Government, Revenue, Trade And Shipping
( Originally Published 1878 )
THE first military Governor appointed to Newfoundland was Major (afterwards Lieutenant-General) Sir John Harvey, in 1841 ; he was also the first Governor who had a private secretary. Sir John Gaspard Le Marchant assumed the Government in 1847, and also brought with him a private secretary. The Governor of Newfoundland is not Lieutenant-Governor, like the Governors of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. The only authority to which he is subordinate is the Queen aud her Ministers. The following amount of salaries was at that time paid out of the revenue of the Colony:
Private Secretary of the Governor $1,000
Clerk of the Council 1,000
Two Clerks in Secretary's Office 2,000
Treasurer of the Colony 2,500
Clerk of the Supreme and Central 1,750
Clerk of the Northern Circuit Court 1,000
District Surgeon 750
Hospital " 750
Physician of Lunatic Asylum 1,230
Collector of Customs 2,500
Attorney-General, in lieu of fees 1,250
Solicitor-General " 1,000
Sheriff of the Central District 3,250
Northern " 1,250
Southern " 1,000
The following salaries were paid out of the Colonial Revenue under Acts 2nd and 3rd William IV., cap. 78, called the reserved salaries.
Governor £3,000 or. $15,000
Chief-Justice 1,200 " 6,000
First Assistant-Judge 700 " 3,500
Second " 700 " 3,500
Attorney-General 450 " 3,250
Colonial Secretary 500 " 2,500
The post-master was paid $1,000 by the Imperial Department, which also paid the following officers of Customs who were still retained :
Comptroller of Customs 'and Navigation
First Clerk and Searcher 1,250
Second " " 1,000
The Customs Department was not placed under the control of the Local Government until 1849, previous to which the Imperial salaries amounted to £3,703 7s. 7d., or $78,516. The Colonial salaries amounted to £1,86416s. 5d., or $9,323. The Imperial Government pays the Bishop of the Church of England an annual salary of £500, or $2,500 per annum, and the Roman Catholic Bishop, £300, or $1,500 per annum. The amount of pensions annually paid by the Colony then was £159, or $795, which was paid to six persons. The " Royal Newfoundland Companies," which was a stationary regiment, was under the command of a colonel with the usual staff of officers. The Company of Royal Artillery were relieved every seven years from England. The Royal Engineers were under the command of a captain and subordinate officers. There was a civil department, with clerks. The ordnance store-keeper and the barrack-master had their deputies and clerks. The naval establishment has for a long time been removed from Newfoundland to Halifax and Bermuda. One or two men-of-war are usually on the station for the protection of the fisheries. There is no militia in Newfoundland, but there are two volunteer companies. The war establishment in Newfoundland costs Great Britain over 6200,000 annually. The Chief-Justice was also Judge of the Vice-Admiralty Court, which made his salary considerably more. The fees of the Attorney-General were very small, and the Legislature thought proper to allow him *1,250 per annum in lieu of these fees, making his salary $3,500 per annum. The fees of the Solicitor-General were about *200 per annum, in lieu of which the House of Assembly voted him a salary of $1,000, besides which he received 6500 a year as Master-in-Chancery, the duties of which were merely to take a few messages from the Council to the Assembly, accompanied with two or three bows. The salary of the Surveyor-General was raised from *1,500 to *2,500, besides the allowances. The office of Private Secretary to the Governor was attempted to be abolished when the term of the then Governor expired, but it is still retained. In addition to his salary of $2,500, the Secretary of the Colony in 1854 received as Clerk of the Council *1,000, and a further sum of about *500 for receiving the amount of sales of Crown Lands, &c., making his salary altogether upwards of .$4,000 per annum. The Treasurer of the Colony, in addition to his salary of $2,500 received $500 more as Cashier of the Savings' Bank. It had long been the practice to exact for every commission issued from the Secretary's office from one to five guineas. The writer paid one guinea for the first commission he received. For the second he was asked five guineas but refused to submit to so unjust a tax, the commission was, however, given. The Collector of Customs received, in addition to his salary, 1,000 as Speaker of the House of Assembly. Previous to the year 1847 the salary of the Sheriff of the Northern District, averaged from 200 to 350 dollars per annum, whilst the salary of the Sheriff of the Central District was nearly $4,500 per annum the disproportion. The salary of the Sheriff of the Central District, for a population of 25,000, now receives *3,250, while the Sheriff for the Northern District, for a population of 50,700, receives *1,250, and the Sheriff of the Southern District, for a population of about 16,000, receives $1,000. There should be a sheriff for every district. I know of no colony or country in America without a sheriff for every county or district except Newfoundland.
