( Originally Published 1878 )
AFTER the Treaty of Paris, in 1763, Labrador was annexed to the Government of Newfoundland, including " all the coast of Labrador, from the entrance of Hudson's Straits to the River St. John's, opposite the west end of the Island of Anticosti, including that island, with any other small islands on the said coast of Labrador; also the Island of Madeleine, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and of all forts and garrisons erected or established, or that shall be erected or established, in the said island, or on the coast of Labrador, within the limits aforesaid." Shortly after which, Captain Hugh Palliser was appointed Governor of Newfoundland, who was a man of great energy and enterprise. He encouraged the fishery on the Labrador coast, which was then in the hands of a few monopolists, who had obtained grants illegally from the Government of Canada. Captain Palliser annulled the exclusive claim of these parties, and ejected them, which led to the separation of Labrador again from the Government of Newfoundland, and its annexation to the Province of Quebec by the Act of George III., Statute 14, cap. 3, in 1774.
In 1817, Labrador was re-annexed to the Government of Newfoundland with Anticosti, but since then Anticosti has been re-annexed to the Government of Canada. In 1811, an Act of Parliament was passed, authorising the holding of Surrogate Courts at Labrador. Subsequently, a Circuit Court was established there, but was abolished in 1833. Since then a judge visits there annually, and revenue officers during the summer season. (For statistics of the fishery see "Fisheries.") Captain Loch, in 1849, gives the following very interesting account of Labrador :
" The fisheries round this island are very valuable, and I grieve to say are principally gathered by the French. During the afternoon, night, and next morning, I was off this island, I only saw two vessels, and those were English Jacks ; but nevertheless, I ascertained that the French had been fishing round its shores the entire season, and had only departed on the visit of the man-of-war being reported by their look-outs. I do not see how these fisheries can effectually be protected while the French possess the facilities of numerous and convenient ports in its vicinity, with only the opposing influence of two Jersey establishments in Chateau Bay to contend against them. The most effectual protection would be the constant presence of a small cruiser during the entire season, to act in conjunction with the small government schooner the French themselves employ for this service. If it were practicable to form establishments on the island itself, this expence, perhaps, might be saved, but owing to the total absence of safe beach or boat harbours, this would be almost impossible.
These fisheries are capable of yielding 40,000 quintals in the season, and I am told the French take upon the average 30,000.
I could not visit the establishments at Chateau, owing to the bay being blocked up by icebergs 83 were counted between Belle Isle and the coast of Labrador."
" Is a beautiful little harbour, perfectly sheltered from every wind, and is capable of admitting ships of the largest class. It is formed by Saddle Island laying off the entrance of a round basin with a narrow neck ; there is good anchorage behind the island, which forms what may be called the outer harbour, the hills of the main are nearly 500 feet in height, somewhat higher than those directly to the north-east and south-west of the port.
" The hills are close to the shore, formed of reddish granite and covered with moss, some stunted spruce, birch, and juniper bushes.
" Three small rivulets enter the basin, but water cannot easily be procured for ships, owing to sandbars extending across their mouths.
" The port is not very easy to make, as the features and indentation of this portion of the coast are very similar, one of the best marks is a small flat island a little to the eastward of Saddle Island, named " Oil " Island in the book of sailing directions, and White Island by the fishermen.
" There are thirteen rooms at this station, all belonging to separate planters, small proprietors, employing altogether 50 fishermen (exclusive of the shore-men), the principal person among them is a Mr. William Penny, of Conception Bay. He comes to this port in his schooner every spring, and arrived this year on the 17th of June, with 95 people on board forty men, the rest women and children. During the season there are about 100 inhabitants 40 reside for the purpose of seal-fishing during the winter. They commenced cod-fishing this year 5th June. They use both seines and lines, and have 25 boats of different sizes, employing two to three hands each, and capable of containing from five to ten quintals. They send their fish to St. John's, Carbonear, and Halifax. They dispatch it twice in the season if the fishing is moderately good. Their catch to the present date (30th July), has been 3,500 quintals, which is the greatest amount of fish they have taken so early for the last three years. They expect to average before the close 100 quintals a man. They would not be contented with less than 70. (The French consider 50 quintals per man a paying season.) The fishing generally ends about the 5th September, when the ice begins again to form, and the bait strikes off into deep water. The bait they use is caplin, herring and lance in rotation. Although the latter may be procured throughout the season, they use the caplin when it can be had. which is frequently from June until the end of August. They can place no reliance upon the strike of the herring. They consider the climate during the summer and autumn months dryer and of more equal temperature than upon the north-east coast of Newfoundland.
They say that they are much disturbed by the French and Americans. The former coming over from the other side in squadrons of batteaux, sweeping all their best fishing grounds—while the latter enter their harbours in schooners of about 60 tons, catching their fish, and drying them close to their own stages, which they boldly assert they have a right to do by treaty.
" I examined several of the planters separately, and all agreed that there are about 600 Frenchmen employed in fishing vessels of different sizes, between Forteau and Red Bays alone. There is no agriculture, if we except a few cabbages and turnips planted round the door of their huts, which they use with their common diet of fish and salt pork. The fishermen are paid principally in bills of exchange given by the merchants, and receive from £18 to £25 currency a year. Those employed for the summer season only, generally receive half their catch.
" The planters of the harbour expressed so much dissatisfaction at the encroachment of the French, who, they assert, are encouraged in their depredations by some of the principal English inhabitants residing in the bays to the westward, that I have thought it advisable to give the evidence of the three principal parties I have examined at length :
"What are your names ?
ROBERT Asir, of Carbonear, and FRANCIS WATTS. We have been fishing eleven years out of this harbour. Watts has resided on the coast of Labrador for the last two years, and would continue to do so if not so much interfered with by the French.
" BENJAMIN COOLIES came straight from England. Has been residing between Black and Red Bays, and on the coast of Labrador, for twenty-five years, cod-fishing and sealing on his own account. They all asserted that their fishing is very much injured by the encroachment of the French fishing on the coast to the westward in Black Bay and Forteau Bay, &c., which prevented the fish from passing down the coast, but more particularly are they injured by the French sweeping all the caplin off the ground, which otherwise would remain a month longer if they were not so disturbed and cleared by them. To give an idea how much we suffer by these encroachments, and how much the French benefit by them, there are parties employed purposely to catch and cure caplin to supply the Great Bank fishing vessels.
" Q.—Who are the principal people in Black Bay ?
