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Staffordshire Wares

NO ceramic specimens are of more interest to the American china collector than the pieces of dark-blue Staffordshire crockery that were manufactured in such vast variety of design, and were imported in such great numbers to America in the early years of this century. Their beauty of color—the color called by the Chinese " the light of heaven," a blue like the lapis the Bishop wished for his tomb at St. Praxed's, a tint unexcelled and hardly equalled in modern wares—makes them a never-ceasing delight to the eye ; and the historical character of their decoration frequently adds to their interest and value. Mr. Prime wrote in 1876 of these pieces of crockery, " they have ceased to be common, are indeed becoming rare, and collectors will do well to secure good specimens." Since that year specimens have become rarer and more valuable still. The Staffordshire pieces that date from the year 1830 to 1850, though still printed with American views, are lighter and duller in tint of blue, and are more frequently stamped in green, pink, sepia, chocolate, black, or plum color. The designs, as well as the colors, are weaker, as if fading gradually and dying into the vast expanse of dead-white crockery and china which spread its uninteresting level over the tables of country folk for the quarter of a century that elapsed before the Centennial Exhibition of 1876, that turning-point in household art decoration in America.



The shapes of the pieces of table-ware also became de-graded, and were not so graceful as the .Staffordshire tea and dinner sets of the first quarter of this century. One specially pretty piece that came with many dark-blue dinner sets of the latter - named date was the low fruit-dish with its tray, both with pierced basket-work borders. The pickle leaves also were gracefully shaped. The pitchers, both of the table and toilet sets, were graceful, and "poured" well, that most important, and oft-times lacking, attribute of pitchers. Both basins and pitchers of toilet sets were, however, in-conveniently small. There was also not the monotony of design which we find nowadays on sets of china. I mean that all the pieces of a set were not stamped with the same design. I am convinced that the tea sets, such as the familiar Tomb of Washington and Tomb of Franklin de-sign, seldom were furnished with a set of plates bearing . the same decoration, but consisted only of teapot, water-pot, creamer, slop-bowl, sugar-bowl, and occasionally two cake-plates. The copper-lustre china tea sets of the early part of the century seldom had tea plates like the rest of the sets.

It was only the most popular and universally wide spread designs, such as that of the Landing of Lafayette or the Pilgrim, or the Boston State House, that were found on all the pieces of dinner services and sold together. Sets were formed, usually having the same border, with different designs on the different-sized plates. We found in the summer of 1891, under the eaves of an old farm-house in Worcester County, a painted blue sea-chest which contained a sight to make a china hunter both smile and weep. The dust of years covered the chest, the floor, the ladder-like stairs. that led to the attic. Every step of the staircase had to be cleared for. our climbing entrance of the accumulated and forgotten autumn stores of what had been ears of seed-corn, but were now only rat-nibbled cobs, bunches of cobwebbed herbs, broken chairs, dried and withered gourds and pumpkins. The house-mistress frankly acknowledged that she hadn't " been up garret for years," she had been " so poorly and tissicky." We smiled when we opened the lid of the chest and saw the familiar and much-loved color, the color of our guiding star in our search, the rich, dark blue. But we grieved as we lifted the pieces out, for fully half of them were broken. There was an entire dinner-service of the " Beauties of America," set of J. & W. Ridgway. All had the same medallion border that is here shown on the Philadelphia Library plate. As the chief beauties of America in those days were not fair maids, but almshouses, all the larger dishes and tureens bore monotonously ugly views of square and many-windowed almshouses. The views on the gravy tureens, with their little accompanying platters, were all of the Exchange at Charleston ; the large platters were of the Capitol at Washington ; the smaller, of the Boston Hospital.

The twelve dinner-plates bore a view of New York City Hall; the breakfast-p 1 at es were of the Philadelphia Library ; the soup-plates all bore the view of the Boston Octagon Church; little plates six inches and a half in diameter had a view

of the Boston Insane Hospital the pickle leaves and handleless bowls of the ladles were still different, bearing a small, unnamed house with the same border. Tumbled in a crushed heap in the corner of the chest was the saddest sight of all, a superb old Worcester cream-pitcher, four pieces of Plymouth porcelain, an India china tea set, three Pilgrim plates, all broken, surmounted by two heavy tankards which the owner thought were pewter, but which were solid silver. They are all there still, huddled in sad fragments in the old blue chest ; and the Staffordshire dinner set also, for the owner, though ignorant of the value of the crockery and china, of their number even, and their condition, still " couldn't spare them" when we asked to buy the whole pieces and thus rescue them from the sad fate of their brothers. The wife was deaf and poor and sick, and the husband looked sicker and poorer still, but both were stubborn, good-temperedly stubborn, in their assertion that they "couldn't spare them." We sat down in the dust of the floor and begged ; we raised our offer to city prices ; we offered to send another dinner set of French china to replace the Staffordshire one, but all in vain ; we drove away and returned again to use fresh entreaties ; the owner did not care for the " old crockery ; " scorned the assertion that the tankards were silver, and threw them carelessly back into the chest ; had no association with the pieces, no sentiment against selling them; but he "couldn't spare them."

It is difficult to find a full dinner set of the old Staffordshire dark-blue,ware. The scattering of families and consequent division of property, the destruction through every-day careless use, have seldom left so full a set as the one just described. The Ridgways issued another set of views of the various colleges and buildings of English universities. The stamp on the back was in blue, a pointed oval, about three inches long, with words, "Opaque China, J. & W. Ridgway ;" in the centre of the mark was the individual name of the building in the design.

A great number of these pieces appeared in the antique-shops in the winter of 1890, through the sale of the dining-room furnishings of an old hotel in Baltimore, which must have consisted largely of this set of college views. The owners sold all the old blue and white table crockery, the old substantial and beautiful Sheffield plated trays and tea sets, and bought nice new American " hotel ware" and shining electro-plated silver.

The name Cambridge on many of these University plates enabled some unscrupulous or ignorant dealers to palm off the college views of that University to a few thoughtless buyers, at high prices, as views of Harvard College, in Cambridge, Mass. Views of private residences in London are frequently found in America with the same border as the University pieces, a wreath of convolvulus broken by pretty cameo-like medallions of boys playing with goats.

All these English views are exceedingly useful for wall decorations, especially for high shelves, or as a background for lighter-colored bits of china, where it is not necessary that the design of the decoration should be carefully distinguished ; and their vast variety makes them a constantly interesting subject for investigation and purchase. I have seen one collection of over two hundred Stafford-shire plates bearing each a different English view, and I have seen many scores—perhaps hundreds—still different.

Some of the richest pieces of color are the dark-blue plates printed with the " Wilkie Designs," such as the well-known Letter of Introduction, and the much-sought after Valentine design. The Don Quixote series is also good. Equally glorious and resplendent in color are pieces bearing the Dr. Syntax designs. I have seen only plates and tureens with the latter. These Syntax plates have an additional source of interest in the wit of the humorous scenes that they represent. " Dr. Syntax's Noble Hunting Party," " Dr. Syntax Upsets the Beehive," " Dr. Syntax Painting the Portrait of his Landlady," " Dr. Syntax Star-Gazing," " Dr. Syntax Reading his Tour." These I have seen, and there are doubtless many others. They were printed from a set of pictures drawn by Thomas Rowlandson, one of the most celebrated de-signers of his day of humorous and amusing subjects. They were drawn. to illustrate a book published by William Combe, in 1812, called " Dr. Syntax's Tour in Search of the Picturesque." A second tour, "In Search of Consolation," appeared in 1820. This was also illustrated by Rowlandson. A third tour, " In Search of a Wife," was printed the following year. These books had an immense and deserved popularity. Not only did these Staffordshire plates appear, but a whole set of Derby figures were modelled—" Dr. Syntax Walking"—" In a Greenroom "—" At York "—" Going to Bed "-" Tied to a Tree "- Scolding the Landlady"—" Playing the Violin "—" Attacked by a Bull "—" Mounted on Horse-back "—and were sold in large numbers. The Stafford-shire plates have survived in greater variety in this country. Doubtless they were imported in larger quantities than were the Derby figures.

Strangely enough, no Biblical scenes are represented on these Staffordshire plates, save one with a print of the Flight' into Egypt.

Other interesting forms of ware manufactured in Staffordshire were the old drinking-mugs known as "Tobys." They were seated figures of -rummy, old, red-nosed fellows with drinking-mugs in their hands. They wore usually cocked hats, the hat forming the lip of the mug. They were gayly dressed in high colors, and were sometimes twelve and even fourteen inches in height. A terrible damper has been put, within a few years, on the joy of collecting these " Tobys," by the fact of their reproduction in vast numbers after precisely the old models, and in precisely the same colors. Of course, the modern Tobys are very shining and new, and upon examination are easily distinguished from the old ones; but when a closet-door in an antique shop suddenly and most unadvisedly swung open, the sight of a row of twenty or thirty Tobys, all precisely alike, did not seem to enhance the value of the asserted-to-be-unique specimen on the shop shelf, nor make me very warm about purchasing further specimens, were they old or new.