The salary of the Clerk of the Southern County Court some years ago was $500 ; it was afterwards raised to $1,000 per annum. The duty of the office was to attend the judge on circuit once a year, which occupied nearly two months. The remaining ten months of the year the clerk remained in a remote and almost inaccessible part the district ; until within the last two years (owing to the want of roads). The colony annually paid $5,750 per annum for the hire of two vessels to take the Court on circuit, in addition to which a saloon was fitted up and a well-supplied table of the edible and potable. The sitting of the Court in some places was a mere mockery, and in other places it did not sit at all, although it would have been previously announced to do so by the Governor's proclamation. This state of things strongly reminds one of the good old days of the Fishery Admirals and Floating Surrogates. In 1847, the acting Judge refused to take a prisoner from Harbour Breton to Burin Gaol, be-cause it would lessen the dignity of the Court by making the ship a prison, in consequence of which the following expedient was adopted to get rid of the prisoner : A fishing boat was bound to Hermitage Bay, on board of which he was put, the master of the boat receiving strict injunctions to conceal from the prisoner the place of destination, but, as soon as they arrived at Hermitage Bay, to tell the prisoner to make off as fast as possible. There ought to be District Judges, as there are in Canada. One of the clerks in the Secretary's office, in addition to his salary of 1,000, received *1,000 more as Clerk of the Legislative Council, and an additional sum as Marshall of the Court of Vice-Admiralty. The other clerk of the Secretary's office received a further addition to his salary as clerk of the Building Committee, &c. Of all the fore-going offices, there are but four filled by natives of the colony, one of whom was appointed Treasurer of the Colony in 1849.
It was exceedingly trying to the minds of respectable, intelligent natives to see men from afar filling offices under the Government of their own country, and receiving large salaries, which they would be glad to fill as efficiently for half the amounts the incumbents were receiving.
The following is an extract from the editorial of one of the Conception Bay Heralds (1853) :
" None but vagabonds are encouraged in Newfoundland. The selfish, unscrupulous pretender is just the sort of plant that thrives best in our soil The man who, in addition to an incorrigible stupidity, can bring his conscience to acquiese in anything touching his own gain, or that of his own patron, is what we want here. Are there any such in the adjacent Provinces? Let them come hither, and we will ensure them success. Nay, have not many of them come hither already and reaped their harvest ? Let the public answer."
Since that time, and consequently since the introduction of Responsible Government, some of the highest offices in the Government are filled l by Newfoundlanders (a number of stipendiary magistrates, Custom-house officers, and numerous others), so that now Newfoundlanders have no cause to complain that they are left in the cold shades.
On the introduction of Responsible Government, in 1855, the salary of the Governor of Newfoundland was reduced from $15,000 to $10,000 per annum (it is now $12,500). There was also a reduction made in the salaries of all the other Departments. The following are the salaries of the other North-American colonies :
Canada $50,000 per annum
Nova Scotia 12,000 " "
New Brunswick 12,000 "
Prince Edward Island 8,000 "
British Columbia and Vancouver's Island 8,000 "
Manitoba 8,000 "
North West 6,500 "
Quebec 12,000 "
Ontario 12,000 "
The salaries of the officials of the Government of Newfoundland were paid in sterling morney or nearly five dollars in the pound.
Before the introduction of the Responsible Government of Newfoundland, the Council consisted of nine members, who were appointed by the Crown, who were both Executive and Legislative ; all the members of which be-longed to St. Johns. Of these, five were merchants, one a barrister, and the remainder officials of the Government. Five were Episcopalians, one Roman Catholic, two Congregationalist, and one Presbyterian. Six were Englishmen, one Irishman, one Scotchman, and one Nova Scotian.
The House of Assembly sat quadrennially. It was composed of fifteen members :
Three for the district of St. John's.
Four " Conception Bay.
One Trinity Bay.
One Bonavista Bay.
Two for the district of Placentia and St. Mary's.
One Fortune Bay,
Having the following occupations :—Merchants, 4 ; trades, 3 ; lawyers, 3 ; editors, 2 ; doctors, 1; lieutenant, R.N., 1 ; surveyor of roads, L Eight were Roman Catholics, five were Episcopalians, and two Congregationalists. Six were natives, three Irish, three English, one native of Prince Edward Island, one of the Island of Jersey, and one Nova Scotian.
