Making Inks & Dyes
( Originally Published Early 1900's )
INKS, Black.—Inks of late years are mostly made from the analine colors, which have been brought to such perfection as to make good ink, by putting the right amount of powder to the certain amount of soft water. John B. Wade, No. 40 Murray street, New York, deals in them, but druggists can furnish them anywhere, and others will of course soon deal in all these colors.
I. The black is made by using what is called "nigrosine" or black analine; 1 oz. to water 1 gal.
II. Violet, which is a very popular color, is made by using Hoff man's violet, 3 B., 1 oz., water 1 gal. Directions-Dissolve the powder with a little alcohol or boiling water; and if desired to use as a copying ink, sugar and gum Arabic, in the proportions given in the black ink from nut galls and log-wood below.
III. Blue is made by using Lieman soluble blue, oz, to water 3 gals.
Remarks.—I have these receipts from a nephew of mine, and have not personally tested them, but I have others (see below as to 3 of these colors). Still it looks to me this would be rather pale, then try% gal. of water only to the oz. of the soluble blue, and if this is darker than needed take a tea-spoonful of it and add a tea-spoonful of water, this would ho equivalent to 1 gal., and so if it takes 3 tea-spoonfuls of water to make the desired shade, it will take the full 3 gals. This will be better than if I had tested it myself, as it puts so many upon a plan to experiment for themselves.
Bluing for Clothes.—And by the way now this soluble blue is just the thing to make bluing for clothes being washed. But where the common soluble blue or Chinese blue is kept and used by painters, we put 1 oz. to 1 qt. of water, then a table-spoonful or two is enough for a tub of clothes, the woman judging for herself the depth of shade, putting in more or less to suit.
IV. Red ink is made with cosine T. extra, or J. yellowish shade, oz. to water 1 gal.
V. Green is made very nice, by using methyl green, B. bluish dark shade, 1/2 to 1 oz. to water 1 gal.
Remarks.—I think all the powder should be dissolved in a little alcohol, else boiling water as with the violet No. 2. These are all analine inks, or colors, although they have different names to distinguish them. The nephew that sent me these recipes also sent writing done with the red, black, and the violet. They were as nice shades as could be desired. Any one can make as dark, deep shade as they may choose by first using only half the water, then adding more as they prefer.
2. Black Ink, With Nut Galls and Logwood for Writing and Copying.—Inks made from the nut galls alone as the coloring agent are not as good a black as those made with the addition of logwood chips; hence we say Logwood chips, 1 oz.; nut galls in coarse powder which have not been eaten by moths or worms, lbs.; purified copperas, 3 ozs.; acetate of copper (verdigris), 1/2 oz.; 'pulverized sugar, 3 ozs., and gum Arabic, 4 ozs.; soft water 1 gal. If not to be used as a copying ink no sugar need he used and only 2 or 3 ozs. of the gum Arabic to bold the colors suspended in the ink else they settle. DIRECTIONS-Boil the logwood chips in the water for an hour Or two, or as long as a woman would boil it for coloring; when cool, strain, making up for evaporation with more hot water; bruise the best blue galls, coarsely and put over the fire again till it begins to boil, adding the other articles and set away until it acquires the desired blackness, strain and bottle-for use.
Remarks.—If properly made it is a black ink, at once, and all the time, does not fade, and is therefore suitable for all records. The others are cheaper, and a little less trouble to make, but do not give permanent satisfaction.
3. Black Copying Ink, Cheap.—Ex. of logwood, 3/4 oz.; alum,. powdered, 160 grs.; bi-chromate of potash, 48 grs. soft water, 1 pt. Directions—Dissolve the ex. and other drugs in half of the water, and percolate, the rest of the water through the drugs
Remarks.—,T his percolation is the same as straining, only it is done through filtering paper in a glass funnel or tunnel, by druggists, the paper can be got of the druggist, and put into a common tin tunnel, such as used in almost every family in the country, the puckering of the paper as it is pressed down into the tunnel lets the fluid run down readily. This receipt is the same as one of the best druggists in Ann Arbor, Mich., uses. If not wanted for copying, add water to give the desired shade, and to make it flow more freely as a general writing ink. It is cheap and good. See also an ink for school children, also cheap, and. flows easily.