It is impossible to obtain any information in England about this dark-blue earthenware, or " semi-china," which was made for so many years in such vast quantities for the American market. The Staffordshire pottery works have all changed owners; the plates from which these wares were printed have all been lost or destroyed ; the present owners of the works are ignorant of the existence even of these printed American pieces. There are almost no specimens to be seen in English collections, not even of pieces bearing English views none for sale in English shops ; and even in so exhaustive, extended, and careful a treatise on the ceramic art of Great Britain as that of Mr. Jewitt, he does not speak of them, and evidently is ignorant of the wares, the stamps, and marks. A careful search throughout the Staffordshire region developed absolutely not one fact about these " American historical pieces;" and I may add that a collection of Staffordshire ware bearing both American and English views is now being gathered in America for presentation to the Museum at Burslem, and consequent enlightenment of English collectors and manufacturers. Hence it is plain that each American collector must be a law to himself with regard to marks; or rather, American col-lectors must unite and form a new table of marks of " American pieces." I will specify a few that I find on my Staffordshire pieces.

A circular impression about an inch in diameter, with an inclosed circle having in the centre the word "War-ranted," and a spread eagle bearing a thunderbolt and laurel leaf. In the quarter-inch ring inclosing this inner disk are the words, in capital letters, " T. Mayer. Stone. Staffordshire." Accompanying this impressed stamp is always found (on my pieces) a very spirited rendering in dark blue of the American eagle, bearing a laurel branch in his right claw, and a bunch of arrow-like thunderbolts in his left. He measures two and three-quarters inches from tip to tip of wings, has an American shield on his breast, and a ribbon bearing the words " E Pluribus Unum " in his mouth. The lighter, clouded background has thirteen white stars. This mark is the richest in color and best in drawing of any that I have seen. This T. Mayer was, I judge, the Thomas Mayer who had the Dale Hall Staffordshire works from 1829, and of whom Shaw speaks as having made the best specimen of solid earthenware ever produced at that time-a vast table. This stamp and mark are given by neither Chaffers nor Jewitt, nor Phillips and Hooper. The marks E. Mayer, and E. Mayer & Son, are frequently seen. These firms were in existence from 1770 to 1830 in Hanley.

A distinct circular impression an inch in diameter ; in the centre appears a spread eagle with shield on his breast, and below him the words " Semi China ; " surrounding all the words " E. Wood & Sons, Burslem. Warranted." In conjunction with this impressed stamp appears often a dull-blue mark, an oblong panel an inch and a half long and about three-eighths of an inch wide, inclosing the name of the view on the face of the plate. On this panel stands an eagle with laurel branch in his right claw, and in his beak a written scroll attached to a small United States shield, and bearing the words "E Pluribus Unum "—the whole on a clouded back-ground. Many of the pieces bearing both of these marks are confused in outline, as if the dies or plates from which they were printed were worn out. And they also have the poorly drawn, ugly shell border. This stamp and mark are not given by Chaffers or Jewitt. The ware also varies greatly, the earlier plates being of much lighter weight. The impressed circular mark appears alone on some very richly colored, clearly printed, and beautifully drawn pieces decorated with spirited marine views and clear and graceful shell borders. These were evidently made for the American market, for on all of them appears prominently a full-rigged ship bearing the American flag ; yet they cannot be classed as " American views." The names given to some of these views are "A Ship of the Line on the Downs," " In a Full Breeze," "Christianeburg," Danish Settlement on the Gold Coast, Africa," "York Minster."

The name "Wood, alone, appears impressed, and often accompanied by an impressed crescent. The date of this mark is apparently about 1818, when the firm was no longer Wood & Caldwell, and Enoch Wood's sons had not been taken into partnership. All the pieces with this stamp are rich in color and clear in outline, as if the dies or plates were fresh and new.

The mark " E. W. & S." on lighter-blue pieces I have also fancied stood for E. Wood & Sons.

A circular stamp, impressed, of a crown, surrounded by words " A. Stevenson, Warranted Staffordshire." This stamp appears with' a mark printed in blue of an eagle holding a tablet, with the name of the view on the face of the plate; or sometimes with a blue printed mark of an urn festooned with drapery, cn which is printed the name of the view, which is usually of an English scene. The Cobridge Works were erected in 1808, were owned for a few years by Bucknall & Stevenson, and afterward by A. Stevenson alone. The works were closed in 1819, hence pieces bearing this mark can have the date quite definitely assigned. The circular mark is given by Chaffers as appearing once on a painted faience plate. The impressed mark of name Stevenson in capital letters is found on many " American historical pieces," usually on plates with a beautiful vine-leaf border and white impressed edge.

A circular stamp of concentric rings, impressed, about one inch in diameter. In the centre a crown, and in surrounding ring the words " Clews Warranted Stafford-shire." After 1819 the Cobridge works passed into the hands of Mr. James Clews, who continued them until 1829, when they were again closed and remained so until 1836, when they were opened under another firm name. Mr. Clews came to America, and an account of his enter-prise here is given on page 97 et seq. This mark is not given by Chaffers, who calls the firm J. & R. Clews, and says they made "pale cream-colored ware." During the ten years that Mr. Clews owned these Cobridge Works some of the richest pieces of dark-blue color that were ever made by any potter took the form of pieces bearing American historical designs, and bear the last-mentioned stamp.

The mark of an open crown surmounting the words "Clews Warranted Staffordshire " appears on a set, " Picturesque Scenery." Upon the back of each piece appears also the colored stamp which was placed by the manufacturers to designate this set, all of which were printed with American views. It is a little landscape of pines and a sheet of water with a sloop. This scene is crossed diagonally with an oblong stamp bearing the words " Picturesque Views," and the name of the special view printed on the face of the piece ; for instance, "Penitentiary in Allegheny nr Pittsburgh Pa." This set of views of " Picturesque Scenery " was of much later date than the rich dark-blue pieces, being printed in sepia, green, chocolate, or plum color, thus showing the degraded taste of the second quarter of the century.

An impressed mark of Rogers appears sometimes in conjunction with an eagle stamped in blue. Occasion-ally, also, the eagle is seen without the Rogers mark. Sometimes the chemical sign for iron is found with these marks. The firm of Rogers was in existence in Burslem until 1849.

A circular impressed mark, one inch in diameter, with a star in the centre, surrounded by words " Joseph Stubbs Longport." This mark is not given by Chaffers, nor the name of the manufacturer or manufactory. Jewitt who gives no marks, says that he was a successful potter at Dale Hall from 1790 to 1829, preceding T. Mayer at his pottery, and thus proving that pieces with the Stubbs mark are the earlier of the two. The circular mark of " Stubbs & Kent, Longport," also unknown in England, appears on many pieces; for instance, the dark-blue basket and rose, and the milkmaid designs so common on toilet and dinner services. Still another impressed mark of " Stubbs" alone, in capital letters, appears on many American historical pieces, particularly on the ones with what is known as the eagle, rose, and scroll border.

A large number of pieces were printed, with views of public buildings in America, by the firm of J. & W. Ridgway. These pieces bore on the back an oblong stamp inclosing the name of the building and its location, as, for instance, " City Hall, New York ; " above this the words " Beauties of America," below, J. & W. Ridgway. One of the set is shown on page 319. The pieces bearing this stamp are only medium blue in tint, though the color is good and some of the shading is dark. These pieces are disfigured by the border, which has the effect of oval medallions inclosing alternately a single stiff rose and a six-petalled flower—a myrtle blossom, perhaps. This border is poorly shaded and far from graceful in designing. I cannot definitely as-sign the date of these pieces; the firm succeeded Job Ridgway & Sons in 1814, and was in existence in 1829. This mark is not given by Chaffers. Another Ridgway mark is an oval medallion with the initials J. R. under a crown, and with the names of the pattern in a scroll. Still another has the initials J. W. R., another Jno. Ridgway, and another W. Ridgway.

A large number of very beautiful English views, printed in dark blue, are found on dinner services of Staffordshire ware, bearing the mark in blue of a spray of rose leaves with a double scroll and name " Riley," and name also of the view—for instance, " Goggerdan, Cardiganshire." The firm of John & Richard Riley rebuilt in 1814 the Hill Works, that had formerly been owned by Ralph Wood, and ran them until 1839. The prints of this firm are clear and distinct, and really artistic in drawing, the borders being specially graceful. The only mark given by Chaffers is " Riley Semi-China " on blue willow-pattern ware. This I have also found, the words appearing within a circular belt. The impress Riley also is seen.

R. Hall's wares were imported to America in large quantities, especially his " Select Views." I do not know whether this is R. Hall who ran the " ° Sytch Pottery" in Burslem until 1830, or whether he was Ralph Hall who owned the Swan Banks Works, Tunstall, during the first quarter of the century. Chaffers does not mention either Hall, and Jewitt gives no marks. The stamp most frequently seen is an oval ring in blue ; at the top, " R. Hall's Select Views ; " below, a sprig of flowers and the words " Stone China." The ring inclosed the name of the view, Biddulph Castle, Stafford-shire, and Pains Hill, Surrey, being the most frequent. I have seen hundreds of Pains Hill plates in New England, fully half the country houses that I have entered had a few on cupboard or pantry shelves.

Still another Hall mark is a crown-shaped blue stamp with "Hall" and the name of the set—for instance,

Quadrupeds." Another, a blue stamp in an irregular shield, at top and bottom " R. Halls Picturesque Scenery," in the middle the name--for instance, "Fulham Church Middlesex." Another is an irregular shield, with scrolls with words "Oriental Scenery, I. (or J.) Hall & Sons; " and also " Italian Scenery, I. Hall & Sons; " and " Indian Scenery, I. Hall & Sons." The views, of course, on these pieces are indicative, respectively, of the marks on the back.