Owing to the irresponsible system of government, the Governor of Newfoundland, on his arrival, is always surrounded by the same men who composed the little coterrie, or "family compact," who held office, time immemorial, as an hereditary right, which had been regularly transmitted from father to son. Of course the policy of the Governor was in a great degree influenced by the irresponsible persons that composed his Council, who were adepts in state craft and diplomacy. The reader will perceive that the Legislature of Newfoundland is based on professed Liberal principles, but which in reality is a little castle of despotism, which had already been scattered by the lightning of public opinion, and only wanted the thunder of a free press, to make it totter, fall, and become a ruin.
What is called " Responsible Government," had been conceded by the Home Government to the neighbouring British Colonies. This system of Government is composed of two district Councils, an Elective and Legislative, and all heads of Departments are appointed from the majority of the political party of the Representatives of the people, from whom also the Executive Council is selected.
Every Government ought to be the mere exercise and reflection of the public mind, and the public will. The people should be the father, the government the child.
During the last Session of the amalgamated Legislature in 1847, Mr. Kent, a leading member of the House, introduced a series of resolutions, embodying the principles of Responsible Government, which passed the Legislature by a majority of one vote. Subsequently a petition was sent to the Home Government, praying that the same privileges of Responsibility as had been given to the neighbouring colonies, may be conceded to Newfoundland. But Earl Grey, the then Secretary of State, thought it inexpedient for the present, so far as Newfoundland was concerned, to test the truth of the political axiom, that " Freedom is the only certain, cure for the evils of Freedom."
In order to carry out the system of Responsible Government in Newfoundland, an increase of Representation was absolutely necessary. In the first Legislature in 1834, Mr. Kough introduced a Bill to increase the Representation to 25 members, which, however, did not pass. In 1844, the late Mr. Barnes, one of the most talented natives of the Country, brought in a Bill, which contemplated a division of the Districts, as well as an increase of Representatives. This Bill met with a most determined opposition from the Roman Catholic members of the House, because it divided the Roman Catholic districts, and very justly apportioned members according to population, instead of extent of territory. All countries Representatives are given according to population, not extent of territory, and the reader will see the justice of Mr. Barnes's division of the Districts, by observing that Placentia and St. Mary's for a population of 6,471, returned two members, while the District of Trinity, with a population of 8,801, returned only one member.
It is said Mr. Barnes had a majority to carry his Bill through the House, but consented to withdraw it on the promise of Sir John Harvey, the Governor, that the Bill should form the basis of the new Constitution of Newfoundland, which would take place at the termination of the amalgamated Legislature. The promise, however, was not fulfilled. A Bill was brought before the House of Assembly in 1852, for the increase of Representatives to 25 members, leaving the divisions and districts as at pre-sent. After some time, an Act passed, making the number of members of the Assembly 30, and the Legislative Council 12, with an Executive Council of 7. The following are now the divisions of the districts the Roman Catholics and Protestants. The former voting for the Roman Catholic candidate, and the latter, with but few exceptions, voting for the Protestant candidate. The Protestants are called Conservatives, and the Roman Catholics, Liberals. The introduction of Responsible Government met with great opposition. The old oligarchy were very tenacious of life, hence their cries of " innovation old paths well enough departed glory and "Ichabod." But these hostile demonstrations to the march of enlightened public opinion, were but the spasmodic death-throes that precede expiring life.
Responsible Government is nothing more or less than the principles of the British Constitution, referring to which, the celebrated statesman, Fox, said:
" The greatest innovation that could be introduced into the Constitution of England was to come to a vote that there should be no innovation in it. The greatest beauty of the Constitution was that in its very principle it admitted of perpetual improvement, which time and circumstances rendered necessary. It was a constitution the chief excellence of which was that of admitting a perpetual reform."
The Protestants were opposed to Responsible Government, on the ground that Roman Catholics would monopolize all the offices of trust and emolument. But this was impossible, if the Protestant voters did their duty, there being a majority of 10,000 Protestant votes in the districts. It was not until the arrival of Governor Darling, in 1855, that the system of Responsible Government was fully inaugurated, when the Hon. John Rent became the Premier, and Philip F. Lyttle, Esq., Attorney-General.