" A.—One family, Mr. Odell's.
" Q.—Do they agree to the French going there ?
" A.—Yes, they encourage them, and lend and build stages for their accommodation, and receive the livers of the fish in payment,
" Q.—What may this be worth to them ?
" A.—A quintal of fish produces a gallon of oil, which sells for 2s. per gallon.
" Q.—Have you ever remonstrated with the English residents at the bays to the westward, and stated how prejudicial their encouragement of the French was to your interests ?
" A.—Yes, and they are well acquainted that the French fishing must injure ours.
" Q.—What do you suppose is the reason why the French are enabled to surpass our fishermen in cheap fishing on our own coast ?
" A.—Their fit-out is in the first place much cheaper not one-fourth the prime cost of ours. Secondly, they receive a large bounty from government. Thirdly, the wages are not one-half those we pay our fishermen.
" Q.—How many Frenchmen do you suppose are fishing between Red Bay and Forteau ?
" A.—From 1,000 to 1,500 men.
" Q.—In how many boats or vessels ?
A.— A t out 200, large and small.
" Q.—Do you think the Government of Newfoundland could make any arrangement that would effectually prevent the encroachment of the French on the coast of Labrador ?
.A.—Yes, a cruiser stationed in the straits from the 1st July to the last of August ; or resident magistrates, say at Black Bay or Forteau, and perhaps Chateau.
" Q.—Would the planters on the coast of Labrador think it worth their while to pay £300 a year in support of the salaries of magistrates to clear the coast of the French ?
" A.—We think we pay taxes enough, and we imagine that the Government of Newfoundland ought to defray such a charge for the benefit of its subjects and its own commerce.
" Q.—Are you aware if there are individuals residing between Red Bay and Forteau Bay who have made sums of money by their encouragement of French fishing ?
" A.—Yes, Samuel Toms, formerly residing at Great St. Modeste. Last year he went to Quebec, having cleared £1,000 in the last few years by the sale of oil from the cod livers.
" Q.—Do the residents of Labrador receive any assistance from the Government of Newfoundland during the winter
" A.—No, none. Last year, for the eight months, which is the usual length of the winter, we were hard put to it in consequence of the French having deprived us of our means of living by plundering our coasts. Many of the poorer inhabitants were alone supported by the charitable assistance of those in better circumstances.
" Q.—You say that certain parties have had to give up trade in vessels in consequence of the French encroachments state who these were ?
A.—Francis and Claudius Witts, William Udel, and Mr. Pike. These parties had to give up their vessels, finding that the catch of fish was so much reduced from what used to be be-fore the French came in such numbers, that none of the parties could procure even half cargoes by the close of the season.
" Q.—How do you know that the French fishing interferes with yours ?
" A.—Because on the Monday our catch is double what it is any other day of the week, owing to the French not fishing on the Sunday, thereby permitting the fish to pass up the coast.
" CARROLL COVE.
" This is a small fishing station, five miles west of Red Bay, where there are only two rooms belonging to a Mr. Lardragan. He employs thirty men, six of these reside there during the winter to trap seals. They catch them in frame nets, which are laid down the 20th November, and taken up the last of December ; then again put down the 1st of June, and taken up the middle of July. 300 seals a year is the average catch.
" They send their cod to a Jersey house in Blanc Sablon.
" There are three seal fisheries between Chateau Bay and Car-roll Cove, fished by men from Red Bay, who abandon them in summer for the cod fishery. Their average catch is 350 seals.
" BLACK BAY, OR PINWARE,
Is a wild open roadstead, but a good fishing station, and captin are always to be found in great abundance during the sea son inside the bar formed by the river at its head, and which the French are said entirely to appropriate, by dropping nets across the channels, and placing watch-boats to guard them. This intelligence caused me to despatch an officer in the barge from Red Bay, who might be enabled to take any intruders by surprise and give me accurate information. He counted twenty fishing boats at anchor under Ledge Island, and boarded sixteen vessels at anchor inside Little St. Modeste belonging to Nova Scotia, one American, and three French from St. Pierre's.
" These latter had been fishing on the Labrador shores, and according to my directions he took away their registers.
" At ' Shipbroad,' on the western side of Black Bay, he boarded the French brig ' Novelle St. Pierre,' of St. Malo, wind-bound from ' Quirpon,' bound to ' Port-au-Choix,' laden with salt and a small quantity of fish, which apparently had not been taken on this coast. He also boarded two French boats fishing for vessels at ' Port-au-Choix,' which he ordered away. He observed twelve or thirteen French boats off Cape Diable to windward of him but these he could not reach as it blew too strong."
" FORTEAU BAY
Is almost an open roadstead to the south and south-east, but safe even with winds from those quarters, owing to its depth and the protection it receives from the opposite coast of Newfoundland.
" It is surrounded by table lands of sand stone covered with the usual moss, the dwarf spruce, birch bush and some mountain ash. A salmon river of some size enters the sea at the head of the bay. Seals, salmon, cod, and remarkably fine her-rings are very plentiful. The fishings are carried on with considerable profit by five establishments, four connected with Jersey, Poole and St. John's, are in the bay, and the fifth is planted upon the eastern point, belongs to a Mr. Grange, a wealthy colonist from Anchor Point, Newfoundland. Upwards of four hundred people are employed by these various planters, but their catch this year has not been (in proportion) so good as that of their rivals of Red Bay.
The resident agents and partners are Messrs, Ellis, employed by Mr. Bird of Poole, and Leroux, a Jersey merchant, and agent for Mr. De Quetteville the most extensive planter on the coast of Labrador. He has besides this, other establishments (one of Blanc Sablon) and supplies most of the winter rooms and resident fishermen with goods, clothes, and stores much to his own profit. Messrs. Young and Janeaut, and George Du Heaume and David Janners are the remainder.
" There are nine fishing stations between Red Bay and Forteau namely, Carroll Cove—East St. Modeste—Black Bay—West St. Modeste—Captain Island—Lance Dialla—River head of Lance a Loup and Lance Amour. Except at Lance A Loup where a Mr. Crockwell, of Torquay, has a room, all these stations are fished by colonial fishermen, who send their produce to St. John's by vessels from that port, and to the Jersey houses in Forteau Bay and Blanc Sablon.
" These small stations employ about two hundred and twenty men, and average a catch of twenty-five thousand quintals throughout the year.
" Cabbages and Turnips are grown at every station for the summer consumption of the inhabitants.