The views of Oriental scenery were taken from the illustrations of Buckingham's Travels in Mesopotamia, of the date 1828.

A very interesting mark is a wreath of blue flowers inclosing the words "Bristol Flowers," and accompanied either by impressed initials in capitals, E. & G. P., or an impressed cross like the Bristol stamp. This mark has been seen only on pure white "semi-china," deco-rated in clear blue, with a design of fruit and flowers in which the passion-flower predominates.

Still another blue mark, on pieces a trifle lighter in tint, is a fine spread eagle ; above, the word "Iron-stone;" below, "Sydenham J. Clementson." Chaffers does not mention this name or mark. Jewitt gives no marks, but says Clementson became proprietor of the Sydenham works about 1832, and manufactured for the American market.

The impressed mark of " Adams Warranted Stafford-shire" appears in a circle around an American eagle. And the initials R. S. W., in a graceful scroll with a branch of leaves, appear on many beautiful American views. I have been told that this was the stamp of R. S. Warburton, but can give no proof nor further information. It maybe the stamp of some member of the Wood family, so many of whom were potters.

When we examine all these special American marks on English pottery, it seems odd to read Mr. Jewitt's statement, that marks were frequently omitted on the English china sent to America, " on account of the jealous dislike ,of the Americans of that day to anything emanating from the mother country."

With the pieces of Staffordshire wares bearing American designs, and a few pieces which cannot be classed elsewhere, I conclude my list.

134: Albany.

View of city of Albany printed in black on plate. Date of view apparently about 1840.

135. Albany.

View of Albany in bright dark-blue. E. Wood & Sons. Marked on back, " City of Albany State of New York," and spread eagle with E Pluribus Unum. In centre the Capitol Hill with old Capitol. On the river a steamboat and sailing vessels. Cows grazing in foreground. Shell border.

Albany. Capitol.

See No. 166.

Albany. Theatre.

See No. 170.

Albany. Canal.

See No. 171.

Alleghany.

See No. 241.

136. Anti-Slavery Plate.

This design is printed in a purplish and rather light blue on various pieces of dinner and tea services. The plates are most frequently found. One is here shown. They have slightly scalloped edges and a scroll border dotted with stars. Four American eagles and shields are in the border, and four medallions. The upper one contains the figure of Liberty standing beside a printing-press, while a negro kneels at her feet. Around the design are the words, " The Tyrants Foe —The People's Friend." In the lower medallion is the de-sign of the scales of Justice. In the medallion to the right are the words, " Of One Blood are All Nations of Men." In the medallion to the left, " We hold that all men are created equal." In the centre of the plate, against the background of a sun-burst, are these words : " Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. Constitution U. S." On some of the pieces—pitchers and teapots, for example — there also is seen this inscription, " Lovejoy—the First Martyr to American Liberty. Alton, Nov. 7th, 1837." It is asserted that the pieces bearing this design were the gift of the English Anti-Slavery Society to the American Abolitionists, shortly after the death of Love-joy ; that they were sold at auction in New York, and the proceeds devoted to the objects of the Society of Abolitionists. If this account is true, these plates are certainly among the most interesting relics of those interesting days.

Battery. New York. See No. 217.

137. Baltimore. Battle Monument.

A plate printed in black, dark brown, or green, with border of flowers. In the centre a view of the city of Baltimore with a monument in the foreground. Name on the back, " Battle Monument Baltimore." This monument, which stands in Battle Square at the intersection of Calvert and Fayette Streets, is commemorative of those who fell defending the city when it was attacked by the British in 1814. It has a square base twenty feet high, with a pedestal ornamented at the four corners with sculptured griffins. On each front is an Egyptian door with bas-reliefs and inscriptions. A column eighteen feet high rises above the base and is surrounded by bands inscribed with the names of those who fell in battle. The column is surmounted by a marble figure typical of the city of Baltimore.

138. Baltimore. Exchange. View of Exchange building, in dark blue. This plate is very rare.

139. Baltimore. Court-House.

A dark-blue plate with a rose and fruit border. In the exact centre of the plate is the Court-House in an open square. Pedestrians are walking to and fro. The design of this plate is very stiff and ugly. The mark on the back is a scroll of blue, with words " Baltimore Court House ; " also a circular impressed mark, smaller than the Clews mark, with words " Warranted Staffordshire"

140. Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. Wood.

Plates printed in dark blue with rich shell border, with a train of little cars like stage-coaches, and the stumpy little locomotive which it is said was designed by Peter Cooper, and which was originally intended to have sails like a boat to help propel it along. The corner-stone of this railroad was laid in Baltimore, July 4, 1828, by Charles Carroll of Carrollton, the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence. This event was considered of so great importance that it was celebrated by a great trades-procession in Baltimore, during which the cordwainers made a fine pair of satin shoes which were at once sent to the idolized Lafayette, and were placed in the museum at La Grange.

In 1830 the first locomotive was placed on the road. Peter Cooper thus describes it

" The engine was a very small and insignificant affair. It was made at a time when I had become the owner of all the land now belonging to the Canton Company, the value of which, I believe, depended almost entirely upon the success of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. When I had completed the engine I invited the directors to witness an experiment. Some thirty-six persons entered one of the passenger cars, and four rode on the locomotive, which carried its own fuel and water ; and made the first passage of thirteen miles over an average ascending grade of eighteen feet to the mile, in one hour and twelve minutes. We made the return trip in fifty-seven minutes."

The locomotive on these blue plates is not like the Tom Thumb locomotive in an old print which I possess ; it is more like the " Stourbridge Lion," the first engine made in England for America, which arrived in New York in 1829. Marks on plate both E. Wood and Wood.

141. Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. Down Hill.

This plate is in dark blue with a shell border. It has a stationary engine at the top of a hill, with a number of small freight cars running down a very steep grade, with the cars at a very singular angle. Both Baltimore & Ohio plates are here shown.

There were several of these downhill tram-roads built at an early date in America. One on the western slope of Beacon Hill, in Boston, was constructed in the year 1807. It was used for transporting gravel from the top of the hill down to Charles Street, which was being graded and filled. The descent of the heavy gravel-loaded train drew up the empty cars—thus the machinery was worked without horse-power. In 1810 a similar one was built in Ridley, Pa., for transporting stone. In 1825 a third road was built, in Nashua, N. H., to carry down earth from a hill to fill up a factory location on a grade below. In 1826 a road three miles long at Quincy, Mass., carried in the same manner granite to the Neponset River. In 1828 the coal-mines at Mauch Chunk, Pa., had a road nine miles long to the Lehigh River. The empty cars were drawn up by mules. In 1828 the Delaware & Hudson .Canal Company, and the Bunker Hill Monument Company, had similar tram-ways or roads.

Other views of early railroads and locomotives appear, and are often sold as of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. They are probably views of English railways.

142. Boston. Almshouse. J. & W. Ridgway.

This view is upon the cover of an enormous soup-tureen, de-scribed in No. 178. The set medallion border is shown on page 319, and is found on all pieces of this " American Beauties" set. Stamp on back in oblong disk, " Beauties of America. J. & W. Ridgway. Almshouse, Boston."

143. Boston. Common.

Comparatively modern print in black of a view on Boston Common.

144. Boston. Hospital. Stevenson.

Dinner set printed in dark blue with view of the Hospital. Trees in foreground, and a smart chaise with man and woman driving. Border of vine leaves on dark blue. White impressed or fluted edge on some specimens. Mark in blue on back, "Hospital, Boston." Impressed mark, " Stevenson." There is said to be another view of this hospital with a canal in the foreground.

145. Boston. Insane Hospital. J. & W. Ridgway.

Printed in dark blue on various pieces of a dinner service. Small building in centre with high fence in foreground. Same medallion border as shown on page 319. Stamp on back in blue, "Beauties of America. Insane Hospital, Boston.. J. & W . Ridgway."

146. Boston. Octagon Church. J. & W. Ridgway.

A plate printed in dark blue, with view of the church and of other buildings.. In the foreground a curious covered coach or carriage with two horses, one carrying a postilion. The same medallion border as shown on page 319. Stamp on back, " Beauties of America. Octagon Church, Boston. J. & W. Ridgway." This Octagon Church was often known as the New North Church, and was built in 1815. A description of it is given in Drake's " History of Boston,."

147. Boston. State-House.

Print in dark blue, on dinner and toilet services, of a view of the State-House and surrounding buildings, including the John Hancock house. Trees and the Common in foreground, and a group of grazing cattle. Three poplar-trees appear at the right ; also a man with a wheelbarrow. The border is a pretty design of roses and forget-me-nots. The mark on the back is different from any stamp I have seen—simply the American " spatch-cock " eagle in blue. This State-House plate is popularly known as "the one with John Hancock's cows." One is here shown. The " New State-House" was built on a portion of John Hancock's field, where not only his cows, but those of many of his fellowtownsmen, found pasturage. During the memorable visit of D'Estaing and his officers to Hancock, the latter's servants milked all the cows on the Common to obtain milk enough to supply the visitors. This pasturing of cows on the Common in front of the State-House continued until the year 183o, when accidents from bovine assaults upon citizens became so frequent that the cows were exiled from their old feeding-ground. The pitchers printed with this view are very hand-some, often having an extended view of Boston in the vicinity of the State-House encircling the body of the pitcher. I have seen one with the initials R. S. W. on the base, though I have always attributed this view to Rogers.