Although Newfoundland is not at present a portion of the Dominion of Canada, yet we hope, at no very distant day, to see this, the only unconfederate British possession in North America, united to Canada. Her amalgamation would develop her great resources, especially her minerals and fisheries. Line of steamers for the conveyance of goods and passengers would run from Quebec to St. John's, calling at the intermediate ports of St. George's Bay, Bay of Islands, &c. New life would be diffused into the various fisheries, and agriculture and manufacture would receive a fresh impetus. The principal objection to con-federation is the erroneous notion to make no change, to keep things fixed just as they are. Dr. Arnold says:-
" There is nothing so revolutionary, because there is nothing so unnatural, and so convulsive to society, as the strain to keep things fixed, when all the world is, by the very law of its creation, in eternal progress. And the cause of all the evils in the world may be traced to that natural, but most deadly, error of human indolence and corruption that our business is to preserve, not improve. It is the ruin of all alike, individuals, schools, and nations."
"It shall not be lawful for any importer of dried fish to ware-house the saine in any of the ports of this colony or its dependencies, without the payment of the duty hereinbefore imposed ; and the provisions of any act of this colony with regard to the warehousing of goods on the first entry thereof, or to the allow - ance of drawbacks upon exportation, shall not in either case apply to or be construed to apply to such fish. Provided, that the section shall not apply to such fish of British catch and cure, unless otherwise declared by proclamation of the Governor, published in the Royal Gazette.
"All yachts sailing under warrant of the Lords of the Adnn ralty, or belonging to the Royal Yacht Club, shall be exempted, on view of the said warrant, from payment of all local duties whatsoever."
The Reciprocity Treaty between the United States and the British Colonies expired in 1865, and has not yet been renewed. The revenue in 1853 amounted to $400,000.
SHIPS OWNED AND REGISTERED IN THE COLONY.
On 31st Dec., 1844 844 On 31st Dec., 1848 954
On 31st Dec., 1845 907 On 31st Dec., 1857 1115
On 31st Dec., 1847 950
There are twenty-six light-houses on the coast of Newfoundland, besides the light-houses on the French island of St. Pierre. The following is a description of the lights .
"St. John's.—Two red lights are exhibited, intended as leading marks for vessels entering the narrows.
" Fort Amherst.—This is a stationary light, on the southern head of the entrance of St. John's harbour, first established in 1813.
" Cape Spear.—This is a powerful revolving light, burning at an elevation of 275 feet above the level of the sea, and showing a brilliant flash at intervals of one minute. In clear weather it may be seen from sea, in any direction, at the distance of thirty-five miles.
" Harbour Grace.-This is a powerful fixed light, situate on Harbour Grace Island, in Conception Bay, extending easterly or seaward, in a direction by compass from north to south-west.
" Bonavista.—This light revolves every two minutes, showing a red and white flash alternately ; and it is elevated 150 feet above the level of the sea.
" St. Peter's.—A light house has been erected by the French Government on Galantry Head, near Cape Noir. The light is a fixed one. It burns at an elevation of about 210 feet above the level of the sea. It may be seen (in passing from N. N. W. to N. N. E.) at the distance of eighteen or twenty miles, in clear weather. In passing by the north it is shut in by high land from N. N. E. to W. N. W.
" Ferryland Head Light.—First exhibited on the 1st October, 1871. From sunset to sunrise, a steady white light of the 3rd order, burning on a brick tower 200 feet above the level of the sea, visible in favourable weather sixteen nautical miles. It is situated in lat. 47° 00' 58" N, and long. 52° 51' 07" W. The tower is of red brick ; the keeper's dwelling, detached from the tower, is painted white and the roof red.
Cape Pine.—This light-house was erected by the British Government. The building is of iron. It is situated 246 feet above the sea, and the light is 74 feet from the ground, making it in all 320 feet above the level of the sea. The contractor was A. Gordon, Esq., Civil Engineer, Greenock. The. building and light are similar to that erected by the same gentleman on the south-eastern end of the Bermuda Islands, and which is said to be one of the finest in the world. The following are the light dues :--One shilling per ton on all vessels entering any port or harbour of the colony, except coasting and sealing vessels ; but not to be levied more than once in any one year. Six pence per ton on registered vessels of forty tons and up: wards. Under forty tons, fifteen shillings per annum, or three dollars. No greater sum than £25 sterling is to be levied in any one year for light dues on any one steamer or vessel entering any port in the colony ; and no steamer plying between Europe and North America, and entering any port of the colony, as a port of call, to be liable to pay any light clues, or other port charges, except pilotage.