" Those who reside upon the coast during the winter shoot deer, partridges, ducks, geese, curlew and other wild fowl, amply sufficient for their support. They have, nevertheless, stores of pork, flour, tea and molasses supplied by traders from Quebec, Halifax and St. John's.
"Much of my time was occupied during the ship's stay at Forteau in settling innumerable disputes between the rival firms and fishermen, and in trying an action brought by Philip Landragan, of Caroll Cove against Messrs. George du Heaume and Daniel Janvers for having taken a schooner belonging to the former, under pretence of purchasing her, and having used her for nine months ; and in consequence of the collector of customs of St. John's declaring the register to be incorrect re-turning her to the plaintiff who accepted a bill of thirty pounds as an equivalent for her use, and for having boarded her after delivering her over and taking out gear belonging to the vessel.
" A case of a much graver description was brought before me by a man named Charles Dicker, a planter, resident on Grant Point, three miles west of Blanc Sablon, and a settler of twenty-four years, who, upon hearing a man-of-war was at Forteau, walked across the country to lay a charge against a stronger party for having torn up his seal and salmon nets, as he asserted they prevented his own catch being so great as it otherwise would be. The poor man was thus deprived of his season's profit, and probably his winter's subsistence. I was enabled fortunately, to succeed in restoring his rights to him.
" BLANC SABLON
Is seven miles west of the Western Point of Forteau Bay. It is open to the eastward, nevertheless the westerly winds are those most feared, as they throw in heavy cross swells between Wood and Greenly Islands, and vessels are not unfrequently driven on shore by them.
" It is the principal fishing station on the Labrador coast. There are four Jersey establishments two belonging to Messrs. Philip de Quetteville (under the charge of Thomas Leroux), and the other to Philip Bray–and Leroux there are upwards of three hundred inhabitants during the season, and only four families reside there during the winter. They all arrived this year in June, and commenced fishing on the 18th, and found both cod and caplin very abundant they had never seen fish so early before and greatly regretted not having arrived sooner. Besides the cod, they fish seal and herring, the latter they use for bait when caplin is scarce. They commonly find the caplin on the coast by the middle of June, and it generally remains till the end of July.
"DeQuetteville's establishments both at Forteau and this Bay, cure and export caplin. They also extract oil from the herring as well as from the cod liver. Twelve Jersey vessels and eighty boats were in use, employing altogether three hundred hands. .Bray trades to twelve different ports in the Mediterranean and occasionally to their own island, Jersey.
The fish is sent away as fast as they can load the vessels ; the first sailed this year, 7th July, and another will sail to-day (9th August), and four in September. There were sixteen vessels at anchor in Blanc Sablon harbour, namely one barque, three brigantines, and twelve schooners. They were all waiting for cargoes.
" Notwithstanding the abundance of fish at the commencement, they consider they have only had a fair catch-15,000 quintals owing to their late arrival, and the fish leaving early ; they consider from 15 to 16,000 quintals a good season. Last year their fishing did not terminate until the end of August. This year it closed 25th of July.
The fogs lay longer against this portion of the coast than further to the eastward, owing to its being at the entrance of the straits, and more exposed to the southerly winds which drive them out of the estuary of the St. Lawrence. Blanc Sablon is sometimes enveloped for a week at a time, while a few miles beyond the sky is clear and dry. This is much against the planter's interests. Americans occasionally spread their nets, and fish early in the season, on their way through the straits towards Cape Charles ; but they do not disturb the settlers. There were about ten this year they used to appear in greater numbers. Four French brigs had been fishing off Green Island for three weeks or a month they left the day before yesterday, when they heard we were on the coast. They fish along the Labrador coast throughout the season, and only retire upon the appearance of the man-of-war. All the small planters complain grievously of this intrusion ; while the more wealthy encourage it, for (as I have already stated), the liver oil they receive for stage room. The Americans carry the fish away green.
The people are supported, as at the other stations, by sup-plies from Jersey, Halifax and Quebec, and all the large establishments pay the men £2 sterling a month, instead of giving them half the catch.
" There are no resident fishermen in this particular harbour, but a few along the coast to the westward at Grand Point, Bradore, and Esquimaux Harbours, but no regular rooms are maintained.
" The river running into this port separates the dependency of Newfoundland from Lower Canada. The harbour is always completely blocked up by ice from November until Julie, occasionally to the end of the latter month. At this station all the fishermen are Protestants, and from Jersey.
" The fishery is much what it has been for the last fifteen years ; but people are commencing to pass up the coast, and they anticipate a gradual supply of permanent settlers from the south of Newfoundland and Canada.
" When on the point of sailing, the son of Mr. Grange, of Anchor Point, Newfoundland, came on board to complain that the French had stopped his father fishing a salmon river that has been in his family for upwards of a century ; that after much opposition on his father's part, he had to yield to the French one-half, and afterwards two-thirds of the produce of the river. This year they had taken it from him altogether.
" As I could find no definite instructions relative to the assumed right of the French over the river, as well as the sea fishings, and as this question bears so gravely upon the interests of so many settlers, and dignity of Her Majesty's colony ; and feeling that any inquiry on my part, after ascertaining the statement to be true, without forcibly expelling the French from property which has been in possession of English colonists for so long a period, would be ineffectual, I advised Mr. Grange to draw up a memorial for the consideration of the Colonial Government, and promised to lay the facts of the case before His Excellency the Governor.
" The inhabitants of any particular bay or station along the coast of Labrador have not the right or power, in my opinion, to permit the French to lay out their nets along the coasts or in their harbours, for by so doing the rights of other fishings are naturally interfered with, by stopping the passage of the fish along the coast, and after fair warning, I think they should be subject to the same punishment for ' aiding and abetting,' as the intruders are themselves.
In my opinion it would be most advisable, nay, absolutely necessary for the prosperity of the British subjects that magistrates should be appointed from St. John's, to administer justice and control the society resident at the various fishing stations in the Straits of Belle Isle during the season.
" This extensive coast, commencing from the estuary of the St. Lawrence, and stretching far north to the regions of perpetual snow, is one of the most barren and desolate in the world ; and it seems that nature has removed the means of sup-porting human life from its surface to the waters which surround it, the abundant production of which offer the inducements, and reward the industry and perseverance of thousands of adventurers who resort to it from both Europe and America.