148. Boston. State-House.

Print in rather light blue of a view of the State-House. Sur-rounding buildings do not show in this design. In the fore-ground is a horse and chaise with driver. No maker's stamp. Border of roses.

149. Boston. State-House. Jackson. View of State-House with group of persons in foreground. Printed in pink. Mark, " Jackson."

150. Boston. St. Paul's Church.

Blue and white plate with view of St. Paul's Church.

151. Boston. Athenaeum. J. & W. Ridgway.

This dark-blue design is on plates of different sizes, and possibly on other pieces of dinner services. It has the set medallion border shown on page 319. Mark on the back, " Boston Athenaeum. Beauties of America. J. & W. Ridgway." In the present Athenaeum building may be seen one of these plates with this note : " This building stood in Pearl St., and one-half was given by Mr. James Perkins, the other half bought of Mr. Cochran in 1822, and the whole occupied by the Athenaeum until 1849."

152. Boston Court-House. J. & W. Ridgway.

This design is on platters, plates, and dishes in dark blue. It has the set medallion border shown on page 319, and in the centre a view of the Court-House. Mark on the back, " Boston Court-House. Beauties of America. J. & W. Ridgway:"

153. Boston. Lawrence Mansion.

Though all the plates, pitchers, and basins which bear this beautiful dark-blue design are unstamped and unmarked, it is well known that it is a view of Mr. Lawrence's handsome house, which stood on Winter Street, Boston. It is a view of a large three-storied double mansion, surmounted by a steeple which at first sight seems a part of the house, but which is intended for the steeple of the Park Street Church in the background. A garden is on one side of the house. It has a clear vine-leaf border.

154. Boston. Warehouse. Adams.

This is a rich plate printed in clear dark blue, with a design showing Boston streets and buildings. A large warehouse stands at the right, on the left a block of buildings, and in the background the wharves and harbor with shipping. The beautiful border is formed on the top and sides by a design of trees with foliage. On the back is the stamp, in blue, " Mitchell & Freemans China and Glass Warehouse Chat-ham St. Boston Mass.; " also the impressed mark, " Adams." No doubt these plates were made at the order of the Boston firm whose name they bear. I have known of but four pieces with this design. A plate may be seen at the rooms of the Bostonian Society, in the old State-House in Boston.

155. Boston. Almshouse.

A view printed in dark blue of the old Almshouse on Leverett Street. The border is the beautiful design of vine-leaves like that on No. 144, and the plates and platters have a white edge. Mark on back, " Almshouse Boston."

156. Boston Mails.

Plate printed in brown or black. The border contains the figures of four steamships with These names severally printed under them—Acadia, Columbia, Caledonia, Britannia. In the centre is a view labelled " Gentlemen's Cabin." Mark on the back, " Boston Mails." These plates were doubtless printed to commemorate the opening of the first line of steam-ships between Liverpool and Boston. I have seen the date of the first trip given as July, 1840, when the Britannia arrived in Boston.

157. Boston. John Hancock's House.

This print is seer. in red, blue, or green on cups and saucers, or on slightly scalloped plates. One of the latter is here shown. This historic house is not now in existence. It was the intention of Governor Hancock to present the handsome and substantial mansion, with its elegant furniture, by bequest, to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, to be preserved as a memorial of great historical events, and to be used, if necessary, by the Governor of the State during his residence in Boston through his term of office. Hancock died without signing this bequest, and his heirs then offered it to the Government for a modest purchase-sum. After many years of indecision, half-acceptance, and final refusal on the part of the State, this fine old house was in 1863 pulled down. In it Washington, Lafayette, and scores of other distinguished men were visitors. There D'Estaing made his home in 1778, and with forty of his officers dined with hospitable welcome every day for many weeks. It was during this visit that the event occurred of which Madame Hancock complained—that D'Estaing went to bed overcome with Hancock's good wine, and tore her best satin bed-spread in pieces with his spurs, which he had been too drunk to remove.

158. Brandywine Creek. View of Gilpin's Mills on Brandywine Creek. Dark blue.. Mark on back of scroll, eagle and E Pluribus Unum.

Brooklyn. View from. See No. 208.

Bunker Hill Monument. See No. 164.

159. Burlington. Richard Jordan's House. J. S. & Co.

View of a commonplace frame house and outbuildings, and an inclosed door-yard, with a broad-brimmed Quaker and a cow in foreground. Mark, " Richard Jordan's House,. J. S. & Co." This house was in Burlington, N. J. The design is printed in pink or black on tea services, and appears to have been a popular one in New Jersey and Pennsylvania.

Cadmus.

See No. 74.

Cambridge. Harvard College. See No. 179 et seq.

Capitol at Washington. See No: 259 et seq.

160. Catskills. Pine Orchard House.

This is a pretty landscape in dark blue, with hotel in the distance, and a man on horseback in the foreground. Mark on back, " Pine Orchard House, Catskills." It is doubtless made by E. Wood & Sons.

161. Catskills.

Print in rich dark blue of a mountain-scene with cliffs, peaks, and pines, and a solitary figure. A confused shell border. Mark on the back, of eagle with E Pluribus Unum, and an oblong stamp with the words, " In the Catskills ; " also a con-fused impressed stamp, probably E. Wood & Sons.

162. Centennial.

Various pieces of ornamental and useful nature were made of a clear white china for the Centennial of 1876. The stamp on the bottom was, " Manufactured solely for J. H. Shaw & Co., New York. Trade Mark, Philadelphia, 1876." Each piece bore the words, "A Memorial of the Centennial, 1876;" also in high colors a medallion with portrait of Washington and two United States flags surmounted by an eagle. These mod-ern pieces deserve mention among the historical china, since a single piece is usually desired by collectors. Views also were made of the different buildings at the Centennial Exhibition of 1876, on porcelain plates, with ugly purple and brown border.

163. Charleston. Exchange. J. & W. Ridgway.

This is one of the few Southern views. Dark-blue print, with medallion border shown on page 319. Stamp on back, "Ex-change, Charleston. J. & W. Ridgway. Beauties or America." This historical building was erected in 1767, at a cost of £60,000 It was used as a " provost" during the occupation of Charleston by the British during the Revolution. Prisoners were confined in the cellars. Colonel Isaac Haynes, an American officer, spent, in 1781, the last few months of his life in confinement within its walls, and from thence he was taken to his execution amid the protests of the entire populace.

His death so enraged the officers of the American army that they joined in a memorial to General Greene, proposing measures of retaliation on captive British soldiers and officers, thus subjecting themselves to a certainty of like death in case they were captured by the enemy. After the Revolution the Exchange was used as a Custom-House and Post-Office, and is now used in the latter capacity. It is still standing. The cupola has been removed.

164. Charlestown, Mass.

A view in black of Bunker Hill Monument at Charlestown, Mass.

Chief-Justice Marshall. Steamboat.

See No. 185.

City Hall. New York.

See No. 211 et seq.

City Hotel. New York.

See No. 218.

Columbus. Landing of.

See No. 186.

Constitution of United States.

See No. 136.

165. Conway. New Hampshire.

A pink or red print. In the centre a view of dwellings, including a log-cabin with sheds ; mountains, highway, pine-trees, and people. Marked on the hack " View near Conway N. Hampshire." A plate bearing this design is usually considered to be worth about a dollar and a half.

Deaf and Dumb Asylum.

See No. 178.

i66. Erie Canal. A. Stevenson.

This print is in dark blue on plates. In the centre of the plate is a view of buildings, among them a church with a high fence. These are said to be intended to represent the Capitol grounds and surroundings at Albany. The border is of oak leaves and acorns, broken by five designs, four being the portraits of Jefferson, Washington, Lafayette, and Governor Clinton, with their respective legends," Jefferson," "President Washington," " Welcome Lafayette The Nations Guest," and " Governor Clinton." The fifth design, at the bottom of the plate, is the picture of an aqueduct with the words, " View of the Aqueduct Bridge at Rochester." Mark, impressed, "A. Stevenson warranted Staffordshire," in circle, with crown in centre. Another mark printed in blue is of an urn, wreath, and the words " Faulkner Ware." This plate is in the possession of A. G. Richmond, Esq., of Canajoharie.

167. Erie Canal. Utica.

The plate bearh. ` this design is usually known as the " Utica Plate." In the centre is printed these words, " Utica, a village in the State of New York, thirty years since a wilderness, now (1824) inferior to none in the western section of the state in population, wealth, commercial enterprise, active industry, and civil improvement." This inscription is inclosed in a laurel wreath. The border of this plate has two views of a canal lock and aqueduct, and two of a canal-boat. The print is also seen on pitchers.

168. Erie Canal.

Same border, with designs of canal-boats and locks as No. 167. In the centre the words, " The Grand Erie Canal, a splendid monument of the enterprise and resources of the State of New York. Indebted for its early commencement and rapid completion to the active energies, pre-eminent talents, and enlightened policy of DeWitt Clinton, Late Governor of the State." I have seen pitchers bearing this design and the design described in No. 167.