" Harbour Grace Beacon Light.—This is a harbour light, placed on the Point of Beach, at the entrance to Harbour Grace.
Green Island Light, at the entrance of Catalina Harbour, Trinity Bay. Situate in lat 48° 30' 16" N., ion. 53° 2' 4" W. This is a fixed white light, burns at an elevation of 92 feet above high water, and in favourable weather will be seen E. N. E. seaward, to S. W., 15 nautical miles. Vessels bound north-ward, by keeping this light open with the north head of Catalina, until Bonavista light opens with Cape St. Jean, will give the Flower Rocks an ample berth ; or, when coming from the northward and hound for Catalina, by giving the N. Head a moderate berth, you will clear the Brandies Rocks by steering for Green Island Light. It was first exhibited in 1857.
"Cape Race exhibits a revolving white light. From sunset to sunrise the light is visible to seaward, from N. E. by E. round by the S. E. and S. to W. The light is elevated 180 feet above the mean water level of the sea, and may be seen in clear weather 19 nautical miles from a ship's deck. The tower is striped red and white, vertically. It stands close to the old beacon, which has been cut down. The lighthouse is in lat. 46° 39' 30" N., Ion, 53° 4' 30" W., and was first exhibited in 1856.
" Cape Race Steam Fog Alarm.-A powerful steam whistle has been placed on Cape Race, about 520 feet south of the lighthouse, which is sounded during thick or foggy weather, or snow storms, for ten seconds, with intervals of silence of fifty-seconds in each minute. The whistle will probably be heard in calm weather, 20 miles ; with the wind, 30 miles ; and in stormy weather, against the wind, from seven to ten miles.
" Doddinghead, Great Burin Island, Light.—This light was put in requisition on the 3rd August, 1858, and is exhibited every night from sunset to sunrise. It is revolving cato-dioptric of the second order, producing a brilliant white light every minute, burning at an elevation of 430 feet above the level of the sea, and in favourable weather can be seen 20 miles. Situated in 47° 0' 26" north lat., 55° 8' 43" west Ion.
" 1872—Puffin Island Greenspond—The light-house on this island is built of granite, with the tower and keeper's dwelling attached. The illuminating apparatus is dioptric of the 4th order, and a fixed red light is exhibited from sunset to sunrise. It is 85 feet above the level of the sea, and in clear weather should be seen a distance of 12 miles. The light is visible from N. by E. through S. to W. by N. by compass, and is situated in 49° 3' 37" N. lat., and 58° 32' 27" W. ion.
" No. 1, 1873—Bellorarn Fortune Bay.-A fixed white light is exhibited nightly at this place from sunset to sunrise, at an elevation of 35 feet above the level of the sea, and in clear weather should be visible seven miles. The building is a wooden tower, painted white, and is situated in lat. 47Deg 29' N., and 55° 27' 15" W. lon. The apparatus is dioptric of the 8th order. with a single argand burner, and illuminates an arc of the horizon of 270'. In entering the harbour the light must be kept on the port hand.
"No. 2, 1873—Rose Blanche Poiat.—This light-house is built of granite, up on the eastern head. The tower and keeper's dwelling are attached. The illuminating apparatus is dioptric of the 4th order, and a fixed white light is exhibited from sunset to sunrise, at an elevation of 95 feet above the level of the sea, and should he seen in clear weather 13 miles. Shag Island, Black Rock, bears west from the light, and distant about one mile ; Rose Blanche shoals, W. S. W., half a mile ; and Petite Black Rock, E. by S., 3 miles.
" No. 3, 1873—Fort Point, Trinity.—A fixed light is exhibited nightly, from sunset to sunrise, upon a wooden tower, painted white, and at a height of 75 feet above the level of the sea, and should be visible in clear weather for 11 miles. The erection is situated in 48" 21' 55" N. lat., and 53" 20' 51" W. ion. The apparatus is dioptric of the 8th order, with a single argand burner, and illuminates an arc of the horizon of 320.° In entering the harbour the light must be kept on the port hand.
" Off r Wadham Island Light.—Was first exhibited on the 4th October, 1858, and is lighted every night from sunset to sun-rise. The light is a steady, fixed lens-light, burning on a circular brick tower, 100 feet above the level of the sea, and can be seen in a favourable state of the atmosphere 15 nautical miles. Situated in latitude 49° 36' 0" North longitude 53° 45' 6" West.