Ticket Writer's Glossy Ink.—To any good ink, 4 ozs., add gum Arabic, 1/2 oz. Let stand in a warm place, and shake frequently. When dissolved, if too thick, add more ink, if too thin, more gum. It will produce a, fine glossy letter; blue, red or other colors work with equal satisfaction.—Oracle, Ont.
INDELIBLE INK—For Marking Clothing, To Write With a Pen.—I. Ink, into an ounce bottle, put nitrate of silver, (lunar caustic), 1 dr gum Arabic, clean and white, 3 or 4 pieces the size of a common pea; then till full with soft water. This ought to be in a dark-colored, glass-stoppered bottle. Else it must be kept in a dark place when not in use. This is the ink proper; but . to make it permanent, we have to first use a pounce, which also prevents the ink from spreading in the cloth, as follows:
II. Pour—Into a 4 oz bottle put sub-carbonate of soda, 2 drs.; fill with water. Directions.-Wet the places to be written upon with the pounce, and iron smooth with a properly heated iron; then lab hard over the same spot with the end .of a tooth brush handle, to polish that the writing may be done nicely with the ink, using only a quill pen, then pass the hot iron over the writing to dry, and set the ink else dry in the sun This, if properly done makes it perfectly indelible. Indian Domestic Economy.
Indelible Ink, Quickly and Cheaply Made.-A correspondent of the Detroit Free Press Household, gives us the following very simple home made way of making the ink and doing the work, and I will guarantee it will prote satisfactory. She says:
I. Rain water, 1 table-spoonful; vinegar, M tea-spoonful lunar caustic, drug-gists keep this in small sticks, a piece 3 inches long; put all in an ounce bottle, and shake occasionally till dissolved. Keep in a dark place.
II. Directions.—To each tea-spoonful of milk—needed to wet the places upon which the name is to be written—dissolve a piece of baking soda as large as u grain of corn; iron it smoothly, and write the name with a quill pen with the ink immediately.
Remarks.—Dry with the hot iron or in the sun, as in No. 1. In the same communication the lady said: Common soda, (the same as baking soda), in powder, with a damp cloth, and a brisk rubbing, is the best thing to clean tin-ware, rubbing it dry.
INK, INDELIBLE—To Mark with a Plate.-Dissolve pure sulphate of iron, (pure copperas), 1 lb. in acetic acid, 1 1/4 lbs., and add precipitated carbonate of iron, (sesquioxide), 1 lb., and stir till they combine. This should be done in an iron kettle over a slow fire. Then put in printer's varnish, 3 lbs., and fine book ink, 2 lbs., and stir till well mixed; and to complete it add aehiops-mineral (black suiphuret of mercury), finely pulverized and sifted, 1 lb. mixed in thoroughly,
Remarks—This I obtained from an old stencil plate cutter, who had made and sold it many years. He said this would fill nearly 1,000 1 dr. bottles which he sold for 25 cts. each. The suiphuret of mercury gives it its indelibility. If you use ozs. in place of lbs. it will make about 60 bottles. If drs. are Used instead of ozs. you will have only 7 or 8 bottles. Now suit yourself as to the amount you will make. Of course, to be kept corked.
COLORING FOR DOMESTIC USES: As the Diamond," dyes, analine and other colors are being so considerably used in coloring, at the time of writing this book, I shall only give a few recipes for those purposes, which are vouched for mostly by ladies who have used them, some of them yearly for 20 years, suitable for woolen, silk, cotton, carpet rags, dresses, etc.
Black on Dress Goods.—From a lady who has used it yearly for 20 years. In an iron kettle put warm water enough to cover 15 yards dress goods. In tills dissolve ex. of logwood, 4 ozs. ; blue vitriol, 2 ozs. ; copperas, 1 oz. Be careful to have the ex. well dissolved. Of course everything should be dis-solved, but the ex. dissolves slowly. Wet the goods thoroughly, then put into-the dye, and let simmer slowly, stirring and handling often, till dark enough, then wash in strong soap suds 2 or 3 times, and- rinse until the water is clear. Press while damp. If the goods look rusty. the dye is too strong, put in more water. Cashmeres may be colored by this dye, and make up as good as new.