The portion forming the northern boundary of the Straits of Belle Isle is not so well marked or grand in feature as where it recedes from the Island of Newfoundland, either to the north or south. From the sea the country has a green and alluvial appearance, and it is not until close to it that this is lost, and nothing is seen but bare granite rocks, partially covered with moss and stunted shrubs ; juniper, birch, and poplar trees grow in valleys where the soil is of sandy clay, the temperature much higher, and the fog less frequent than upon the coast. Here deer, bears, wolves, foxes, martens, otters, beavers, and a great variety of wild fowl take up their abode until driven to the coast by the snow-drifts of approaching winter. The ice does not usually leave the bay free for vessels to enter before June, and it begins to form again in the shallow bays and pools in the beginning of September."
About a hundred years ago, the Moravian missionaries extended their mission from Greenland to the Labrador Coast, where they now have several flourishing settlements. The principal one is called Nain. A very interesting volume has been published, giving an account of the Moravian Missions at Greenland and Labrador. In 1824, the Rev. Thomas Hickson, one of the Wesleyan Missionaries at Newfoundland, was appointed to ascertain the state of the Esquimaux on the Labrador Coast, in order to establish a mission among them. The following is an extract from Hickson's Journal :--
Visited the only resident family in the place, an Englishman, who has been united with an Esquimaux, by whom he had three children. She died about three years ago. I spoke to him on the all important concerns of his soul. We bowed our knees to the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the poor man expressed his warmest thanks ; having been so long with the natives, he possessed much information respecting them. He said, he believed they had but very confused notions of a Supreme Being, if they had any ; they had some notion of the existence of. the devil, whom they suppose to be the author of all pain ; and that in cases of dangerous illness, believing him to be the cause of it, and also supposing him to be present, the oldest person in the place hangs all the pot-crooks, or old hoops, or any such articles about him, and taking a poker, he turns over all the skins in the wigwam, intending to drive him away. I am also informed that they frequently strive to appease him by sitting in profound silence, insomuch that a child is not allowed to go quick across the floor. When this is ineffectual, they have recourse to sacrifice, which is generally that of killing their best dog. I have only heard of one instance of their having recourse to human sacrifice. About three years ago, an Indian man, supposing himself to be in dying circumstances, but believing that the devil would spare his life could he only accomplish the death of another, fixed upon a neighbour's wife who was pregnant, and he imposed the bloody task on his own wife ; she showed some reluctance, but he enforced his commands by seizing a hatchet and threatening to take away her life. She then prevailed upon another female to assist her, by whose help she hung up the poor unfortunate woman. But this did not prevent the death of her deluded partner, and she her-self has been almost frantic ever since.
" When an Esquimaux departs this life, his remains are carried away immediately, wrapped up in skins, and laid upon the surface of the ground, and a large pile of stones is raised over it ; with the corpse they bury the canoe, darts, kettles, &c., supposing that the deceased will have need of them.
"The Esquimaux are generally low in stature, their complexion of a dusky yellow, with broad foreheads, high cheek bones, small eyes, wide mouth, teeth white and regular. The chin, the cheek bones from the nose to the temples, and the fore-heads, of the elder females were many of them tattooed.
This is performed by pricking through the skin with a small sharp instrument and rubbing some dark substance into the wounds. This, it appears, is a custom only in use among those of riper years, as none of them in early life bear the marks. Their cassock, or upper garment for the summer, is made of swan-skin, which they procure from the merchants for seal-skins, &c. They are curiously wrought, and trimmed with different colours of thread and cloth. The females have a larger hood, in which they carry their children, &c. In the front, that part of it which serves as a very small apron is trimmed with pewter, cast in a small mould for that purpose.
Behind, they have long hair reaching to the ground. They also, as well as the men, wear small clothes, made of the same materials as their upper garment. They make their own boots of seal skin, after they have taken off the hair and dressed it. In the winter, their dress is principally of seal-skin, which they make in a manner which shows them to be possessed of considerable ingenuity.
" The morning and evening examinations of the candidates for baptism were seasons of much consolation ; and the improvement they make far exceeds my most sanguine expectations. I married six couples, and the deep seriousness of the poor Indians on these occasions would have reflected honour on long experienced Christians.
" 24th.-I had a good congregation in the morning when I expounded a portion of God's word, and questioned the candidates for baptism. A few other families came from distant parts of the Bay ; among them were three Englishmen, who had families by Esquimaux women, and who desired to be married. They afterwards got so much intoxicated that I fear their shameful conduct will prove very injurious to the natives, as they are in danger of supposing all to be Christians who come from Christian countries.
" 25th—This has been a day much to be remembered. At the morning prayer we were much crowded ; deep seriousness rested on every countenance, and I believe all were in a state for receiving good, excepting a few drunken Englishmen. Our house was far too small for our forenoon congregation. I first preached to as many as were able to understand me, and among these were English, Irish, Canadians, and Labradorians, who heard with attention. I had then to remove the Europeans to make room for the poor Esquimaux, to whom 1 preached through the interpreter. Their cheeks were soon bedewed with tears, and I was much interrupted by their expressions of approval. Some having come with expectations of being baptized, I explained to them the nature and obligations of that ordinance. On examination I found that two of them, father and son, had each of them two to concubines. It was not difficult to convince them of the evil of their doings ; and though it was generally supposed that the senior adulterer would have parted with his life rather than give up either of his concubines, the Lord applied what was spoken to his conscience, which caused him to tremble exceedingly, and he expressed a willingness to act in any way that I should direct. This person was taken by Captain Palliser to England, about .forty-five years ago, with his mother, who had a gown presented to her by the Queen. This gown, richly trimmed with gold, and very fresh, was worn by one of the women. The man bears the name of the above-mentioned Captain who took him. I had much comfort and enlargement in preaching to the same mixed crowd in the afternoon. After much deliberation, I admitted a few of the adults to baptism, whose minds I judged to be in a prepared state, with their children. It was truly pleasing to witness not only the adults, but the elder children, conducting themselves with so much propriety. Many of the Indians joined us again about 9 o'clock p.m., at our family altar, with some Europeans. May the good resulting from the Sabbath's labours be seen after many days !
" 26th.-Preached to an attentive congregation in one of the wigwams. The gratitude of the natives was very great, and expressed in the most feeling manner. When I questioned them whether they continued the use of family prayer, they answered in the affirmative. The Lord teach them to pray the effectual prayer !