" Baccalieu Island Light.—This light is exhibited every night from the going away of daylight in the evening to the return of daylight in the morning. The light-house situated on the northern end of the island—latitude 48° 8' 51" North ; longitude 52° 47' 50" West — the tower is of brick, the keeper's dwelling (a square building detached from the tower) is painted white, with the roof red.
" The light is cato-dioptric, first-class holophotal revolving white light, showing a flash every twenty seconds. It is elevated 443 feet above high water, and can be seen in clear weather 30 nautical miles, and a lesser distance according to the state of the atmosphere. When the southern end of the island bears N.N.E., the light will not be visible when nearer the island than 8 miles. It was first exhibited in 1858.
" Cape St. Mary's Light--Was put into requisition on the 20th September, 1860 ; it is a revolving cato-clioptric light of the first order, producing alternately every minute a brilliant red and a white light, burning at an elevation of 300 feet above the level of the sea, and will be seen in a favourable state of the atmosphere 26 nautical miles from the vessel's deck ; situated in 46° 40' 30" N. lat., 54° 11' 34"W. long. The tower is of brick, and on each side of which stands the dwelling of the keeper and assistant, the sides of which are painted white, roofs red.
" Brunet Island Light, Mercer's Head, Fortune Bay.—First exhibited 27th June, 1865. It is a powerful flashing white light, and attains its greatest brilliancy every ten seconds. It burns at an elevation of 408 feet above the level of the sea, and in clear weather may be seen at a distance of 35 miles, and be visible in every direction from North, round East and South, to W.N.W. Mercer's Head is a bold headland, and situated in long. 55° 59' 30" W., and lat. 47° 16' N.
" No. 1, 1874. Cann Island, Seldom-come-by.- A fixed white light is exhibited nightly at this place, from sunset to sunrise, at an elevation of 85 feet above the level of the sea, and should be visible 12 miles. The tower and dwelling are of wood and attached, and are situated in latitude 49° 35' 05" N., and longitude 54° 10' 33" W. The apparatus is dioptrie, of the 8th order, with a single argand burner, and illuminates an arc of the horizon of 327Deg.
" No. 2, 1874. Bour Island, Buryeo.—A fixed red light is exhibited nightly at this place, from sunset to sunrise, at an elevation of 240 feet above the sea, and should be visible seven-teen miles. The tower and dwelling are of wood, and attached, and are situated in latitude 47° 36' 12" N., and longitude 57° 35' 13" W. The apparatus is dioptrie of the sixth order, with a single argand burner, and illuminates the whole of the horizon of 270°.
" No. 1, 1875. Channel Head, Port-aux-Basques.--A wooden light tower has been erected on this head, and on and after this date a fixed red light will be exhibited thereon, at an elevation of ninety feet above the level of the sea. Lat 47° 33' 47" N., and long. 50° 07' 10" West. In clear weather the light should be visible twelve miles. The illuminating apparatus is dioptric, of the eighth order, with a single argand burner. The whole horizon is illuminated.
" Rocky l'oint, Harbour Breton, Fortune Bay-situated in latitude 17° 27' 30" N., longitude 55° 47' 45" W. A square wooden tower carrying an octagon and lantern, in which a white light will be exhibited nightly, with a red light to mark the Harbour Rock.
" Garnish, Fortune Bay.-A beacon tower of wood, carrying an octagon and lantern, in which a red light is exhibited nightly. Latitude 47° 14" N-, longitude 55° 24' W (approximate).
" Beacon, Ireland Eye, entrance of La Poêle Bay.-A square building of wood, painted white, with three black bands, has been erected on this island. It is seventy-five feet high, and is supported on four chains.
" A light-house has been erected by the Government of Canada on the western side of Cape Ray, on the south-west coast of the Island of Newfoundland. Latitude 47° 37' N., longitude 59° 18' W. A powerful flash white light is exhibited, making a complete revolution in two and a quarter minutes, and flashing every ten seconds : at a long distance, however, it has the appearance of a steady light. The light can probably be seen at a distance of twenty miles in clear weather.
" The tower is a wooden building, hexagonal in shape, forty-one feet high, and painted white. The keeper's dwelling, also of wood, stands at a little distance from the tower, and is also painted white.
" The illuminating apparatus is catoptric, and consists of twelve lamps and reflectors.
" A fog whistle is in operation at Cape Ray. It will be blown in thick and foggy weather, and during show storms, for ten seconds in each minute, leaving an interval of fifty seconds between each blast. It can be heard from three to fifteen miles.