Black, on Wool or Cotton.—And let me say right here, what will color wool nicely will also color silk. This is from Mary Zaring to one of the papers. She says : " I have seen so many recipes to color black, but I think none as good as mine, as it leaves the yarn or wool soft as blue dye does. To 10 lbs. of wool or cotton take 1 lb. of logwood (ex.) and 3 ozs., bichromate pot-ash, cost 10 cents; simmer your goods or wool 1 hour in the potash, then take the goods out in a tub and put in your logwood (ex.) and melt wring out your goods and put in the logwood dye and let simmer 1 hour; then put back in the potash in the tub and let stand a little while; then wring out. This will not fade nor rub out as other black. I have colored fine pants this way three years ago and they are nice yet."
Another Black.—For 10 lbs. of wool or other goods take 10 ozs. of bichromate of potash and 6 ozs. of crude tartar, or cream of tartar; dissolve together in an iron pot in 10 gals. of water, enter the wool or goods and boil 1% hours, stirring occasionally; empty the pot and boil 3% lbs. of logwood or its equivalent, say 1% lbs. of extract of logwood, in enough water to cover the goods well (better to have too much than too little); enter the goods and boil 1 hour; take it off and wash the goods in clean cold water, thoroughly, using 2 or 3 waters. If too much of a blue black, add a little more logwood and. boil again.—The Cultivator. '
Remarks.—The 8 next recipes are from Reidout's Magazine, adapted to small amounts of goods, and will be found very satisfactory:
Black for Worsted or Woolen Dress Goods, etc. — Dissolve 3/4 oz. bichromate of potash in 3 gals. of water. Boil the goods in this 40 minutes; then wash in cold water. Then take 3 gals. water, add 9 ozs. logwood, 3 ozs, fustic, and 1 or 2 drops D. O. V., or double oil of vitriol; boil the goods 40 minutes, and wash out in cold water. This will dye from 1 to 2 'lbs of cloth, or a lady's dress, if of a dark color, as brown, claret, etc. All colored dresses with cotton warps should be previously steeped 1 hour in sumach liquor; and then soaked for 30 minutes in 3 gals. of clean water, with 1 cup of nitrate of iron; then it must be well washed, and dyed as first stated.
Black for Silk.—Dye the same as black for worsted, but previously steep the silk in the following liquor: scald 4 ozs. logwood and 1/2 oz. turneric in 1 pt. boiling water; then add 7 pts. cold water. Steep 30 or 40 minutes take out and add 1 oz. sulphate of iron (copperas), dissolved in hot water; steep the silk 30 minutes longer.
Brown for Worsted or Wool.—Water, 3 gals. ; bichromate of pot ash, or. Boil the goods in this 40 minutes; wash out in cold water. Then take 3 gals. water, 6 ozs. peachwood, and 2 ozs. tumeric. Boil the goods in this 40 minutes; wash out.
Imperial Blue for Silk, Wool and Worsted.-Water, 1 gal., sulphuric acid, a wine-glassful; imperial blue, 1 table-spoonful or more, accord mg to the shade required. Put in the silk, worsted, or wool, and boil 10 min ides; wash in a weak solution of soap lather.
Sky Blue for Worsted and Woolen. —Water, 1 gal.; sulphuric acid, a' wine-glassful; glauber salts in crystals, 2 table-spoonfuls; liquid extract of indigo,1 tea-spoonful. Boil the goods about 15 minutes; rinse in cold water.
Claret for Wool or Worsted—A Short Way of Dyeing the Same.—Water, 3 gals.; cudbear, 12 ozs.; logwood, 4 ozs.; old fustic, 4 osa.; alum, 1/2 oz. Boil the goods in it 1 hour. Wash. This will dye from 1 to 2 Ibs of material.
Crimson for Worsted or Wool.-Water, 3 gals.; paste cochineal, 1. cream of tartar, 1 oz.; nitrate of tin (tin dissolved in nitric acid, I think, —it used to be dissolved in a mixture of sulphuric and muriatic acids, and called "muriate of tin,") a wine-glassful. Boil your goods in this 1 hour. Wash first in cold water, then in another vessel with 3 gals. warm water with a cup of ammonia, the whole well mixed. Put in the goods and work well 15 minutes. For, a bluer shade add more ammonia. Then wash out.