" 28th.-A few of them assisted me to ascertain the probable number of the inhabitants of the Bay, which is as follows :
Real Esquimaux adults 100
Real Esquimaux children 60
Half Esquimaux 60
European settlers 90
Canadian settlers 16
Total number, exclusive of any other part of the coast. 326
" The connection between the English and Moravian Church has been remarkable from the beginning of the Reformation. Huss was the founder of the latter, and Wickliffe of the former. It was from Wickliffe's writings that Huss derived his knowledge of the true faith, and Wickliffe's protest against the sentence of burning pronounced upon the Hussites by the Arch-bishop of Prague first excited persecution against himself.
Hence, it is not strange that a strong sympathy should be felt and manifested by these Christian bodies towards each other, and it is delightful to observe the noble liberality which the prosperous Church of England has shown to her afflicted yet faithful sister at various periods of their history. This is one of many aspects in which our mother church has proved her-self to be the protectress of the ' Protestant religion,' and entitled herself to the love and gratitude of the Protestant world.
" This subject has been briefly alluded to on a former occasion, but it is believed that the facts are worthy of being more fully set forth.
" A volume is still extant which contains ' the Acts of the British Parliament touching the Moravian Brethren, A.D. 1749.' The occasion of these ' Acts' was a petition of Deputies from the United Brethren, for the Sanction and Encouragement of Parliament to their Settling in His Majesty's Colonies in America, especially in Georgia. Before leave was given them, the character and claims of the Brethren and their church underwent a severe investigation. Among other grounds of confidence which the deputies alleged, was, that the said church had been already countenanced by the King and State of England. To support this assertion, the deputies produced twelve vouchers, among which was a document containing an Account of the Distressed State of the Ancient Church of the Fraternal Unity, addressed to the Church of England, given in the Synodal Convention of Lyssa in Great Poland, Feb. 10, 1683 which account was recommended by Archbishop Sancroft, and Bishop Compton, of London, to ' the consideration of all pious and compassionate Christians.'
"In this address it was set forth (among other things), ' that the Bohemian Church had been free from her infancy, for al-most seven hundred years, from the encroachments of the Romish See ; but that crushed at last by its prevailing power, it was sinking apace with death and ruin ; when being ready to expire, she brought forth a Benoni, a progeny which, growing up in the several parts of Bohemia, animated and acted by one spirit, obtained the name of Fraternal Unity.'
" 'That this church, the heiress of the truly ancient faith, watered and enriched by the blood of Huss, and .Jerome of Prague, taking deep root in Bohemia, spread its boughs as far as Poland, renouncing the growing errors of Popery, and preserved the succession of Episcopal orders.
That King Frederick of Bohemia being routed and dispossessed of his realm, this church shared the same fate.
" ' That this church in Poland continued for many years prosperous, under several privileges granted and confirmed of diverse kings and princes, but nothing able to contend with the more potent strength of the Roman Catholics, she was bereft of her former protection, languishing ever since under the rage and fury of those who violate all faith.
That it was through the bounty of the English Church they were formerly saved from a fatal ruin, but that after so great suffering they have scarce recovered their spirits.' The deputies also produced an account of the sufferings of the Episcopal Reformed Churches, and an address to the Church of England, by the encouragement of George the First, and the solicitation of Archbishop Walker and Bishop Robinson, of London, A.D. 1715-6.
" So that on four different occasions, viz., at the dates of those two documents, 1683 and 1715, at the former ' period here referred to 1736, and again on occasion of this very application, 1749, substantial aid was given to the Moravian Brethren by the Anglican Church, together with the highest testimony to the validity of their claims, and again at the date of this very application, A.D. 1749.
Their petition, on this last occasion, was presented and strongly supported by General Oglethorpe. It was under consideration from February to May; in March it passed the House of Commons unanimously, and in the House of Lords, after a speech by the Earl of Halifax, and one by the Bishop of Worcester, in which he declared the approbation of the whole Episcopal Church, the Bill passed nem. con. The Venerable Bishop Sherlock, of London, at first objected, but after full consideration withdrew his opposition, and ever after became a a firm friend of the Brethren.
Again great calamities were experienced in their Continental settlements during the campaigns of 1803 and 1812-13, at which times large sums were remitted from England for their relief. Another fact is worthy of notice in this connection. Archbishop Potter, the well-known writer on Church policy, was waited on by a committee appointed by the Board of Control for the Colony, to desire his opinion concerning the Moravian Brethren, to know whether anything in their doings were so far repugnant to those of the Church of England as to make it improper to employ some of the brethren in instructing the negroes in Christianity. On this occasion the Arch-bishop was pleased to declare :
"' That he had been long acquainted, by books, with the church of the Moravian Brethren, and they were Apostolical and Episcopal, not containing any doctrines repugnant to the Thirty-nine Articles, and that he was confirmed in this opinion by the conferences he had lately had with Count Zinzendorf.'
" The Archbishop addressed to Count Zinzendorf, on the occasion of his election to the office of Bishop in the Moravian Church, a congratulatory Latin epistle, of which the following is a translation :
"' John, by Divine Providence, Archbishop of Canterbury, to the Right Rev. Count Nicholas Lewis, Bishop of the Moravian Church, sendeth greeting :
"' Most sincerely and cordially do I congratulate you upon your having been lately raised to the sacred and justly celebrated episcopal chair of the Moravian Church (by whatever clouds it may be now obscured) by the grace of Divine Providence and the plaudits of the heavenly host ; for the opinion we have conceived of you does not suffer us to doubt it. It is the bur-den of my ardent prayer, that this honour conferred, and which your merit so justly entitles you to, may prove no less beneficial to the church, than at all times acceptable to you and yours. For insufficient as I am, I should be entirely unworthy of the high station in which Divine Providence lias placed me, were I not to show myself ever ready to use every exertion in my power for the assistance of the universal church of God ; and especially to love and embrace your church, united with us in the closest bond of love, and which has hitherto, as we have been informed, invariably maintained both a pure faith and primitive discipline, neither intimidated by dangers, nor seduced by the manifold temptations of Satan. I request, in return, the support of your prayers, and that you will salute, in my name, your brother Bishop, as well as the whole Christian flock over which Christ has made you an overseer. Farewell.