169. Erie Canal at Buffalo, N. Y.

This print is in black upon a plate marked " R. S." (Robert Stevenson.)

Erie Canal.

This entry might properly come under the head of either No. 166 or No. 167, since it describes a pitcher which had both of those decorations in blue, and also an American eagle with the words " E Pluribus Unum."

170. Erie Canal.

Black print upon a pitcher. On the right of the handle is a large view of an aqueduct, river, hills, and buildings, and the words, " View of the Aqueduct Bridge at Little Falls." At the left of the handle a building, with the words " Albany Theatre 1824." Below the spout a front view of the head of Washington, and words, " President Washington." This piece is not marked with maker's name.

171. Erie Canal. Clews.

Entrance of the Erie Canal into the Hudson at Albany. Marked "Clews." It is a pretty view of a canal lock with boats, and with high-wooded hill in the background. In foreground, groups of men fishing. This design is seen on dinner and toilet services. The border is of roses. The color is rich and dark.

172. Erie Canal.

Oval platter of Oriental china of greenish tint, decorated in gay colors, with a gold edge, and the monogram D. W. M. C. (DeWitt and Maria Clinton). In the centre a landscape with the Erie Canal. This odd and interesting piece sold at the Governor Lyon sale for $10.

173. Fishkill.

This is one of the sets of Clews Picturesque Views. Marks are described on page 327. Printed in red, green, black, and brown. The name on back, "Nr Fishkill Hudson River." This is a pretty view of an old Dutch house and kitchen on a high bank. In the background, poplar-trees and a manor-house. By the side of the water fishermen are stretching nets.

Fort Gansevoort, New York. See No. 215.

Gilpin's Mills.

See No. 158.

Girard's Bank.

See No. 231.

174. Harper's Ferry. W. Ridgway. Print of landscape view in black or sepia. Mark on back, " Harper's Ferry from the Potomac side. W. Ridgway."

175. Hartford, Conn. State-House.

Print in dark blue of the old State-House, with two stiff poplar-trees on either side.

176. Hartford, Conn. Mount Video. Print in dark blue of Mount Video, now known as Wadsworth Tower.

177. Hartford, Conn. Mount Video. Jackson. Print in black of view similar to No. 176. Mark, " Jackson Ware."

178. Hartford, Conn. Asylum. J. & W. Ridgway.

Print in dark blue on enormous soup tureen and other pieces of a dinner service, of a view of the Deaf and Dumb Asylum at Hartford which was established by Dr. Gallaudet. Same medallion border as shown on page 319. Mark on back, " Deaf and Dumb Asylum, Hartford. J. & W. Ridgway. Beauties of America."

179. Harvard College. R. S. W.

A very finely printed plate in dark blue of the College buildings. Only three halls are shown. The trees in foreground are unusually well drawn. The clear border of oak leaves and acorns is on a stippled background. Mark on back; in scroll with rose branch, " Harvard College," and some specimens also R. S. W. A plate is here shown.

180. Harvard College. E. Wood & Sons. Black print with flower border marked " E. Wood & Sons."

181. Harvard College. E. W. S.

A clear and beautiful print in medium shade of blue on white ground. The edge has a white beading. The border is a most artistic design of flowers and fruit, with a pretty spray of blackberries. In the centre a well-drawn view of four college buildings. A pond is in the foreground, with tree at right and left. By tradition this platter once formed part of the table-furnishing of the College dining-hall. Mark on back, " Harvard College. E. W. S."

182. Hoboken. New Jersey.

A view of the old Stevens mansion, marked on the back" View at Hoboken New Jersey."

183. Hudson, N. Y. Clews.

View of the town of Hudson as it looked in 1823, printed in black, with rose and vine border. On the back or underside of this dish are views of Stockport, a few miles above Hudson. It is said that engravings were sent abroad by Hudson residents, from which these views were copied.

184. Hudson River. Baker's Falls.

Black print of view of Baker's Falls.

Hudson River, near Fishkill.

See No. 173.

Independence of Texas.

See No. 254.

Jordan, House of Richard.

See No. 159.

185. Hudson River. Steamboat. E. Wood & Sons.

This is a view in dark blue of a steamboat on the Hudson River taking passengers from the shore in a small boat attached to a rope which is wound around the steamer's wheel. Accidents became so frequent from this means of transfer that the method was quickly abandoned. There are two of these sets of plates, precisely alike, save that on one on the wheel-house of the boat is the name " Chief Justice Marshal Troy," and on the other the words " Union Line.." On another flag, which is seen on both plates, are the words " Troy Line." They are marked "E. Wood & Sons." I have seen three sizes of plates bearing these designs. One is here shown.

186. Landing of Columbus. Adams.

A plate stamped in pink or black with a pretty design of the landing of Columbus. He stands with his two captains dressed in Spanish costume ; Indians peer out from behind the trees ; the t h r e e Spanish ships lie anchored off the shore. A scroll and flower border inclosing four medallions of quadrupeds. The stamp is "Adams." The name " Columbus " is on an anchor.

Landing of the Fathers.

See No. 240.

Landing of Mayflower.

See No. 240.

187. Lake George.

A beautiful view printed in dark blue on platters and plates, with shell border. Mark on back " Lake George, State of N. Y." This is doubtless by E. Wood & Sons.

188. Lake Champlain. Macdonough's Victory. Wood.

This is a rather confused view of a naval encounter representing the battle of Lake Champlain. It has the clear, beautiful shell border, and the color is invariably rich and dark. It appears on all the pieces of tea and dinner servics, and must have been sent to America in large numbers. On a rock in the foreground are the words " Commodore MacDonough's Victory." ' On the back, the impress mark" Wood." A plate is here shown.

Lawrence Mansion.

See No. 153.

189. Lexington. Transylvania University. E. Wood & Sons.

A plate with a view of Transylvania University in the centre. On either side are rows of stiff poplar-trees, and in the foreground a man and woman walking. The print is in a good shade of dark blue, and has the poor shell border.. It is marked on the back with an eagle, shield, and " E Pluribus Unum," and words " Transylvania University Lexington." Also the impressed mark of E. Wood & Sons. I have rarely seen this plate—one lot of three only, and all three were rather indistinctly and poorly printed ; still they may be plentiful in the South or in the neighborhood of the University.

190. Lexington. Transylvania University.

Transylvania University. A print in black or light blue of a smaller representation of the University and grounds. Apparently quite modern.

Little Falls. Erie Canal.

See No. 170.

191. Louisville. Marine Hospital.

A rich dark-blue plate with shell border. Stamp on back, " Marine Hospital, Louisville, Kentucky." This is doubtless by E. Wood & Sons.

Macdonough Victory.

See No. 188.

Marine Hospital. Louisville.

See No. 191.

192. Maryland. Arms of State. T. Mayer.

A large oval soup-tureen and plates, printed in dark blue. with a handsome and spirited version of the arms of the State of Maryland. The stamp of T. Mayer and the blue mark of an eagle that appear on these pieces are fully described on page 324. The border is a beautiful design of trumpet flowers and roses, while the extreme edge of the plates is ornamented with a conventionalized laurel wreath broken at intervals of about six inches with a star.

Mayflower. Landing of The.

See No. 240.

193. Mendenhall Ferry. Stubbs.

A print in clear dark blue of a landscape with cattle in the fore-ground and a comfortable house, a story and a half high, a Lombardy poplar and an elm-tree, and a narrow river. In the background, on the opposite side of the river, hills with several dwelling-houses: The main point is the ferry—a cable stretching across the river, and by which boats were taken from side to side. The ferry-boat is shown. The border is a scroll, with eagles with half-spread wings and flowers, such as is shown on page 354. Though these pieces have no maker's stamp, the impressed mark on pieces bearing the same border is " Stubbs." The only mark on this piece is the name Mendenhall Ferry in an oval medallion. Mendenhall is an old Pennsylvania name, but I do not know where the ferry was located. Joseph Mendenhall owned a farm of a thousand acres on the Brandywine, below Shadd's Ford, in Chester County, and it is very probable that the ferry was there.

Merchants' Exchange. New York.

See No. 204.

194. Millennium.

A plate printed in blue, plum, green, black, and pink. In the centre a design of a lion led by a child, while lions and lambs lie peacefully at their feet. Above, the words, " Peace on Earth," surmounted by a dove with olive branch. Below, the words, " Give us this day our daily Bread." The border is a design of wheat sheaves and fruit, broken at the top of the plate by an eye and a Bible open at Isaiah. Mark on back, " Millennium." One is shown on page 24.

Mitchell & Freeman's Warehouse. See No. 154.

195. Mount Vernon.

This view of Mount Vernon is in black on a cup and saucer of white china. It is the front view of the house, and in the fore-ground a negro is leading a prancing white horse. At the top is this inscription, " Mount Vernon, Seat of the late Gen'l Washington." Inside the cup is a dotted border. It has no stamp or mark of maker. I have also seen this print upon a cup and saucer of cream-colored Liverpool ware.

196. Mount Vernon. Landscape in dark blue. Marked " Mount Vernon nr Washing-ton. J. & W. Ridgway."

197 Mount Vernon.

Dark-blue plate with Mount Vernon in foreground and city of Washington in background; Mark, " View of Washington from Mt. Vernon." Geographical and topographical laws were naught to English potters.