Fawn Drab for Silk.—Hot water, 1 gal.; annotto liquor, 1 wine-glassful; 2 ozs. each of sumach and fustic. Add copperas liquor according to the reguired shade. Wash out. It is best to use the copperas liquor in, another 'vessel, diluted according to the shade desired.
Blue on Cotton Rags—Does Not Fade.—For 3 lbs. of rags: 1/3 oz. of potash, 1 oz.; oil of vitriol, 1 oz.; and 2 large table-spoonfuls of copper ash. Put all the ingredients together in an iron kettle, with a sufficient quantity of water, and when well dissolved put in the rags, stir well, and when they are of the desired color take them out and rinse well. It will probably take front % to of an hour to color. Be sure and rinse thoroughly.
" True Blue" for One Pound of Rags that will Not Fade.-A lady in writing to the Blade says: "I see Mrs. Gloyd wants a recipe for coloring blue on cotton, that will not fade, so I come in with one that I know to be good, as I have used it for 2 carpets and it has proved itself ` true blue' every time. One oz. Prussian blue,1/2 oz. oxalic acid; pulverize together, and dissolve in hot water sufficient to cover the goods. Dip the goods in this dye until they are the desired shade; then wring out and thoroughly rinse in alum water."
Blue for Carpet Rags—Better than with Prussian Blue.—To the same inquiry " Perseverance Ann," of Pleasant Lake, Ind., says: " I must tell Mrs. E. G. Gloyd of a better way to color carpet rags blue than with Prussian blue and oxalic acid. Take 4 ozs, prussiate of potash, 2 ozs. copperas, and 2 ozs. nitric acid, and dissolve in warm soft water, enough to cover the rags. "This will color from 3 to 5 lbs., according to the shade you want. If you color part of them at a time you will have different shades. Wash the rags in the -dye, wring out and air, and wash again till the color sets, which ought to be within half an hour; then rinse thoroughly and dry slowly in the shade. This colors woolen as well as cotton."
Remarks.—Take your choice of plans, now, you have both. See her drab, below.
Copperas color for Carpet Rags, with Lye.—Mrs. M. M. Stark, of Nankin, Mich., to an inquirer in the Detroit Tribune, for coloring with copperas, says : " I have a good one, which I send. Dissolve 1/2 pound copperas in a pail full of hot water, also have a pail full of white lye prepared. First dip the rags in the lye, then hang them in the sun and Iet dry, then dip in the copperas water and let dry, then in the lye, drying each time after dipping until you have the desired color."
Remarks.—I notice that some others use as much as 1 lb. to a pail of water, and do not dry the rags between the dippings, but drain well, choosing a sunny day to do it out of doors. Certainly the stronger the dye the deeper will be the color, and the less times of dipping would be necessary. None of them speak of putting water into the lye, perhaps the strength as run off from the ashes is intended, but it looks to me to be rather strong, if the ashes are from good hard wood. If more than one pail of copperas water is needed keep the same proportions. I should say 1 lb. to each pail needed. Dissolve in an iron kettle, as copperas is the sulphate of iron. One lady speaks of a strong lye, and she also used 1 lb. to a pail of water.
Drab, with Tea, Pretty and Cheap, for Rags, Alpaca Dresses, etc. For Five Pounds of Goods.—The same Perseverance Ann, of Pleasant Lake, Ind., that gave the blue above, comes in with a drab. These persevering old maids are the ones to have around the home; they do things well and keep all in order. She says " To the old lady who wanted my recipe for coloring drab, I send the following : To 5 lbs. of goods take
of, a pound of the cheapest green tea, and 2 table-spoonfuls of copperas. Tie the tea in a cloth and steep in a brass kettle, then add the copperas and skim thoroughly. Put in the goods, and stir and air till colored enough, which will be in a few minutes. If this is not dark enough take out the goods and add more dye-stuff (tea). This is very cheap and pretty for carpet rags and a weak dye will restore a faded drab alpaca to your complete satisfaction."