" ' Given at Westminster, July 10, 1737.' "
In 1825, another of the Wesleyan Missionaries at Newfoundland, the Rev. Richard Knight* visited Labrador. The following is an extract from his letter, addressed to the Wesleyan Missionary Society in London
" We sailed from Brigus on the 6th of July, in the schooner Surprise, belonging to C. Cousins, Esq., who himself formed one of our company, which I hailed as a most favourable circumstance. 11th. By noon we arrived abreast of Cape Charles, the south extremity of the coast of Labrador. We had designed to anchor in Battle Harbour for the night, in order to get some instructions respecting the coast, as all on board were strangers to it, and the numerous islands make the navigation very dangerous ; but we could not effect our purpose. The wind came ahead and blew so violently, that we were obliged to bear away for Cape Charles Harbour. To this place, the Indians some years ago resorted much ; at present, however, there is but one female there. I hoped to be able to gather the few Protestants in this harbour for Divine service, but found it impracticable. 12th.-Visited Battle Harbour. This place has derived its name from a battle which was once fought here, between some Europeans and the natives. Tradition reports that the Indians were at that time numerous on these parts of Labrador. We could only stay here a few hours. During this time we distributed some tracts, these were much wanted, and I trust by the blessing of God, will be of use to those who have received them. 17th. By noon we arrived at the Seal Islands. Here we did not intend to tarry, our object being to proceed to Batteau Harbour, where many of the inhabitants of Newfoundland prosecute the fishery, and at which place we had contemplated holding divine service. I was much pleased to find them resting on the Sabbath-day, as most of them are my stated hearers when in Newfoundland. I went on shore, and in the evening preached to about fifty persons, who heard me with much attention, and with few exceptions manifested by their presence, that they were glad to embrace an opportunity of hearing the word of God, on the desolate shores of Labrador. After the public service 1 baptized a child of European parents. Batteau is a fine harbour well adapted for fishing, and abounding with excellent sea-fowl. The land is barren, and though an island, it abounds with hares, wild geese, foxes and deer. On Monday morning, I visited Black Tickle. To this place I was under the necessity of going for my boat, which had been taken thither by Mr. Nathaniel Munden, of Brigus, our own schooner being too small to take it on her deck. At this place I fell in with the first Indian family I had seen, consisting of the Indian, his wife and a fine boy, they were about to leave the harbour when I first saw them ; but anxious to hold an interview I ran and called to them. The Indian could speak a little English. The wife and child either knew nothing of this language, or would hold no conversation in it, for I could get no reply to several questions I put to them. The Indian had been informed who I was, and was very glad to see me. Before my return to Batteau, I visited a place called Domino. Here is a mercantile establishment, but no settlers. I found Mr. Smith, the agent of this establishment, exceedingly kind. The Indian above-mentioned is well known to this gentleman. He supplied him the last fishing season with every-thing necessary for the fishery, and in the fall, at the time for adjusting the accounts, it was found that the Indian had a balance in his favour. Mr. Smith showed me his account, and I am happy in being able to say that no advantage had been taken of the Indian's ignorance of the transactions of trade. He was charged fair prices for all he had taken, and credited in current price for all he had remitted. Such merchants -would be a blessing to the poor Indians of Labrador. The case of this Indian may be viewed as a fair specimen of what the Esquimaux (to say the least), are capable of being brought to. Here is a family purely Indian, who by dint of their own industry, support themselves without the savage desultory mode of living which characterises their tribe in general.
" 24th.-Left Batteau Harbour, and had a sate and speedy passage to Sandwich Bay. We arrived at half-past three o'clock at a place called Handy-Harbour. One of the people residing here came on board, and I proposed preaching to them in the evening. About forty were present, partly English and partly American, all of whom manifested much attention. In Handy-Harbour are no Indians, nor any settlers ; it is merely visited by some fishermen from Newfoundland and America. I was pleased to find that the former were so far regarding the Sabbath as to rest from labour. On returning from this place we saw the Aurora Borealis, and entered into the beauty of the description by Thomson :
` Silent from the north
A blaze of meteors shoots : ensweeping first The lower skies, they all at once converge High to the crown of Heaven, and all at once Relapsing quick, as quickly re-ascend, And mix and thwart, extinguish and renew All ether coursing in a maze of light.'
" Without seeing those lights under similar circumstances, no one can properly appreciate the descriptive excellence of these lines.
29th.-We put out for Esquimaux-Bay, but the wind soon came ahead, and we were obliged to put into Partridge-Harbour. Here are no Indians or settlers, but several families visit this place from Brigus. All was hurry : the people being engaged in what is called the heart of the fishery ; I could not therefore publicly perform divine service. I visited and prayed, however, with some of the families. They were very desirous for me to stay with them the ensuing Sabbath, which I should gladly have done had not my passage been already so long, and the necessity of my being in Esquimaux-Bay so urgent.
30th.-Put out from Partridge-Harbour. Soon after the wind came against us ; but the weather promising to continue fine, and the tide not running very strong against us, we deter-mined on staying out all night.
" 31st.-This morning we had the entrance of Esquimaux-Bay in full view ; but it took up the greatest part of the day to get as far as Tub-Island, at the entrance of the bay. We arrived here about three o'clock p.m., and soon after I was visited by Mr. Craze, from whom Mr. Hickson received much kindness during his visit to this bay last summer. I found him equally kind to me. He appears to take much interest in the projected mission, and will, I am fully persuaded, render all the aid he can to the Missionary who may be appointed. I requested the favour of holding service in his house, a proposal to which he most readily acceded. About six o'clock I repaired thither, with Mr. Cousins, and as many of the crew as could be exempted from duty. We had a congregation soon collected, amounting to about seventy, half of whom were Indians. On seeing the latter crowd into the house, their strange attire , brown complexion, and method of huddling themselves together in one corner of the room, as if conscious that they could not presume on mixing with Europeans and, more especially on reflecting upon their moral destitution, feelings were excited within me which altogether elude description. Their attention was at once fixed on me, while I addressed the congregation from, ' God so loved the world,' &c. But though I felt much comfort in speaking to those of my audience who could urderstand me ; yet when I reflected, that, to one-half of my hearers I was as a barbarian, and they as barbarians unto me, my mind was pained. I could give them no instruction from the want of some one to interpret. I found that the Indians had been anxiously expecting me ; yet that some of them had left the harbour under the impression that I should not come. Some were present who were not in the bay last summer ; these had lately arrived from the north, having heard that a missionary was coming to reside in Esquimaux-Bay Two of them could read the Esquimaux language, and could sing some of the Moravian hymns. I gave them to understand that I would visit them next morning.
