Patriotic And Political Designs
THE heroes and the naval battles of the War of 1812 furnished manifold subjects for the designs printed on a vast number of mugs and pitchers. They were made and printed at the Liverpool and Stafford-shire pot-works to supply the American trade, and were imported in great numbers to this country. English potters appeared to have none of that form of patriotic pride and independence that would prevent them from celebrating and perpetuating the virtues and victories of their late enemies, or hinder them from printing inscriptions and verses insulting to their native land and their fellow-countrymen; they were plainly and unsentimentally mercenary. These portraits, mottoes, and battle-scenes appear in various combinations of subjects, sometimes in juxtaposition with Washington designs. Occasionally a mammoth pitcher is found—a dozen pitchers rolled into one—decorated with a dozen different but generic prints. Such is the great heroic vessel known as the " Historical Pitcher of the War of 1812." It was made by Enoch Wood & Sons of Burslem, Staffordshire, England, about 1824, by the order of Horace Jones, Esq., of Troy, N. Y. It is now owned by his grandson, Horace Jones Richards, Esq., of the same city. It stands twenty inches in height, and measures twenty inches from the end of the spout to the extreme point of the handle. The body is eighteen inches in diameter—a foot and a half, and it holds eleven and a half gallons. It has an embossed border around the top, and is decorated with a coarse design in copper-lustre and green. On the front of the pitcher is the name of the purchaser, Horace Jones, and around the body are various prints that are often seen singly on other and smaller pitchers. In front, about five inches above the base of the pitcher, is a small projection or knob. This served as a second handle by which to carry the pitcher (for it is a great weight when filled-if it ever is filled), and it formed also a support to rest on the edge of a smaller vessel when pouring from the pitcher. On either side of this small handle are portraits of Washington and Adams. There are on one side of the great pitcher-body portraits of Captain Jones, of the Macedonian, Major-General Brown, of the Niagara campaign, Commodore Bain-bridge, of the Constitution. Below these portraits a circle of prints representing the Constitution escaping from the British fleet ; Commodore Macdonough's victory on Lake Champlain, and a Iarge American eagle with the motto, E Pluribus Unum." On the other side of the pitcher are the portraits of Commodore Decatur, Commodore Perry, and Captain Hull, of the Constitution ; below are the engagements between the Chesapeake and Shannon off Boston Harbor, June ,1, 1813, and Commodore Perry's victory on Lake Erie. Below the large handle on the right are two views of the manufactory and the names of the makers, and on the left a naval monument with flags and motto, " We have met the enemy and. they are ours."
The pitcher arrived in Troy a short time before Lafayette made his visit to that city in 1824, and was first publicly used at the reception given to him September 18, 1824. Since then it has been used on many notable occasions. A bill was introduced to the State Legislature in Albany, in the spring of 1891, for the purchase of this pitcher and its preservation in the State Library. The purchase sum required was three hundred and fifty dollars. The bill did not pass. It is a pity it cannot be in the possession of the National Museum at Washington, since the State of New York did not care to preserve it as a relic.
There are some designs of the American eagle and flag, and a few relating to men of Revolutionary times, which may be assigned, though without any positiveness, to the period between the War of the Revolution and the 'War of 1812. With these prints I resume the list of American subjects.
85. John Adams. Portrait.
A pitcher, eight inches in height, printed in black, with a very good, though coarse, portrait of Adams, and the inscription, " John Adams, President of the United States." Underneath is a design of two fat cherubs tying up a parcel and bundles—possibly an idealization of emigration. The print is signed " F. Morris, Shelton, Staffordshire." Strange to say, this pitcher was purchased in Chester, England.
86. Proscribed Patriots. Liverpool.
A design printed in black on pitchers, and here shown. On the side a medallion with a willow-tree and monument. On the monument the inscription, " G. W. Sacred to the memory of G. Washing-ton, who emancipated America from slavery and founded a republic upon such just and equitable principles that it will ' (remain-der illegible). Around this medallion the legend, " The Memory of Washington and the Proscribed Patriots of America. Liberty, Virtue, Peace, Justice, and Equity to all Mankind." Under this, "Columbia's Sons inspired by Freedom's Flame Live in the Annals of Immortal Fame." Under the monument are portraits of Samuel Adams and John Hancock, and the letters S. A. and J. H.; and under these a beehive and cornucopia. On the front of the pitcher is the American eagle and shield, with inscription, " Peace, Commerce, and Honest Friendship with all Nations, Entangling Alliances with none. Jefferson. Anno Domini 18o4." Under the handle, " Fame," in clouds.