Drab, with Nut Galls, for Rags or Yarn.—To make a very pretty light drab for a carpet, take 1 pound of nut galls, and after breaking them up, put in an iron kettle with a sufficient quantity of water to dip 16 lbs. of rags or yarn. Boil 1 hour, then add 1 ounce of blue vitriol. When this is thoroughly dissolved, put in the yarn or whatever material you desire to color, and let it simmer for 1 hour. If not as dark as required add a small quantity of extract of logwood and dip again.—Mrs. Helen Wood.
Drab, with Sumach for Rags or Yarn. Lovely and Dark.—Another writer, name nor place given, says : " I like drab in a carpet so well, and I heard the other day that sumach bobs make a lovely dark drab, just boil them up and put in the rags, it needs no setting or preparation whatever; our neighbor girls had splendid luck in this way, and it is so easy."
Remarks.-The only inconsistency I can see here is that no mordant to set the color is directed. I think without copperas or vitriol, as in the next ones above, it would soon fade. I Ieave that part to those, however, who have more experience in coloring than the doctor has, but merely suggest its necessity from the nature or things.
Seal Brown, for 10 Pounds of Goods.—For 10 lbs. of goods, take 3 lbs. of catechu, and put it in about as much water as you need to cover the goods well. Boil it until dissolved, then add 4 ozs. of blue vitriol, and stir until every particle dissolves. After wetting the goods thoroughly, put them in the dye, and lift, and stir, and turn, and air, until there is no danger of spots; then let them remain in the dye until morning. Wring or drain. Then make andther dye, by dissolving in hot water, 4 ozs. of bichromate of potash, 3 ozs. of 'copperas, and 2 cas. of ex. of logwood, in water enough to cover the goods. Allow them to remain in this dye 15 or 20 minutes, or until they are of the desired shade; but if they were some dark color when you first commenced, it would be well enough to leave out the logwood and copperas, and add them gradually, until the required shade be obtained.
Remarks.—I am sorry I cannot give credit for this recipe, as I am well, satisfied it is a nice one. It was an answer to an inquiry, and she begged par-don for not answering sooner, and in closing said: " This will dye cotton or wool, and as said ex. of logwood dissolves so slowly, I always begin that part a day or two before hand by keeping it soaking, stirring occasionally."
Brown, with Japonica, for Seven Pounds of Rags.—In answer to an inquiry for coloring brown with japonica, I send the following, which I know is good : Take 6 ozs. bichromate of potash, 5 ozs. alum, 1 lb. japonica. Soak the japonica over night, dissolve the alum, wring the rags through the alum-water, then put them in the japonica and let them come to a boil; dissolve the bichromate of potash, wring them through the potash twice and wash them in soap-suds.—Mrs. M. C. Lawton, of Coopersville, Mich., in Detroit Free Press: Household.
Dark Brown, with Catechu, for Woolen, Cotton Not So Dark. To 5 lbs. of goods take catechu, % lb., bichromate of potash and blue vitriol, each 2 ozs. Make a dye of the catechu and vitriol, in which boil the goods (of ,course, always water enough to cover nicely) slowly after 1 1/2 hours, handling propperly wring out; made a dye of the bichromate of potash, and dip in it 15 minutes or till the shade suits. It is inexpensive and durable, says "Emma S.H., of Nashport, O., in answer to "Black Eyes," inquiry in Blade. Tested.
Butternut Brown, for Four Pounds of Goods.-A writer in the Maine Farmer gives the following : "Steep hot, but not boil, bushel butternut bark, until the strength is out. Then steep the goods 1 hour and air; then, put in and steep hour and let them cool. Add 1 oz. copperas to the liquor and bring it to a boil. If not dark enough use more copperas. Various shades may be produced in this dye by varying the bark and copperas. One part butternut and one part walnut bark answers well for a brown."
Remarks.—Butternut is white walnut then what this writer means by "walnut," of course, is black walnut bark, each in equal amounts. It will make a darker shade, using the same amount of copperas.