" Aug. 1st.—According to promise, I went with Mr. Cousins to the Indians, who had erected their wigwams on the opposite side of the harbour. They were in anxious expectation of my coming. I entered the first wigwam I came to, which I had no sooner done, than the Indians flocked in. The place was excessively warm, and the effiuvia of the seal skins was very offensive. I made a sign to them to lift the coverings of their wigwams at the bottom for the circulation of the air ; they saw at once what I wished, and readily complied. I had an Indian with me who knew a little English, and, for the want of a better, I employed him as my interpreter. Having been informed the preceding evening that some of this group of Indians were good singers, I requested that they should sing a hymn. They replied that they could not sing in my tongue. I told them I did not expect that. The few who could read then took their books, handed one to me, and made a sign for me to come and sit down among them. This I did, and they then burst forth with one sweet accord in praising God. This constituted an event in my life which I shall never forget. I have heard singing scientifically performed, but this exceeded all. Such melody I never before heard; from the most aged to the child of four or five years old all moved in the sweetest unison. I have often heard tunes, the harmonies of which were delightful here, was one solemn tune which quite overcame me ; the air was most affectingly plaintive. They sung ten verses, and I am compelled to say, that I thought it the best singing I had ever heard of this I am sure, it was to me the most affecting.
" In this opinion I am not singular, for Crantz, in his history of Greenland, says, he was so pleased with some of the Esquimaux singers in that country, that he thought they ex-celled some of the congregations in the civilized parts of the world. He describes, with the greatest accuracy, in that ac-count, the manner of the singing he heard. Like the Greenlanders, the voices of the men are low, and rather hoarse ; the women's soft and clear ; and they sing so regularly and harmoniously, that at a distance the whole seemed as if it were but one voice. I felt desirous of ascertaining how they had thus learned to praise God ; and found, on enquiry, that two of the females had been at the Moravian settlement ; these had learned to read the Esquimaux language, and had books given them by their teachers. These females had married two Indians further to the southward, and had taught their husbands and children some of the hymns, and the tunes to which they are set. Brown, in his ` Propagation of Christianity among the Heathen,' observes, relative to the Labrador Mission established by the Moravians, that the missionaries complained, ' A number of the baptized, particularly from Hope-dale, were seduced to the south, where they purchased fire-arms, associated with the Heathen, and plunged themselves, not only into spiritual, but into temporal ruin.' This, to the minds of those holy men of God, must have been exceedingly grievous ; but the circumstance I have mentioned would, in a great measure afford them consolation were it known to them. The Indians alluded to above were not baptized by them ; yet the books they gave are used, the hymns they taught are sung, and the excellent music to which these hymns are set vibrates its melodious sounds in those wild wastes of Labrador to which their pious labours have not extended.
" I conversed with the Indians as well as I could through my imperfect interpreter, and, as I knew that, though they could not fully understand me, God would hear prayer on their behalf, we bent our knees, and supplicated the throne of mercy. In short, on parting, I feel no hesitancy in saying, I could reflect on the past hour as one of the most happy and interesting of my life. But this group of Indians must not be taken as a sample of what they are in general in Esquimaux-Bay. These are an exempt company, and are indebted to the Moravians for what they know above the rest. I went on the evening of the same day to Cuff Harbour, where I found Indians and half Indians, eighteen in number, but could say nothing to them for want of an interpreter. One of them, an old female was sick. I was told that she knew a little English, but could not prevail on her to converse. From her husband I learned she was born near the Moravian establishment at Hopedale, and was the first scholar that went to the school in that place. I received very kind attention from Mr. Langley, from Newfoundland, who has a summer establishment here.
" 3rd.-We arrived this evening at Cullingham's Tickle, the place of Mr. H.'s residence last summer. But, quite contrary to my expectations, and much to my regret, the Indians had left the place. About twenty had gone for the North Point, a place ten leagues distant, and the remainder had gone up the Bay. Having expected my arrival, they had waited for nearly a fortnight, and had left the place, thinking my coming hopeless. I should have been just in time for them had not our passage been about four times the usual period.
4th.-Went up the Bay in search of the Indians, and fell in with about thirty, and obtained information of the residence of twenty besides these. I requested their attendance as soon as they could conveniently come. I conversed with those I saw, though very imperfectly ; my interpreter having a very defective knowledge of the English language."
Subsequently the Rev. George Ellidge visited Labrador, and remained a summer and winter. A Wesleyan Mission was, however, not established, and no minister of that denomination visited it again until the summer of 1858, when the Rev. J. S. Peach spent a few months there, and, in 1859, the Rev. Charles Cornben was there for a few months. In 1849, a minister of the Church of England in Newfoundland, the Rev. Mr. Gifford, was stationed at Labrador. The following is an account of the Bishop's visit during the same year :
" Monday, Aug 13th.—The Church Ship sailed to Red Bay, which is the limit of Mr. Gifford's mission to the north, as Blanc Sablon is to the south. These places are thirty-three miles apart, and as many miles, or more, of the opposite Newfoundland coast will be included in this mission. The settled inhabitants number about 400 souls. The Church Ship was detained in Red Bay by fogs and contrary winds four days, during which services were regularly performed on shore, and the children baptized and received into the church. It was the first visit of a clergyman of our church to the settlement. Here Mr. Gifford was left to begin his ministry single-handed, but ' not alone,' on Friday the 17th of August, when the Church Ship sailed from Battle Harbour.
" Saturday, Aug. 18th.-On approaching Battle Harbour, the wind failed and the Church Ship was towed in by five fishing boats, in gallant style. 19th.--Divine Service was twice celebrated in the same store as last year, which, as before, was on both occasions quite full. On the following day, after Prayers in the store, the Bishop explained to the inhabitants in what manner he expected, through the liberality of the merchants (Messrs. Hunt & Co., and Messrs. Slade), and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, with their own contributions, to establish both a clergyman and schoolmaster in this Harbour ; the former to have his head-quarters here, and to visit from thence the whole shore from Henley Harbour to Seal Islands, ninety miles ; the schoolmaster and schoolmistress to be permanently resident, and to receive boarders from the neighbouring settlements. The inhabitants cheerfully engaged for their part £75 a year ; and the same sum is expected from the other settlements on this line of coast. The chief difficulty in establishing the Mission arises from the necessary buildings, and particularly of a suitable residence.
