Cider And Beverage Making
( Originally Published Early 1900's )
1. CIDER, GRAPE JUICE, ETC.—To Keep from Fermentation.–4. A writer in the Prairie Farmer says " that M. Pasteur, the great French scientist, has discovered that any fruit juice which'is liable to ferment, can be kept any length of time by heating to 140° F., and then sealing it up, while hot, in air-tight vessels," and continues:
II. ;" This, is nothing new. Cider brought to a boil, skimmed, and then put into, tight .10-gallon kegs will keep as long as wanted in cool cellars. Those who are fond of sweet cider can in this way provide to have it at all times. If a slight fermentation is desired, a gallon or two may be drawn into a common jug and exposed to the air for a day or two, to give it a slight sparkle on the tongue. Cider should be boiled in brass, copper or iron, not in tin or galvanized iron pans."
III. This is confirmed by the following, by bottling while hot, by a writer to the Elmira (N. Y.) Farmers' Club, who says: " Cider may be kept by heating to the boiling point when sweet, just from the press; skim and bottle while hot. Also that apples may be kept fresh until new fruit comes again by packing in hemlock sawdust. They should be first put into piles to sweat."
IV. Another writer claims that " there is no benefit from any of the bung-hole additions," but "to make cider keep sweet have it made late in the fall from sound, ripe fruit, and put the casks in a cool place till spring; then bottle, cork tight and tie the corks down. Lay the bottles on their sides in a cool dry cellar and you will be able to give your harvest hands a sip of cider at dinner any year.
Remarks—Unless the cider is racked off, so as to get. rid of the pomace (which is got rid of by the heating, or boiling, and skimming in the other cases), as soon as it has become clear by working or fermentation and settled, I ascertain it must become quite sharp before spring. Some persons, however, prefer it sharp; but as the sharpness comes from fermentation, which produces alcohol, if no alcohol is desired in it, the fermentation must be avoided; and that is done by the heating to 140 degrees and bottling; as M. Pasteur, in I., above, or by boiling and skimming, as in II., which removes the pomace, as it rises on being boiled, then bunging up in small, or 10-gal. kegs, though I think barrels will do as well. The skimming should be done as it rises, before it really boils, adding a little cold cider, if need be, till all is well removed, else, as they say, the pomice will boil in," become firm and settle, which, if it does, must be avoided in pouring off for bottles or kegs.
V. Grape Juice, or that of other fruits treated in the same way as M. Pasteur and others recommend, bottling or canning while hot, and placing in a cool cellar, before any fermentation has begun, the result has been, and therefore will be the same. Thus heating and canning, or bottling grape juice you have an unfermented wine for communions, which does not intoxicate; hut it never does, until after fermentation has taken place, which cannot occur without the presence of air. See unfermented wines below, where water and sugar are added.
2. At a cider-makers' convention recently, a Mr. Cane, of Lenawee Co., Mich., claimed that sugar, 2 lb., and alcohol, 2 qts. to each lb., was better than lime and all other compounds to keep cider sweet I think it is a fact, even with 20 times 2 lbs. to a bbl. With that I will guarantee it, even: without racking off till spring.
3. Bottling Cider, to Keep for Years.—A writer the New England Farmer gives his plan of bottling cider that will keep for years; and its excellence was endorsed by the editor. He says: Leach and filter the cider through pure sand, after it has worked and fermented, and before it has soured. Put no alcohol or other substances with it. Be sure that the vessels you put it in are perfectly clean and sweet. After it is leached or filtered, put it in barrels or casks filled, leaving no room for air; bung them tight, and keep it where it won't freeze till February or March, then put it into champagne bottles filled; drive the corks and wire them. It should be done in a cellar or room that is comfortable for work. The best cider is late made, or made when it is as cold as can be and not freeze."
Remarks.—The leaching or filtering through sand, takes out the pomace, as the heating above does; but know ye, you cannot filter it until after it has worked, and the pomace settled; as the pomace clogs the sand. I wish to say here, I see it stated that 1 bu. of blood beets to every 7 bu. of apples makes a cider richer, and of superior flavor to that made of apples alone. I think, too, it would give it a fine color like wine.
4. Boiled Cider—How to Do It, and Its Uses. - This is prepared by boiling sweet cider down in the proportion of 4 gals. to 1 (I have always bottled only 3 to 1). Skim it well during boiling, and at the last take especial care that it does not scorch. A brass kettle, well cleansed with salt and vinegar, and washed with clear water, is the best thing to boil it in. For tart pies for summer use it is excellent; and for mince pies it is superior to brandy or any distilled liquor, and in fruit cake it is preferable to brandy, and also nice to stew dried apples in for sauce. It is a very convenient article in a family.—Catcntry Gentleman.
