numerous clocks which have been erected on church towers and public buildings, and exhibited by enterprising trades-men and others ; such clocks overhang footways, and project even on brackets in many towns. Public clocks supplemented by private enterprise are still utilised as convenient timekeepers, and daily requisitioned by the public. The connoisseur of the antique takes particular notice of the old clocks on the churches and in the main thoroughfares of the chief towns. It would be impossible here to do more than mention that such curious clocks are to be seen on some of the churches built by Sir Christopher Wren after the Great Fire of London. One of these may be noticed on the tower of St James' Church, Garlick Hithe. It is surmounted by a figure of St James in pilgrim's garb, wearing a cockle hat and carrying a staff in his hand. This attitude was doubtless adopted as representing St James setting forth on a missionary expedition, as it was explained he was one of the first Apostles to undertake mission work.

In some museums there are fine examples of the old clocks, varying from the large grandfather to the quaint little pocket clocks almost contemporary with sun-dials. One of the finest collections of clocks on view to the public is that in the Guildhall Museum, loaned by the Worshipful Company of Clockmakers. In the Victoria and Albert Museum there are some good bracket clocks made by English clockmakers, as well as some fine examples of long - case clocks in various cases, some beautifully inlaid with marqueterie, others with oriental lacquer cases, and several of the various types of old English wood-case clocks, plain oak, and oak inlaid with fancy woods and mahogany, some beautifully decorated after the style of Chippendale, Sheraton, and other late masters in eighteenth-century cabinet work. There is a very fine bracket clock in marqueterie case fitted with "rack" striking works invented by Edward Barlow (b. 1686, d. 1716) by John Martin of London. There is also an exceptionally tall old " grandfather " of Dutch manufacture, made by Antony Janszen, of Amsterdam. It is a remarkable clock indicating the day of the week, the day and name of the month, also the phases of the moon. The case is of oak, veneered with burr-walnut, dating from the second half of the eighteenth century. The dial-plate is partly silvered, and partly enriched with painted or enamelled figures. The front of the case is decorated with ormolu castings, and is surmounted with two figures on either side of the pediment. In the centre there is a figure of Atlas carrying the Globe on his shoulders. There is another very interesting clock in the same gallery by "Mansell Bennett at Charing Cross." It is of English workmanship, and probably dates from the seventeenth century. It has a small brass dial and is finely decorated, the case being ornamented with beautiful marqueterie of flowers and birds.

In the Wallace Collection at Hertford House there are some very beautiful specimens of French clocks, among them one by Lespinasse, of Paris, which takes the form of an obelisk, standing on a pedestal. It is veneered with lapis lazuli and decorated with a medallion painted en camaieu gris. The mounts of this clock, which is of the Louis XVI. period, are of gilt bronze, one of the figures representing a recumbent figure of Ceres.

Another exceptional clock is decorated with marqueterie, probably the work of Andre C. Boulle, the chief motive of the scheme of ornament being the favourite one of "Love and Time." Another clock with a dark wood case veneered with tortoiseshell Boulle inlay is crowned with a group of gilt - bronze, the subject of which is described as " A Nymph with Cupid." It came from the Demidoff Collection. What may be called an historical clock of bronze, beautifully tooled and gilt, the ornament representing Minerva supporting an inspiring and youthful king, by whose side placed on pedestals covered with fleur-de-lis are the crown, sceptre, and hand of Justice, was presented to Louis XV. by the city of Metz, after his dangerous illness in that city in 1744.

Fig. 109 is a splendid clock of the time of Charles II. (circa 1680). It is ornamented with marqueterie in bone and different coloured woods on a ground of oyster-pattern inlay, and relieved by cross-banded olive wood, Fig. 110 is another long - case clock with marqueterie ornament of a somewhat later type, showing baskets of flowers very characteristic of the William and Mary period, 1690-1700. The two other clocks shown in Figs. 111 and 112 are of the Georgian period (circa 1795). Both are excellent striking clocks with handsome brass faces and beautifully panelled and moulded mahogany cases, showing ball-pointed ornaments on the pediment of the hood.



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