198. Mount Vernon.

Stamped in pink. In the centre a group of visitors at a monument ; the border a good floral design. On the back of plate the mark, " Virginia."

Mount Video.

See No. 176 et seq.

199. Nahant. No. I. Stubbs.

This plate is ten inches in diameter, of a rich dark-blue color, and is very handsome—as are all the plates with its border, a scroll containing alternate eagle s and roses. In the centre is a view of the Nahant Hotel, with the ocean and rocks in the foreground. On one rock are a dog, and a man firing a gun ; on a second, two women fishing ; on a third, a man and woman walking. On the right of the foreground is an old - fashioned curricle with two horses harnessed tandem. On the back of the plate is an oval blue stamp with the words, " Nahant Hotel near Boston." One of these plates is here shown. This hotel was built of stone in the year 1818, by the Hon. Edward H. Robbins, at a cost of sixty thousand dollars.

It was enlarged by a wooden addition until it contained three hundred rooms. It was burnt on September 12, 1861, and has never been rebuilt. The view on the plate shows only the old stone part of the hotel. It has been suggested that these plates were decorated for and used in the hotel. There is no evidence to prove this, nor is it probable. I have never seen any pieces save plates with this design.

200. Nahant. No. 2. R. S. W.

Same view of the hotel at Nahant, with a large tree in the fore-ground at the left, and no curricle. The border is the oak leaf and acorn design, shown on page 361 ; the stamp on the hack, " Nahant Hotel Boston R. S. W." The plates bearing this design are about an inch less in diameter than the ones described in No. 199.

201. Natural Bridge. Virginia.

A poor and small view of the Natural Bridge, printed in light-blue or pink in the centre of a white plate. Sometimes the plate has a weakly drawn flower border.

202. Newburgh, on the Hudson River. W. R.

This is a black print on a white china plate twelve inches in diameter. On the back an impressed shield and eagle, and an oblong stamp surmounted by an eagle and having a pendent festoon of flowers. The name " View from Ruggles House in Newburgh Hudson River, and the initials W. R., are on the stamp. There is no border. In the centre of the plate is a pretty view of the Hudson River with the familiar mountains in the background. The water is dotted with sloops and little boats, and a large tree is at the left of the foreground..

203. Newburgh, on the Hudson River. Black print on dinner set of a view of Washington's Headquarters at Newburgh. Confused rose border.

204. New York Fire, or Ruins of Merchants' Exchange.

This plate is ten inches in diameter, in a brown or dull-blue print. A view of the ruins of the Merchants' Exchange, with the front still standing, is in the centre of the plate. A safe and books and papers, and a group of persons, are in the fore-ground, also a squad of four soldiers with an officer. Sentries patrol in front of the Exchange ; groups of lookers-on are on either side ; and flames and smoke in the background. The border is divided by eight scrolls bearing alternately the words " Great Fire " and " City of New York." The spaces contain alternate subjects ; one a group of old fire-implements, a fire-engine, fireman's hat and trumpet, and underneath the date, 1833 ; the other space contains a phcenix with flames behind, against a background of old city buildings, and underneath the date, December 16th. On the back of the plate, the same phoenix over the stamp " Ruins Merchants Exchange," and in fine letters the mark " Stone-Ware."

This plate was printed to commemorate the terrible fire which devastated the business portion of New York in 1833, burning over thirteen acres in extent and causing a loss of seventeen million dollars. The fire extended from Coffee House Slip along South Street to Coenties Slip, thence to Broad Street, along William Street to Wall Street, burning down the south side to the East River, with the exception of the buildings from Number 51 to 61. The Merchants' Exchange was one of the last buildings to yield to the flames.

This beautiful marble building had a front of one hundred and fifteen feet on Wall Street, was three stories high above the basement, and was considered at the time the handsomest building in the United States except the New York City Hall. The Post-Office had been established in its basement in 1827. The letters and mails were removed to a place of safety, but the noble marble statue of Alexander Hamilton, which stood in the Rotunda, was crushed by the falling sidewalls. The Seventh Regiment (then called the National Guard) kept guard over the ruins, and the funny fur-capped sentries shown on the plate are doubtless of this regiment. A fine view of the front and rear of the ruins of the Merchants' Exchange is shown in William L. Stone's " History of New York ; " but the old stone-ware plates form an equally faithful, and much more curious and interesting, memorial of the great conflagration.

205. New York. Arms of State. T. Mayer.

The arms of New York with seated figures, instead of standing figures as in the present coat of arms ; also the motto " Excelsior" and name New York. On the back is printed in blue the American eagle, with motto " E Pluribus Unum," also the impressed mark of " T. Mayer, Stone, Staffordshire." Both marks are described on page 324. There were doubtless dinner-services with the arms of all the existing States of the Union, but I have seen only the plates and platters with arms of New York, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina, and the soup-tureen with the arms of the State of Mary-land.

206. New York. Arms of State.

I have seen in many collections, the Trumbull-Prime Collection being one of the number, pieces of Lowestoft china bearing a poor and crude rendering of the Arms of State of New York. These must have been decorated in China in large numbers, to be so wide-spread and numerous.

207. New York Bay. Clews.

This view of the Bay is taken from Castle Garden. In the centre is the fort on Governor's Island. A side-wheel steamer and frigate are among the shipping. The stamp on back is" View of New York Bay."

208. New York. Stevenson.

A dark-blue print of a view of New York from Brooklyn Heights. In the foreground is a pretty old Dutch homestead view, low sheds, a well, and a man on horseback. On the river is some shipping and a small steamboat. In the background the lower portion of New York, showing Trinity Church spire. The border is a rose pattern. On the back is the mark " View of New York from Brooklyn Heights by (or for),Wm. C. Wall Esq." Also the impressed mark of " Stevenson Warranted." A plate with this print is in the rooms of the Long Island Historical Society, in Brooklyn.

209. New York. Jackson.

A view of Castle Garden, with a tree to the right, printed in brown. Marked " Jackson's Ware."

210. New York. Scudder's Museum. Richard Steven-son (?).

A dark-blue plate with a design in the centre of the plate of a house with the sign "American Museum," and a garden in front. The border is a pretty design of oak leaves. On the back, in a scroll, the mark " Scudder's American Museum R. S." This museum stood in a garden on the corner of Broadway, where now is the great New York Herald building. It was a famous place of amusement in its day, and afterward passed into the possession of P. T. Barnum ; there he laid the foundation of his fame and fortune.

211. New York. City Hall. Jackson.

This is a black or brown print with a flower border. In the centre is the City Hall with flag flying from the staff on the roof ; in the foreground a horse and wagon, men and boys. Stamped on the back " City Hall New York ; " and " Jackson War-ranted."

212. New York. City Hall. J. & W. Ridgway.

A plate printed in dark blue with a view of the New York City Hall. In the foreground are large trees and a wondrously attired man, woman, and child standing facing the building, to which the man points with his cane. The border is the ugly set medallion border of flowers shown on page 319. Mark in blue on the back, " City Hall New York. Beauties of America. J. & W. Ridgway." The corner-stone of this building was laid in 1803, and the edifice was completed in 1812. It stood with the bridewell on the west, the almshouse behind it, and the jail on the other side. It cost half a million dollars—a most reasonable expenditure when compared with the twelve million dollars for its neighbor the Court-House—and was at that time the handsomest structure in the United States. The " three fronts," as they were called, are of Stockbridge marble. It is still standing, a good example of pure design and style. A very simple way of dating the various City-Hall prints is found in the presence in the design of the clock in the cupola ; this was placed in its position in 1830. Some prints show the dial very distinctly.

213. New York. City Hall. Stubbs.

Same view of City Hall as No. 212, but the park in the foreground is intersected with paths and the trees are different. The border is of scrolls; roses, and eagles, shown on page 354. Color, dark blue. Mark on back, " City Hall New York." This view is taken, I think, from a drawing by W. G. Wall, which was published December 20, 1826.

214. New York. City Hall.

Same view of City Hall as No. 213, with no trees in the foreground. Oak-leaf border with outer edge of white. Color dark blue. Probably by Stevenson. A pitcher bearing this view is here shown.

215. New York. Fort Gansevoort.

Printed in dark blue on various pieces of a dinner-service. A view of the fort with water and sloop in foreground. A con-fused leaf border. The pieces I have seen bore no maker's mark.

216. New York. Almshouse. J. & RidW gway.

A view printed in dark blue of the ugly Almshouse on Black-well's Island. One of the Beauties of America set, with same marks and border as shown on page 319.

217. New York. Battery. A view of the Battery in common black print.

218. New York. City Hotel. R. S. W.

A plate printed in dark blue, with a view looking down Broad-way, and including Trinity Church. In the foreground, in the middle of Broadway, in front of a, hotel, a man is sawing wood on an old-fashioned saw-buck. The clear oak-leaf and acorn border, and scroll mark on back, with R. S. W., as in No. 219.