87. William Franklin. Medallion. Wedgwood.
Two blue and white jasper medallions of the son of Benjamin Franklin. These medallions appear in Wedgwood's "List of Illustrious Moderns." William Temple Franklin was the last Royalist governor of New Jersey, but his claim to fame rests only on his being the son of his father. Two of these medal-lions are in the Huntington Collection.
Samuel Adams. Portrait. Liverpool. On Proscribed Patriots Pitcher. See No. 86.
88. Jefferson. Name in Inscription. On a pitcher bearing a portrait of the American eagle, with motto, " E Pluribus Unum," are these stanzas :
" Sound, Sound the trump of Fame,
Ring through the world with loud applause
" Let every clime to freedom dear
" The Constitution for his guide,
Jefferson. Quotation. Liverpool. See No. 127.
Jefferson. At Tomb. Staffordshire. See No. 33.
Jefferson. Portrait. Staffordshire. See No. 166.
89. John Hancock. Portrait. Liverpool. A black print on a mug. On a ribbon scroll the inscription, " The Honorable John Hancock."
On Proscribed Patriots Pitcher. See No. 86.
John Hancock. House.
See No. 157.
90. Montgomery. Battle-Scene. Liverpool.
Black print on a pitcher of a battle scene entitled " The Death of Montgomery." One may be seen in the Trumbull-Prime Collection.
91. Warren. Battle-Scene. Liverpool.
Black print on a Liverpool pitcher of a battle-scene, with name " The Death of Warren." One may be seen in the Trumbull-Prime Collection.
92. American Eagle. Sailor Pitcher. Liverpool.
A Liverpool pitcher with an American spread eagle over the words " Herculaneum Pottery, Liverpool." On one side waves and a full-rigged ship bearing American flag ; some-times printed in black, and often coarsely colored by hand.. This print is often seen on sailor pitchers with other prints of different designs. On the other side, a sailor's ballad surrounded by wreath of flowers, with engraver's signature, "Job Johnson, Liverpool."
93. American Eagle. Masonic Pitcher. Liverpool.
A Liverpool pitcher with American eagle and shield On the other side, Masonic emblems. There were a vast number of these Masonic designs, one is shown on page 147, and as they were not specially American, though doubtless made largely for Americans, it is useless to specify them.
94. Ship Alligator.
A pitcher with view of the ship Alligator on one side. On the reverse a spread eagle, with a scroll border in gilt containing the names of fifteen States.
95. Mug. Union to the People.
A mug of Liverpool ware printed with a group of three men clasping hands. They are supposed to be Hamilton, Madison, and Jay, but may be any other American statesmen. Above the group, a liberty cap with the words " Union to the People." Below are branches with leaves and the legend, " Civil and Religious Liberty to all Mankind."
96. Salem Ship-building. Liverpool.
Two prints representing scenes of timber-rolling and ship-building, intended to commemorate the era of great prosperity in Salem ship-yards. They are accompanied with these verses :
" Our mountains are covered with Imperial Oak
Whose Roots like our Liberties Ages have Nourish'd ; But long e'er our Nation submits to the Yoke
Not a Tree shall be left on the Field where it flourish'd.
" Should invasion impend, Every Tree would Descend From the Hilltops they shaded Our Shores to defend ; For ne'er shall the Sons of Columbia be slaves
While the Earth bears a Plant, or the Sea rolls its waves."
The finest specimen of Liverpool ware hearing these prints and verses is a great punch-bowl, eighteen inches in diameter, in the rooms of the East India Marine Society in Salem. It also bears on the inside of the bowl, in large letters, the name of the Society and other inscriptions, and the date 1800. Pitchers also are found with these prints, and also with the spread eagle with the mark " Herculaneum Pottery, Liverpool." One may be seen in the rooms of the Bostonian Society in the old State House, Boston. These prints are perhaps the most pretentious of any made for commercial interests in this country, and are usually very clear and good.
97. Plan of City of Washington. Liverpool.
A Liverpool pitcher with black print of a map between two female figures. Inscription, " Plan of the City of Washington." On reverse is Washington design No. 13.