1. WINE-Wild Grape, to Make.—I had occasion at one time, in Ann Arbor, to use some wine, and a neighbor woman told me she had some very nice of her own make. I obtained some, and proved it to be as she said, I found it was made of wild grape juice-half-and-half-with water. First having mashed. the grapes and let it stand 2 or 3 days, then press out and strain, adding the water and white sugar, 16 lbs. to each 5 gallon keg, and let work '2 weeks, filling up full with more of the same, and bung tight. In February, when I obtained it, it was very nice indeed. Almost, if not quite, equal to port —better than half the port we buy.
2. Blackberry Wine, to Make Properly.—Take, of course, clean kegs or casks; let the berries be ripe; extract the juice with a small wine or cider press, or it can be done through coarse cotton cloths; then pass the juice through a strainer; let the juice stand for 2 or 3 days in the tub until the first fermentation is over, then skim off the top carefully, and add to every quart of juice 3 lbs. of the best yellow sugar, and water enough to make 1 gallon. Put all in a kettle and let it come to a boil, and then skim again. When cool put in a keg, fill up to the bung, place in the cellar and let it remain there with the bung off until after the second fermentation, which will be in 4 or 5 days. Meantime keep the cask full by pouring in wine that has been reserved for the purpose. After the second fermentation put in the bung tight and let it remain in the cask several months, say to the following February or March, when it should be carefully drawn off and put in bottles, or, what is better demijohns of from 1 to 5 gallons. It will keep for any length of time with-out the addition of a drop of whiskey or brandy, and will prove a very agreeable and wholesome drink.—" Sophia B," in Germantown Telegraph.
Remarks.—Mostly used as a medicine in looseness of the bowels, debility etc. ; taken immediately after meals, as a tonic, in quantities of a wine-glassful or more, as needed.
3. Unfermented Wines, to Make.—The juice of grapes, blackberries, raspberries, etc., pressed out without mashing the seeds, adding water, 1 pt., and sugar, % lb. for each pint of the juice; then boil a few minutes, skimming if any sediment or scum rises, and bottling while hot, corking tightly, cutting off, the corks, and dipping the tops into wax, and keeping in a dry, cool place, gives a wine that no one would object 'to, if iced when drank. They are nourishing, satisfying to the thirst, and not intoxicating, because there has been no fermentation. Made of grapes, this wine is in ''very way suitable for communion, but might be preferred as first mentioned in V., under Cider, Grape Juice, etc., to Keep, above, where no water nor sugar are used.
1. BEERS—Ginger, English.—Loaf sugar, 2 1/2 lbs.; cream of tar-tar, 1 1/2 ozs. ; ginger root, 1 1/2 ozs. ; 2 lemons; fresh brewer's yeast, 2 table-spoonfuls; water, 3 gals. Directions-Bruise the ginger, and put into a large 'earthenware pan, with the sugar and cream of tartar; peel the lemons, squeeze out the juice, strain it, and add, with the peel, to the other ingredients; then pour over the water boiling hot. When it has stood until it is only just warm, add the yeast, stir the contents of the pan, cover with a cloth, and let it remain near the fire for 12 hours. Then skim off the yeast and pour the liquor off into another vessel, taking care not to shake it, so as to leave the sediment; bottle it immediately, cork it tightly; in 3 or 4 days it will be fit for use.
2. Ginger Pop.—White sugar, lb; cream of tartar and ginger root, bruised, each, oz.; juice and grated yellow of 1 lemon; water, 1 gal. fresh, yeast, 1 table-spoonful; ess. of winter green or sassafras as you prefer, or half as. much of each, if a mixed flavor is liked. DIRECTIONS—Put all into a jar, except the yeast and ess.; and pour out over the water; boiling hot; cover, and let stand until it is only luke-warm, and add the yeast and ess., and let stand in a cool place 24 hours, strain and bottle, securing the corks tightly. It will be ready in about 3 days. More or less flavor may be used to suit different tastes.
3. Cream Beer or Soda, any Flavor.—Sugar, 2 1/4 lbs. ; citric acid, 2 ozs. ; juice of 1 lemon; water, 3 pts. DIRECTIONS—Dissolve by heat, and boil 5 minutes; when cold add the beaten whites of 3 eggs, beaten into a small cup of flour; and then stir in the ex. of lemon, or the ex. of any other flavor you desire; bottle and keep cool; put 2 table-spoonfuls more or less as you prefer into a tumbler, of cold water, and stir in 3,' to 1/2 tea-spoonful of soda, and drink at your leisure, as the eggs and flavor holds a cream on top.