219. New York. Park Theatre. R. S. W.

A view of the Park Theatre, including the lower end of City Hall Park with its ancient brick posts, where now stands the Post-office. In the distance the spire of the Old Brick Church, where Dr. Spring preached. A clear oak-leaf and acorn border, and scroll and leaf mark, with initials R. S. W. A plate is here shown. The first Park Theatre was built in 1797. It stood in Park Row, about two hundred feet from Ann Street. It was opened on January 29, 1798, the first play being "As You Like It; " $1,232 were taken in at the first performance. In May, 1820, it was burned to the ground. In 1821 it was rebuilt, and opened with " Wives as they Were and Maids as they Are." It was burnt on December 16, 1848. An original water-color drawing of the interior is in the rooms of the New York Historical Society, with a key to the members of the audience, for the figures are portraits. Many of the men are sitting with their hats on. In this theatre appeared Thomas A. Cooper, Charles Mathews, the Keans, Charles and Fanny Kemble, Malibran, Celeste, Fanny Ellsler, Madame Vestris, Clara Fisher, Julia Wheatley, Master Burke, the Ravels, Mr. and Mrs. Wood, Charlotte Watson, Charlotte Cushman, Ellen Tree, Taglioni—what prettier memento of the old New York stage can there be than the old Park Theatre plate?

220. Niagara.

A view of Niagara Falls in a pink print on small plate.

221. Niagara.

Print in medium shade of blue. A large house and trees in foreground and diminutive semi-circular waterfall in back-ground. On back the stamp " Niagara."

222. Niagara. Table Rock.

This beautiful dark-blue plate has the rich shell border of Wood, though it does not bear his impressed mark, and has only the stamp with eagle and motto " E Pluribus Unum " and words " Table Rock Niagara." The view is taken from the foot of Table Rock looking upward, and is very artistic. Entire dinner services bearing this design were exported to America.

Park Theatre. New York.

See No. 219.

Passaic Falls. Trenton.

See No. 256.

223. Peace and Plenty. Clews.

A medium-blue plate decorated with border of fruit and flowers. In centre, a Roman husbandman crowned with grain and surrounded by sheaves of wheat ; in his right hand a sickle, and in his left a basket of fruit ; by his side a shield with the American eagle and the motto " Peace and Plenty." Made by Clews. Two plates bearing this design sold at the Governor Lyon sale for three dollars each.

Penn, Wm. Treaty with Indians.

See No. 267.

224. Pennsylvania. Arms of. T. Mayer.

A very spirited and beautiful rendering of the arms of this State, printed in dark .blue on platters and plates, with border and marks like No. 190. Marks fully described on page.

225. Pennsylvania Hospital. J. & W. Ridgway. In dark blue, marked " J. & W. Ridgway. Beauties of America." Border shown on page 319.

226. Philadelphia. View.

This print is in dark blue upon a plate six inches in diameter. The border is a confused scroll with roses. The spires of two churches are seen, and in the foreground is a wharf with a derrick, and a sloop alongside. Some of the plates have upon the back the stamp " View of the city of Philadelphia." Also the impressed stamp of a star like the Worcester mark.

227. Philadelphia. Fairmount Park. Stubbs.

A view of Fairmount, with a large tree in the foreground, and a man and woman in the dress of the early part of the century. On the opposite and further shore of the lake are two of the handsome dwelling-houses which stood there at that time. The border is the handsome design of scroll, roses, and eagles. The medallion stamp on hack " Fairmount near Philadelphia." Impressed mark, Stubbs. A plate with this design is here shown.

228. Philadelphia. Upper Bridge. Stubbs.

This is one of the four Fairmount Park views. It bears on the back the impress and the oval blue stamp " Upper Bridge over River Schuylkill." The border is the same as shown on page 364. On the left of the foreground of the view is a large tree, and under it is a group of persons, one of whom is sketching. At the left is an old covered Pennsylvania wagon with six horses. The view of the ferry bridge is clear and good, and the color is a good blue, though not rich and dark. Impressed stamp on some specimens, Stubbs.

229. Philadelphia. Library. J. & W. Ridgway.

Plate printed in dark blue with set medallion border. In the centre a view of the Library at Philadelphia. Mark on the back, " Philadelphia Library. Beauties of America. J. & W. Ridgwa, " One of these plates is shown on page 319..

230. Philadelphia. Stoughton Church. J. & W. Ridgway.

Plate printed in dark blue with set medallion border shown on page 319. In the centre a view of the old church which stood on Filbert Street above Eighth. The church looks like an old Grecian building. Mark on the back, " Stoughton Church. J. & W. Ridgway, Beauties of America."

231. Philadelphia. Girard's Bank. Jackson.

A view, printed in pink or black, of Girard's Bank. Mark on back, " Jackson Warranted."

232. Philadelphia. United States Hotel.

A view of the hotel in rich dark blue, with a border composed chiefly of the foliage of two trees standing at the right and left and meeting overhead.

233. Philadelphia. Woodlands. Stubbs.

View of a low building like a lodge and landscape in dark blue. Scroll, eagle, and rose border shown on page 364. Stamp on back, " Woodlands near Philadelphia."

234. Philadelphia. Washington Church.

235. Philadelphia. Race Street Bridge. Jackson.

Print in black, brown, or pink, marked on back with name of view and "Jacksons Warranted."

236. Philadelphia. Race Street Bridge. Stubbs.

Eagle, rose, and scroll border like No. 225. Impressed mark, " Stubbs."

237. Philadelphia. Waterworks. . R. S. W.

Low building with dome in centre of the plate, fountain at right, and trees, fence, and an old time covered emigrant wagon in foreground. Distinct oak leaf and acorn border, like No. 180. Clear dark blue in color. Mark on back in scroll with leaves, " Philadelphia Waterworks. R. S. W."

238. Philadelphia. Waterworks. Jackson.

Same view as No. 237, but smaller, and printed in black. Mark on back, " Jacksons Warranted."

239. Philadelphia. Bank of the United States. Stubbs.

A plate in dark blue with street and buildings in the centre. Eagle, rose, and scroll border shown on page 364. This is the bank which was in 1833 forced into bankruptcy by President Andrew Jackson.

240. Pilgrims. Enoch Wood & Sons.

This Plymouth Rock decoration is found on plates and pitchers, and the pieces are perhaps more highly prized than any other historical Staffordshire wares, especially by all descendants from and lovers of the Pilgrims. The print is clear and good, though the blue color is not very dark.

In the centre of the plate is a print representing a "rock-bound coast" with the Mayflower and a small boat overfilled with Pilgrim Fathers landing on Plymouth Rock, upon which are inscribed the names Carver, Bradford, Winslow, Brewster, Standish. Two lhdians are also perched on the rock. Above this print is the small-lettered inscription " The Landing of the Fathers at Plymouth, Dec. 22, 1620." The border consists of a hand-some design of eagles and scrolls, broken by four medal-lions or shields. The upper one contains the words "America Independent, July 4, 1776 ; " the lower the words, " Washington born 1732, died 1799 ; " on the right a little view of two full-rigged ships with names Enterprise and Boxer (?) ; on the left a part of the print on No. 128—a steamer, rock, and eagle. On the back is the blue stamp " Enoch Wood & Sons Burslem." One of these plates is here shown. In spite of the presence of the steamship, the name of Washington, and the date 1799, I have been gravely in-formed by country owners that these plates were two hundred years old, and once even that they " came over in the May-flower." We have often been told that the plates were " made for the dinner at the laying of the corner-stone of Bunker Hill Monument, in 1824, when Daniel Webster spoke." This ac-count was obviously improbable, since nothing in the de-sign on the plate bore reference to that occasion, and the probability seemed equally clear that the celebration was in-stead the bi-centennial celebration of the Landing of the Pilgrims, which was held in Plymouth in 182o, and at which Webster, clad in silk gown and satin small-clothes, made the address which laid the foundation of his reputation as an orator. I was glad to receive confirmation of my belief from Mr. T: B. Drew, Librarian of Plymouth Hall, at Plymouth. He says, " The Pilgrim plates you refer to were made in England by order of John Blaney Bates, a well-known contractor and builder of his day, who in 1820 was building the Plymouth County Court House. He had it so nearly completed that the dinner of the celebration was provided in that building. It was, as you say, the bicentennial of the Landing of the Pilgrims, but often termed by us the Webster celebration, on account of Daniel Webster being the orator of the day. There were two sizes of pitchers and two of plates, and one of the plates has on the rock the names as you describe. After the dinner the wares were sold either at auction or private sale, and the different pieces became distributed quite widely through New England. I know of no publication that gives any account of what I have been telling you, but the facts were well known and have been told by aged people who re-member the circumstances." To this information I can add in one respect. There are six sizes of plates, one being deep like a soup-plate. An old lady still living in Plymouth, asserts that while the plates were furnished by Mr. Bates, her husband, seeing their popularity and ready sale, ordered the pitchers, as she remembers, from Holland. As the print on the pitchers varies from that on the plates, being encircled. also by a narrow ribbon scroll with the words " The Landing of the Fathers," and as the former do not bear the stamp of Enoch Wood of Burslem, this reminiscence is probably correct, except possibly the point that the pitchers came from Holland. These plates are usually found one in a family, but from one household, near Worcester, Mass., were purchased by a china-hunter eight tea-plates, and from another family two soup-plates, four tea-plates, seven saucers, and ten " cup-plates." By cup-plates I mean the little flat saucers in which our grandmothers set their tea-cups when they poured the tea in the deep saucers to cool.

Pine Orchard House.

See No. 16o.