98. Emblem of America. Liverpool.
A Liverpool pitcher with a coarse black print of a female figure holding the American flag, and facing two clumsily-drawn, stumpy Indians. In the background a group of oval portraits labelled Raleigh, Columbus, Franklin, Washington, etc. The legend " An Emblem of America." On the reverse a Washington design.
99. Crooked Town of Boston. Liverpool.
A Liverpool pitcher printed in black, red, or green, with in-' scription, " Success to the Crooked but Interesting Town of Boston." On the other side a long ballad, varying on different pitchers.
100. Liberty. Liverpool.
A Liverpool pitcher with black print. Design, a seated figure of Liberty with the legend, "May Columbia Flourish."
101. Infant Navy. Naval Pitcher.
This design is found on Liverpool pitchers of at least four sizes. Under the nose of the pitcher is in large letters the inscription, " Success to the Infant Navy of the United States." On the side of the pitcher sometimes was seen a black transfer print of a full-rigged ship, sometimes the American flag and eagle, sometimes a large print of a naval battle with this printed motto, " L'Insurgente French Frigate of 44 guns and 411 Men striking her Colours to the American Frigate Constitution, Commodore Truxton, of 40 guns, after an action of an hour and a half in which the former had 75 Men killed & wounded & the latter one killed & three wounded, Feb. 20th, 1799." A very good pitcher with the latter design may be seen at Washington's Headquarters, at Morristown. See also No. 18., and pages 141 et seq.
102. American Flag.
This print is found on pitchers and mugs, sometimes colored over the print. It is found on pieces with various other Washington and Sailor prints.
103. For America. Liverpool.
A Liverpool pitcher with the Farmers Arms, described on pages 153 et seq. Legend, " For America."
104. Peace and Prosperity to America. No. 1.
Liverpool pitcher printed in red, with scrolls of pink lustre. The design is a shield supported by two female figures ; the word " New York" on the top of the shield in large letters, and the names of twelve other States, including Boston, on a ribbon scroll. Legend, " Peace, Plenty and Independence." On the other side a shield supported by an eagle and an Indian. Legend, " Success to the United States of America, E Pluribus Unum." In .front of pitcher the motto, " Peace and Prosperity to America."
105. Peace and Prosperity to America. No. 2.
A Liverpool pitcher with a wreath of ribbons and stars bearing names of eleven States, two of them being "Boston" and "Tenassee." In centre of wreath the words, " Peace, Plenty, and Independence." This wreath forms a medallion or shield supported by two female figures, each with a cornucopia. Above the medallion an eagle and flag. On the front of the pitcher, the motto, " Peace and Prosperity to America." This much resembles No. 104.
106. United States, Soldier.
Liverpool pitchers and bowls with black or red print of United States soldier standing with his foot on the head of a British Lion. Legend, " By Virtue and Valor we have freed our Country, extended our Commerce, and laid the foundation of a Great Empire." In the background stand four Continental soldiers.
107. Liberty. Naval Pitcher.
A black print of ribbon scroll with names of sixteen States, en-closing verses beginning, " Oh Liberty ! thou goddess Heavenly bright, Profuse of bliss, And pregnant with delight."
On the reverse, a print of a ship with American flag.
108. People of America.
A Liverpool pitcher with a print of three men holding hands and elevating a liberty cap on a pole. Underneath, " People of America" on a scroll, and the words, " Civil and Religious Liberty to All Mankind." On the reverse, Liberty seated, and a soldier standing with a harp between the two figures. Beneath, the words " Tun'd to Freedom for our Country."
109. Historical Pitcher of War of 1812.
Described on page 299 et seg.
110. American Heroes.
Pitcher printed in copper lustre. On one side a full-rigged ship surrounded by a chain of elliptical links containing the names, Hull, Jones, Lawrence, Macdonough, Porter, Blakey, Beatry, Stuart, Washington, Perry, Rogers, Bainbridge, Decatur. Above are two clasped hands holding the chain. On the other side is .the American eagle with " E Plurihus Unum," and a similar enclosing chain with clasped hands and the names Brown, McComb, Ripley, Pike, Porter, Miller, Bain-bridge, Izard, Van Rensallaer, Adair, Lewis, Gaines, Scott, Jardson. This pitcher is globose in shape, and of fine quality of ware.