Summer Drink, Pleasant for Sick or Well Persons.—Mash a few currants, and pour on them a little water, strain, sweeten, and add sufficient cold water -Co suit the taste, though it is best to use the currants pretty freely, and sugar accordingly, as the acid of the currant makes this drink peculiarly grateful to the sick as well as those in health, satisfying the thirst of either. Currant jelly in cold water makes a good substitute for currants; and is next to that, of tamarinds, which is undoubtedly the best to allay the thirst of fever patients of anything known. Lemons do very well. See next receipt.
Lemon Syrup, to Prepare, When Lemons are Cheap.-A very handy way of supplying summer drinks, or even for winter, when lemons, are at a low figure, is to take any quantity, press the hand upon each, and roll it back and forth briskly, to break the cells, and make the juice press out more easily into the bowl, never into tin, as it gives a bad taste from the action of the acid upon the tin. Remove all the pulp from the peels, leaving the rind thin, cut them up, and boil a few minutes in water, 1 pt. to a doz. peels; strain the water, and add the juice to it by measure, and put nice white sugar, 1 lb. to each pt, there was of the juice; leave in boil for 10 to 20 minutes to form the syrup, then bottle and cork tightly. One to 2 table-spoonfuls to a glass of cold water gives you a cool, very healthful and very pleasant drink, for sick or well, at any time of the year; and a currant syrup may be made in the same way, using about half as much more sugar to each pint.
Lemon, and Other Syrups, for Fountains, Home Use, or the Sick.—Put in 4 ozs. of citric acid in a bottle with soft water, 1/2 pt. To lemon, pine apple, orange, or any of the acid belay syrups, put 1/2 oz. of the above solution into 1 pt. bottle, add 2 drs. of ex. of lemon, or any of the ethers named, and fill with simple syrup, shake, and 'tis ready for use. One table-spoonful of this syrup to a glass of water makes a very satisfactory chink for the sick or well. When made in a glass, if effervescence is desired, stir in % tea-spoonful, or a little less, soda.
For Sarsaparilla, Vanilla, Etc. That have no acids in their composition no acids should be put in—still they will not effervesce with soda unless-the acid is used.
Remarks.—I have used the lemon syrup made as above, 1 tea-spoonful, and 1 tea-spoonful of sugar put in pt. of hot water, which makes it very palatable. When taken an hour before meals it has no injurious effect upon the stomach or other parts of the system. See Hot Water for Dyspepsia for example.
Lemonade—Portable, Convenient and Excellent.-Powdered tartaric, or citric acid (the latter is preferable), 1 oz.; powdered sugar, 6 ozs.; extract of lemon, 2 drs. Directions—Mix thoroughly and let dry in the sun. Rub thoroughly together after drying, divide into 23 powders. One makes a glass of good sweet lemonade. Handy to have when going hunting or picnicing.—San Francisco Cook.
1. SUMMER DRINKS—For the Field or Workshop, Nourishing as well as Allaying Thirst.—Make oatmeal into a thin gruel; then add a little salt, and sugar to taste, with a little grated nutmeg and onewell-beaten egg to each gallon, well stirred in while yet warm. This was first suggested by the Church of England leaflets put out among the farmers and others to discourage them from carrying whiskey into the field.
2. If the above plan is too much trouble, although it is, indeed, very nourishing and satisfactory, take the Scotch plan of stirring raw oatmeal into, the bucket of cold water and stir when dipped up to drink. I drank of this at the building of the New York and Brooklyn bridge, which I visited with my son while in New York in the Centennial year of 1876, on our way from Philadelphia, and. we were highly pleased with it. As near as I could judge, 1/2 to 1 pint was stirred into a common 12-quart pail. The workmen drank of it freely, preferring it to plain water very much.
Home-Made Filter, Cheap and Very Satisfactory.-Take a. large flower - pot, put a piece of sponge over the hole in the bottom, fill full of equal parts of clean sand and charcoal the size of a pea; over this lay a woolen cloth large enough to hang over the sides of the pot. Pour water into the cloth and it will come out pure after the dust from the coal has been run off by a few fillings. When it works too slow take off the woolen cloth and wash it thoroughly and replace it again is all that will be required for a long time.