241. Pittsburg Penitentiary.

This is upon large and small platters and plates in purplish-pink, blue, brown, and black prints. The ware is stone-ware of good quality. The border is a pretty scroll-work design with roses and other flowers and eagles. The edges are slightly scalloped. This Pittsburg plate has a clear unperspectived drawing of the Penitentiary, with high hills at the background. Stiff little houses and trees are scattered around. In the foreground a man in knee-breeches is holding a horse which is harnessed to a chaise. The building in this print is the Western Penitentiary of Pennsylvania, at Alleghany City. It is an enormous stone building of ancient Norman style of architecture, that was built in 1827.

242. Pittsburg.

Print in pale blue, brown, or black of a view of Pittsburg, with the Iron Mountain in the background and two large steamers, named respectively " Home" and " Pennsylvania " in the foreground. Mark on the back, "Picturesque Views, Pittsburg."

243 Pittsfield. Clews.

A winter view of the town common at Pittsfield, Mass., with the church and other public buildings. In the foreground an elliptical enclosure with a skeleton elm-tree, intended to rep-resent the famous great Pittsfield Elm. The author of " The China-Hunters' Club " quotes from a newspaper of 1864, that the trunk of this tree was made into bowls and other relics, and that " about 1825 Mr. Allen, a merchant of Pittsfield, had a view of the elm and park, as they then appeared, taken and sent to England, where it was reproduced on blue crockery ware." As the fence which appears in the view on the plate was not placed around the elm until 1825, this date is probably correct. Before that the tree had been entirely unprotected ; it was sadly nibbled by the farm horses that were frequently hitched to the iron staples that were driven into its trunk. When the elm fell in 1861, a great number of these staples were found imbedded in the wood. The design of the church appears in four medallions in the border of the plate. It is marked " Clews" and the name " Winter View of Pittsfield Mass." I have also seen this same view with a vine-leaf border.

Plymouth Landing.

See No. 240.

244. Quebec.

Dark-blue print of view of the heights at Quebec. Mark on back in blue scroll " Quebec,' also the impressed stamp of a Greek cross.

245. Quebec. Falls of Montmorency.

Dark-blue view of the Falls, with a shell border. Stamp on the back " Falls of Montmorenci near Quebec." This and the previous number are the only views of Canadian scenery that I have ever seen on old Staffordshire plates. Persons who have gathered china in Canada tell me that they have found no other views there.

246. Rhode Island. Arms of State. T. Mayer. Dark-blue print marked "T. Mayer Stone Staffordshire." Same border as No. 192. Marks fully described on page 324.

247. Richmond, Va. College.

View of college printed in light blue.

248. Savannah. Bank. J. & W. Ridgway.

View of the Bank at Savannah. It has the same set medallion border shown on page 319. Mark on back Bank, Savannah, Beauties of America. J. & W. Ridgway."

Scudder's Museum. New York.

See No. 210.

249. South Carolina.

A plate with a palmetto-tree in the centre, and a ship in the distance, on either side a flag. A shield with the date July 4th and the motto of the State of South Carolina. Flower border like plates of E. Wood & Sons.

250. South Carolina. Arms of State. T. Mayer.

Dark-blue plate. Marked " Stone Staffordshire T. Mayer." Same marks and border as No. 192, and a very clear rendering of the State arms.

251. States. Clews.

This design is the larger plate shown on page 9. It is found on all the pieces of a dinner service, but I have never seen a tea set. The dinner plates are exceptionally large. The print is in a rich shade of dark blue. In the centre is a medallion of what is said to be the White House, at Washington, with sheep or cattle grazing in foreground. It is supported on one side by a kneeling figure with plumed helmet and bearing a liberty cap—labelled Independence. On the other side the figure of a woman kneeling on her ankles with the bandage of justice on her eyes, and Masonic emblem on her apron. She holds a portrait medallion labelled Washington. On the pedestal at her ankles, the word " America." The border is of flowers and a scroll with names of fifteen States, and with fifteen stars. On some pieces these stars are simply crosses. Impressed stamp " Clews Warranted Staffordshire." On the larger pieces, such as tureens, the centre view is often of an English castle—the White House view not being large enough, apparently, to fill the space. Some of the platters have in the centre a view of a two-story house, while in the foreground are two men and a sheet of water with a sloop. This is some-times called the Washington Masonic Plate.

252. Steamship.

A dark-blue print of a side-wheel steamship, bark rigged, under full sail, and flying the American flag. Impressed mark of " E. Woods & Sons." This may commemorate the Savannah, the. first steamer to cross the Atlantic, in 1819.

Stevens Mansion.

See No. 182.

Stoughton Church.

See No. 228.

Table Rock. Niagara.

See No. 222.

253. Temperance Plate.

This curious and finely printed plate is very rare. It is made of a soft yellowish paste, and the decoration is printed in black. The edges are slightly scalloped and have a little line of black. In the centre of the plate is a shield supported by the figures of a man and woman ; the man bearing a banner inscribed with the word " Sobriety," and the woman a similar banner with the words " Domestic Comfort." By the side of the man is a small figure of a boy seated reading ; on the opposite side that of a girl sewing. The shield is surmounted by a crest—an oak-tree—and above that a scroll containing the motto " Firm as an Oak." Below the shield are clouds and two shelves of vases and jars of antique shapes ; and beneath all a scroll with the motto " Temperance, Sobriety." The shield is divided by perpendicular lines and transverse bars. In the spaces thus formed are designs. That of a beehive has on the bar beneath it the word " Industry ; " that of a farmer working in a field, the word " Health that of a sailor, the word "Freedom ; " that of a pile of money, the word " Wealth ; " that of a cornucopia, the word " Plenty ; " that' of a snake, the word " Wisdom ; " in the lower space are an open Bible and the letters I.H.S. There is no stamp or mark on the back. It is probably a Masonic design, but is called the " Temperance Plate."

254: Texas. J. B.

English stone ware with blue or pink prints. Trophies of war in the corners, and on the sides symbolical figures of Peace and Plenty. In the centre, a fight between Texans and Mexicans, marked " Gen. Taylor in Texas." It was doubt-less printed to commemorate the Independence of Texas. Marked on the back with initials J. B. A large platter bearing this design sold in the Governor Lyon sale, in 1876, for $7.50.

255. Texan Campaign.

Plates with a small, poor print in sepia green, red, or black, of a scene with troop of soldiers with mounted commander. Border, a scroll with trophies of arms and flags. Stamp on the back " Texan Campaign."

Transylvania University. See No. 189 et seq.

256. Trenton Falls.

This plate is eight inches in diameter, of a rich dark blue. The handsome shell border indicates it to be one of Clews manufacture (as Mr. Prime asserts) ; the impressed stamp on the back cannot be deciphered. The view in the centre of the plate is a pretty group of pine-trees with the Passaic Falls in the middle. On the back is a blue stamp of an eagle with the scroll and the words " E Pluribus Unum," and the name " View of Trenton Falls."

257. Troy. Clews. A view of Troy, N. Y., from Mount Ida, marked Clews.

Union Line. Steamboat. See No. 184.

United States Bank. See No. 239.

United States Hotel. See No. 232.

Utica.

See No. 167.

Virginia. Natural Bridge.

See No. 201.

Virginia.

See No. 198.

258. Virginia. J. W. Ridgway.

Print in black or brown with floral border. In centre a land-

scape view. Mark on back " Virginia. J. W'. Ridgway."

The house bears a close resemblance to Arlington House. Wadsworth Tower.

See No. 176.

Washington's Headquarters. See No. 203.

Washington, D. C. View of.

See No. 197

259. Washington, D. C. Capitol. J. & W. Ridgway.

A view of the Capitol in dark blue with man and woman on horseback in the foreground. Medallion border shown on page 319. Marked " J. & W. Ridgway. Beauties of America. Capitol Washington." This appears usually on large platters..

260. Washington, D. C. Capitol. R. S. & W.

A very beautiful dark-blue plate with slightly scalloped edge, with view of the Capitol, large tree in foreground. A vine leaf border. Mark on back in shield " Capitol Washington. R. S. &. W." One is shown here.

261. Washington, D. C. Capitol. Stevenson.

Dark-blue print of same view. Vine-leaf border and white fluted edge. Impressed mark, Stevenson.

262. Washington, D. C. Capitol. E. Wood & Sons.

Dark-blue plate with view of the Capitol. Confused shell border. Mark " E. Wood Warranted Staffordshire."

Staffordshire Wares 375

263. Washington, D. C. White House. Jackson.

This is a view of the Executive Mansion at Washington, with garden to the left and a group of figures to the right. It is printed in black and marked " Jackson."

264. Washington, D. C. White House.

Another view printed in black of the White House. Scalloped edges and wide ornate border. Marked on the back "White House Washington."

265. Washington, D. C. White House. Jackson.

Pink and white printed plate marked on the back "Presidents House Washington," and mark " Jacksons Warranted." Same border as No.

White House. Washington. States.

See No. 251.

266. West Point. Clews.

View of West Point, with river and steam-boat and row-boat. Mark on back "Picturesque Views. West Point Hudson River" also impressed mark " Warranted Clews Staffordshire."

267. William Penn. Treaty with Indians. Jackson.

Print in black or brown on dinner service of a view with William Penn, in Quaker garb, talking with an Indian chief. At their feet a box of treasure, including a string of beads which an Indian woman is examining. Border a stencil design.

Woodlands. See No. 233.

( Originally Published Early 1900's )



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