111. Naval Pitcher. Liverpool.
This print of two men-of-war in a close engagement, appears with various names. A pitcher is here shown with the words Macedonian and the United States.
112. Perry. Portrait.
A white pottery plate with a black print of the portrait of Commodore Perry, surrounded by a design of flags, cannon, and a frigate; above the name " Perry." The edge is scalloped, with a black border. Impressed mark, " Davenport." This design appears on pitcher described in No. 115.
113. Perry. Portrait.
A white pottery plate with a black print. In the centre, a full-length portrait of Commodore Perry surrounded by a design of flags, powder-kegs, cannon, and a full-rigged frigate. Above the name " Perry." The plate has a scalloped edge with a black border.
114. Perry. Portrait.
A portrait of Commodore. Perry with the name O. H. Perry, Esq. On a ribbon scroll, the legend, " We have met the enemy and they are ours," the words of Perry's famous despatch. Under this, the words, " hero of the Lake." See page 142 for description of Perry at this battle.
115. Jackson. Portrait.
A large globose pitcher with a portrait of Jackson, and the words " Major General Andrew Jackson." On the other side same portrait of Perry as No. 112. This print is also seen upon plates.
116. Decatur. Portrait.
A portrait of Decatur on a mug. Above, the words " Commodore Decatur;" below, on a ribbon, the famous war-motto, " Free Trade Sailors Rights." The old ballad says,
" Then quickly met our nation's eyes The noblest sight in Nature, A first-class frigate as a prize
Brought back by brave Decatur."
117. Lawrence. Portrait. Newcastle.
A portrait of Lawrence in copper-lustre on cream-ware pitcher, with motto, " Don't surrender the ship." His dying words, " Don't give up the ship," have become a national watchword. On the other side of pitcher, a portrait of Decatur, with his name.
118. Bainbridge. Portrait.
A mug with a portrait of Bainbridge, with words, " Commodore Bainbridge," and his characteristic words, " Avast, boys, she's struck ! " Commodore Bainbridge commanded the Constitution—Old Ironsides."
" On Brazil's coast She ruled the roost When Bainbridge was her Captain."
119. Hull. Portrait.
A pitcher bearing portrait of Captain Hull, and the words, " Captain Hull, of the Constitution." On the other side, a portrait with the words, " Captain Jones, of the Macedonian."
120. Pike. Portrait.
A pitcher with the portrait of General Z. M. Pike ; above it the word " Pike ; " below, his noble words, " Be always ready to die for your country." On the other side, a portrait and name, " Captain Jones, of the Macedonian." A specimen can be seen in the collection of the Bostonian Society in the old State House in Boston.
121. Pike. Portrait.
Same portrait of Pike and same legend as No. 120. On the other side, portrait of Hull and legend, Captain Hull, of the Constitution."
122. Jones. Portrait.
Plate with a portrait of Captain Jones printed in blue in the centre, with a ship on the left and flags on the right. Black shell border. Impressed mark, " Davenport." This description was given me by Mr. Prime.
See No. 120.
123. Preble. Portrait.
A pitcher with a good portrait of Preble, signed " D," with a figure of Fame on one side and the American flag on the other, and the name " Commodore Preble." On the other side of the pitcher, a well-drawn oval print of ships attacking fortifications. Above, the inscription " Commodore Preble's Squadron Attacking the City of Tripoli Aug 3. 1804. The American Squadron under Commodore Preble consisting of the Constitution 44 guns 2 Brigs & 3 Schooners 2 bombs & 4 Gunboats Attacking the City and Harbour of Tripoli Aug 3. 1804. the city was defended by Batteries Mounting 115 Pieces of heavy Cannon & the Harbour was defended by 19 Gunboats 2 Brigs 2 Schooners 2 Gallies and a Zebeck the city Received Great Damage Several of the Tripolitan Vessels were sunk 3 of their Gunboats taken & a Great Number of Men Killed." On the front of the pitcher is the American spread eagle and the words, " Herculaneum Pottery, Liver-pool." ,
124. Trophy. Pitchers printed in lustre and purple with a trophy of arms and the verses,
" United & Steady in Liberties Cause,
125. Macdonough. Bombardment of Stonington. A pitcher of cream ware with a black print entitled " The Gallant Defense of Stonington Aug 9th 1814." It represents that famous defence when the inhabitants of the town, with one gun successfully resisted the attack of the British force of several vessels, sinking one ship and driving off the others. Underneath, the legend, "Stonington is free whilst her heroes have one gun left." On the other side is the print of a ship with the words, " United States Frigate Guerriere, Corn. MacDonough bound to Russia July 1818." Mr. Prime says that a citizen of Stonington who went to Russia on public service in the Guerriere ordered these pitchers in Liverpool. He may have made the drawing of the battle for the engraver..