" During the summer and autumn months of 1857 the Bishop accomplished another of his long and perilous voyages of visitation along the coasts of Newfoundland, and up to the Missions in the Labrador. In one place—St. Anthony, where the Hawk was detained by fog and contrary winds many services were performed on beard, and the people were visited in their houses. There was a great demand for Bibles and other religious books, and some of the largest and most expensive were bought and cheerfully paid for. A lay-reader was also appointed for the people living at too great a distance to come within the Missionary's ordinary circuit.
" At Battle Harbour the Church was consecrated, and a considerable number of candidates !presented for Confirmation ; among them five Esquimaux Indians, the first, it is supposed, of that race ever confirmed by a Bishop on the coast of Labrador.
" Several persons were baptized and received into the Church; some of them from Quirpon on the northern coast of Newfoundland ; and an earnest hope was expressed that the Bishop would be able to visit that settlement and others iii their vicinity, on what is called the French shore. No clergyman of our Church had ever been among them.
" Tuesday, Aug. 21.—The Bishop had not intended to extend his voyage beyond Battle Harbour, having many settlements to visit and services to perform along the eastern coast of Newfoundland ; but hearing that his presence was much desired at St. Francis' Harbour, it was determined this morning, the wind being fair, to proceed. The same evening, during Divine Service, his Lordship baptized the child of the respected agent (Mr. Saunders), and three Esquimaux children. On the following morning, his Lordship baptized and received into the Church a family of Esquimaux Indians (four adults and three children), and celebrated the Lord's Supper. The graveyard, which was consecrated last year, bad been enclosed with a neat and substantial fence ; and a strong desire being now expressed to erect a Church in the settlement, the Bishop selected and set apart a convenient site. After these services the Church Ship began her homeward course, leaving St. Francis' Harbour about four o'clock on Wednesday, August 22.
" Thursday, Aug. 23, and Friday (St. Bartholomew's day), were spent in Henley Harbour, and on each Divine Service was performed on board the Church Ship for the benefit of the inhabitants, who attended in considerable numbers, particularly on the Holy-day and several children were received into the Church. There are not more than four or five resident families in this and the neighbouring Harbour of Chateau Bay, but many families visit the place every summer to fish, and traders from Nova Scotia and the United States. The fishery appears to be prosecuted with success.
" Saturday, August 25.—An attempt was made to cross the Straits, in order to pass the Sunday at Quirpon on the Newfoundland shore, but the wind failed, and the Church Ship returned to Chateau Bay.
"On Sunday, August 26, Divine Service was celebrated publicly on board the Church Ship twice, and in the morning the congregrtion, with the ship's company, numbered sixty-three persons, who were all conveniently accommodated in the cabin. Most of the strangers were from Carbonear. The Bishop preached on each occasion ; in the evening his Lordship visited a sick person on shore.
" The Rev. A. Gifford, having been called by the death of his father, and his own failing health, to leave his lonely Mission late in the autumn of 1856, spent three months in Newfound-land, supplying the vacancy caused by the lamented death of the Rev. J. G. Mountain.
" With regard to his own Mission, he states that, by the expiration of the lease of lands purchased by the Mission, and held hitherto by a Dissenter, there is a prospect of the establishment of a school, to be supported in part by the contributions of the people. He speaks in grateful terms of the liberality of his little flock, which, in spite of his absence in the winter, has exceeded its former measure. Mr. Gifford has good hope of seeing the Church (the foundations of which have been long laid) at Red Bay, ` finished this season.' At this, and another Station, there are indications of an increased ` attachment to the soil,' and a prospect of a settled population. The Bishop, during a fortnight's visit to these distant shores, confirmed fifteen young persons, and consecrated the Church at Forteau by the title of St. Peter.
" The Mission of the Rev. A. Gifford includes twenty-one harbours on Labrador, and nine on Newfoundland. The distance travelled in visiting them in succession is seventy-seven miles of water and eighty-seven of land. The population varies from 450 in winter to 832 in summer, more than half being members of the Church of England. From October to May Mr. Gifford's ministrations are necessarily confined to Labrador; but as soon as the sea is open he sails to the opposite coast of Newfoundland, and visits the Stations in order, celebrating Divine Service, and if possible gathering a congregation in each house in which he lodges. His attempts to establish a school in the Mission have not met with permanent success. The Mission contributes X51 annually to the Diocesan Church Society."
The Rev. Mr. Gifford states, that during the winter of 1857-8, he travelled twice to the settlements of Forteau, and thrice to those in the West, the five journeys comprising a distance of 235 miles, performed over snow and ice, with the aid of dogs and a sleigh (comitique). Many visits were paid to less remote places. The congregation at Forteau improved in numbers and steadiness of attendance. The Chapel at Red Bay was not then begun.
Some communicants have been added to Mr. Gifford's list, but he is still unable to acquire the influence which he desires for the good of agents and men in some of the Jersey fishing establishments. The following extract from his journal will give a fair notion of his labours :
"December 31st.—Weather being fine (glass — 10°), we set out at 10 a.m., on my proposed journey to the west. The (logs running well, in scarce ten minutes we reached the opposite side of the Bay. I visited and read prayers for the sick child, and think him much worse bodily than upon my last visit. We walked up the steep acclivity of the western hill, encouraging the good dogs by kind words, to draw up the comitique : for the renewal of their better speed at the top, gave them and ourselves a few moments' breathing time, and then proceeded with comfort and speed another stage of about ten miles. In crossing the plateau between Forteau and Beau St. Clair, we pass over a series of fine ' ponds,' (our most magnificent sheets of fresh water are always thus humbly described), and tracts of underwood, which but for the snow and ice of winter would be utterly impassable. The weather was somewhat too severe to be quite agreeable, yet upon reaching L'Anse au Cotard, at about one, and remembering the shortness of the last day of the year, we took some slight refreshment, appointed a part of the coming Sunday, if God will, to be spent here, and proceeded again, calling at Blanc Sablon, and reaching Grand Point at 5 p.m. At this point I suppose we had travelled about eighteen miles, and I was very glad to see the poor dogs (eight in number) untackled and led to supper that is to their only daily meal. At this place I found C. D. quite well and very glad to see me. Poor fellow ! in August last, I attended him, as I thought, on his death-bed. He seems deeply thankful for his restoration to health, and is, I hope, drawn nearer God by sense of his mercies. The other family, close neighbours, I was grieved to find were holding a social meeting, of such a character as to prevent my having public worship as I had hoped and intended. I spent the evening with C. D., and concluded it, as I always do wherever I lodge, with family worship, comprising the reading and explanation of scripture and prayer."