Brown, from the Scaly Moss of Rocks, Permanent. After giving the last, the same paper added: The scaly moss from rocks and ledges is a good material for coloring brown. Gather the moss and place it in a brass kettle or tin dish, upon which pour cold water, then let it boil on the stove 3 or 4 hours. Then skim out the moss, put in the goods, and boil until you have the requisite color. It will never fade.
Remarks.—Thus you have a variety of excellent browns to meet all reason-able demands, and some of the articles can be obtained everywhere.
London Brown.—Goods, 3 lbs. ; camwood, 1lbs. ; logwood, 1lb.;quercitron bark, 1 oz.; copperas, 2 ozs. Directions--Boil the dye-woods for 1 hour, add the copperas; and handle, at boiling heat for 1 hour. Rinse in cold water.
Blue, Permanent.—For 3 lbs. of goods, take alum, 5 ozs.; tartar, 3: ozs., chemic. Directions.—Boil the goods with the alum and tartar, in brass, in water to cover well for 1 hour; remove the goods to warm water, in which you have put a little chemic, and if not as deep a blue as desired, take out and.. add a little -i ore chemic 'till the shade suits.
Yellow On Cotton.—For 10 lbs. of goods,, take acetate of lead, and nitrate of lead in solution each, 1 lb. in a tub of cold water sufficient to work well, Work 15 minutes and wring out; into another tub of cold water, put bichromate of potash, 6 ozs. in solution, and work 15 minutes through this, and wring out; again work 10 minutes in the lead solution, wash and dry.
Green—First color blue then color yellow, and you have a beautiful green. I know these receipts, (this plan, and the yellow above) to be excellent, for I have used them, says Leo, of Ft. Collins, Col.
Scarlet on Cotton or Silk.-Warm water, 3 gals.; cream of tartar and cochineal, 1 oz. each; solution of tin, 2 ozs. Wet the goods in warm water, and when the dye boils, put in the goods and boil 1 hour, frequently stirring, them (I say always stirring handling back and forth to air, and make the-shade even); then take out the goods and rinse in cold water.—San Francisco. Cook.
Pink on Cotton—Beautiful, That Does not Fade—Trailing Arbutus, of Steuben Co:, N. Y., in writing to the Free Press (Dot.) Household upon another subject, concludes as follows:
"I am fearful of being too lengthy, but please have patience, for I want you to know how we color a beautiful pink that will not fade. After 3 years constant wear, ours is as good as new. To 4 lbs. cotton goods, put in a brass kettle enough soft water to over them well; put in a bag 2 ozs, cochineal, and let it lie in the water or of an hour, heating to a scalding heat. Get all the strength from the bag of color, then put in 2 oz. of cream of tartar, and 4 ozs. muriate of tin—taking care not to get it on the hands. Put in the goods, stirring well, till the desired shade is obtained. If you wish more than one-shade, put in part of the goods at a time—for the darkest first, and so on. It is a fine, light rose color for silks."
Dark Tan for Cloth or Rags.—To 5 lbs. of cloth, 1 lb. japonica, 8. oz., bichromate of potash, 2 table-spoonfuls alum. Dissolve the japonica and alum in soft water, enough to cover the goode. Wash the goods in suds and, put them in the dye; let them stand 2 hours, at scalding heat;, then set then aside in the dye till next morning. In the morning take them from the kettle and after having put on as much soft water as before, dissolve in it the bichromate of potash, into this put the godds and let them remain an hour at scalding heat. Wash in soft water suds and dry. It will color twice as much dark enough for rags. It does not make the rags tender.--Jean, Lockhaven, Pa.
Bright Red for Rags.—For 6 or 7 lbs.: Take redwood chips, 2 1/2 lbs.; soak over night in a brass kettle; next morning put in alum, powdered, lb., and boil to obtain the strength of the chips, leaving them in; put in the rags, or yarn, as the case may be, and simmer, airing occasionally, until bright enough to suit. It makes a color nearly resembling the flannel we buy.
Nankeen, tq Color.—Fill a five-pail brass kettle with small pieces of white birch bark and water, let steep twenty-four hours and not boil, then skim out the bark, wet the cloth in soapsuds, then put it in the dye, stir well and air often; when dark enough, dry; then wash in suds. It will never fade.—The Household.