Macdonough. Victory on Lake Champlain. Dark-blue print on Staffordshire ware.. See No. 188.
126. Naval Battle.
A globose pitcher printed in vermillion with a design of a naval battle. Underneath, the words " The Wasp and The Rein-deer."
127. Militia. Liverpool. A Liverpool pitcher, twelve inches in height, bearing an oval medallion with design of cannon, flags, etc., with a man in full militia uniform. Above, this legend, " America ! whose Militia is better than Standing Armies." At base, within the medallion, " May its Citizens emulate Soldiers, its Soldiers Heroes." Below all, the lines :
"While Justice is the throne to which we are bound to bend Our Countries Rights and Laws we ever will defend."
Under the nose of the pitcher is the spread eagle, with this legend, " Peace Commerce and honest Friendship with All Nations Entangling Alliances with None ; Jefferson." This 'pitcher is printed in black and is painted in colors.. It was made in 18o8, in Liverpool, for a Narragansett sea-captain.
See No. 166.
See No. 172.
See No. 168.Portrait. Erie Canal. Monogram. Eulogy.
Printed in red on a cream-ware tea-service. On the large pieces are two views, one a steamship at sea, with laid and a fort in distance. The ship floats American flag, and has the smoke-stack nearly as tall as the mast. The other view, a ship flying American flag over the British, approaching a shore upon which lies an anchor. An American eagle on the shore holds a laurel branch among the stars. The scroll border is in purple lustre. This is apparently Newcastle ware. Specimens can be seen at the rooms of the Essex Institute, in Salem.
129. Liberty Medallion. Head.
Embossed head of Liberty on Castleford teapots. The same head used on gold coins of United States of 1795.
130. Liberty Medallion. Figure. Embossed figure of Liberty seated. Found on Castleford wares.
131. American Eagle. Medallion. Embossed eagle and shield on Castleford wares. Same as die on United States gold coin of 1797.
132. Harrison. Pitcher. American Pottery Co.
This pitcher is the most interesting piece of American pottery bearing an historical design that I have ever seen. The dealer who offered it to me asserted that only six were ever manufactured. He also said that he could easily procure dozens of Washington pitchers that were two hundred years old, but that I would find it hard to get a colonial pitcher with a picture of Harrison on it. To this latter assertion I warmly agreed. It was six-sided,'bulging in the middle to a diameter of about nine inches, about eleven inches in height, and with a foliated handle and scalloped lip. It was of coarse-grained brownish pottery, darker in shade than Liver-pool ware. On four of its sides the pitcher bore a view of a small log-cabin above a good portrait of Harrison, with the words, " The Ohio Farmer W. H. Harrison." Below all, a spread eagle. On the bottom of the pitcher was printed in black, " Am. Pottery Mani.' Co., Jersey City." It is the only piece of American ware with printed decorations similar to Liverpool ware that I have ever seen.
133. Columbian Star. Jno. Ridgway.
This plate, which is printed in light blue, is popularly known as the " Log-cabin " plate. In the centre is a domestic scene of a log-cabin with open door, and a woman and child are seated outside watching a man who is ploughing a "field in the foreground. A " lean-to " joins the house, beneath which stands the cider barrel of "hard cider." A man in the back-ground is chopping stumps. A small river bears a canoe with a single figure. Across the stream is a flagstaff with an American flag. Pine-trees are grouped near the cabin, and abundant smoke rises from the chimney. The border is composed of large stars set in a firmament of small ones. The inscription is, " Columbian Star.. Oct. 20, 1840. Jno. Ridgway." It will be remembered that William Henry Harrison was elected President in the fall of 1840. This plate is owned by Mrs. Nealy, of Washington, D. C.
( Originally Published Early 1900's )