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Garden & Household Insect Solutions

( Originally Published Early 1900's )

Pea Vine Hay, to Cure.—Those who raise peas to any extent will be surprised to see how stock will relish the vines in winter, if properly cured, and the best way to do it is to build a pen 3 rails high; then floor it over with rails and build up 3 or 4 rails more, according to how green the vines are, and fill in the vines; floor again, build up and fill in until 10 or 12 feet high; then cover to shed the rain perfectly. Like bean straw, they will not bear deep packing, but still they are too valuable a feed for stock to be thrown away. And when oats are sown with them, as they generally should be, the oat straw gives an additional relish and object to save them.

1. CODLING MOTH, Remedy: Dr. Hull, a leading horticulturist of Illinois, says that his lime remedy for the codling moth has proved completely effectual. The freshly slacked lime is thrown into the trees when the dew is on, or just after a rain, and after the fruit is set. A dipper or a large spoon may be used; but best of all, is a bellows made for the purpose (the author would say, with a long nose or nozzle to reach well up into the trees). The insects will not go where the lime is scattered; he says, "they go away."

Remarks.—The author has not a doubt but what the lime will prove effective, for the item given in his first recipe book, for destroying the curculio on plum trees, wherein sulphur and gunpowder with the lime was effectual; but it seems that lime alone does equally well, and is much less expensive. " Codling' means an immature or small apple, but so far as the moth is concerned, it is applied to plums or any other fruit. But the curculio, a species of weevil, is most destructive to the plum, as you will see by referring to them.

2. Codling Moth Effectually Disposed of.—A writer who signs himself "H," of Fenton, Mich., sends a plan to the Detroit Tribune, which he says effectually disposes of the codling moth. He says: I take a piece of old woolen cloth, 5 or 6 inches wide, and long enough to go around the apple tree and lap an inch or two, and place this around the tree midway between the lower branches' and the ground, and fasten it there with a tack driven in just far enough to hold. The moth will go under this cloth and deposit her egg, which matures in 12 days. Every 10 days I go through the orchard, draw the tacks carefully, unwind the cloth and mash every worm and moth I find, some-times as many as 40 under a single cloth. This followed up will utterly destroy them."

Remarks.—It is said that the most successful fruit growers, east and west, have decided that there is no better remedy for the codling moth than to pasture hogs in the orchard to eat the wormy apples and the moths or worms therein. Chickens running in the orchard are also very destructive to moths, by eating all the worms or bugs they see; and I have seen it stated that 2 or 3 pigs put into a pen of one length of boards around apple, peach, or plums trees will destroy all these depredators. (See Borers, Remedy for, Curculio on Plums, Description of and how get rid of them, next below.)

Borers in Peach and Apple trees, Remedy for, and for Bark Lice on the trees: Mr. M. B. Batchman, of Ohio (residence not given), writing to the Fruit Recorder, of Palmyra, N. Y., gives the following valuable remedy to prevent the borers getting into the peach and apple trees. He says: "Take a tight barrel and put in 4 or 5 gallons of soft-soap with as much hot water to thin it, then stir in 1 pt. of crude carbolic acid and let stand over night, or longer, to combine. Then add 12 gallons of rain water, and stir well; apply to the base of the tree with a short broom or old paint brush, taking pains to wet inside of all crevices. This will prevent both peach and apple borers. It should be applied the latter part of June in this climate, when the moths and beetles usually appear. The odor is so pungent and lasting that no eggs will be deposited where it has been applied, and the effect will continue till after the insects have done flying. If the crude acid cannot be obtained, of the pure will answer, but it is more expensive." [Crude carbolic acid is a black and dirty looking fluid, and if not kept by small druggists they can obtain it in the cities; but, mind you, it is a strong acid, and it will destroy the skin or clothing if you get it on them by breaking the bottle or otherwise, so be careful. The crude is what is used in washes for lice about poultry, horses, etc.]

Remarks.-To the above, the editor of the Recorder added: We believe the above remedy for borers would also exterminate grubs from strawberry, raspberry and blackberry roots--only that for strawberries dilute it with double the amount of water." To this I may add: I think 6 or 8 qts. of fine soot dissolved in a barrel of water and thoroughly sprinkled about the roots of these berry plants will kill the borers or grubs that trouble them, and probably 2 lbs. of potash in the same water would also destroy them, sprinkled on in the same way.

Forcing Plants.-For forcing plants that you wish to hurry forward for any reason," 6 or 8 qts. of fine soot dissolved in a hogshead of water and sprinkled upon them and about the, roots freely, is said, by the American Gardener, to do as well for plants as for bulbs, flowering plants, shrubs, etc.

Bark Lice, or Scale Bugs on Trees, Shrubs, Plants, etc.—Positive Remedies.—Prof. J. H. Comstock says that in fighting scale insects (scale bugs, bark lice) on trees and shrubs that poisonous fumes nor powdered substances have done any good, and that " they cannot be destroyed otherwise than by actual contact. Lye and solutions of soap have been eminently successful. Common or whale oil soap, lb., to water, 1 gal. (dissolve by heat); or lye (concentrated, in lb. cans), 1 lb. to 1 gal. of water, applied when the trees are dormant (not growing—fall or very early spring), has been found to work equally well. Apply with a stiff brush, which reaches the scale under the bark and sweeps off others, but cannot be used on the small branches, and on these Whitman's fountain pump syringe may be employed for spraying."

Remarks.—Charles Downing, through the Rural New Yorker, says he uses `1 lb. of the lye to 6 qts. of water, just as the buds begin to swell in the spring. This is undoubtedly strong enough to kill every one it touches.

For Lice on Plants.—Prof. A. J. Cook, in the New York Tribune, says that one application of the following mixture is a complete cure for lice on plants: Soft-soap, 1 qt.; water, 1 gal., and kerosene, 1 pt. The soap and water are heated to the boiling point, the kerosene added and all well stirred. The mixture is thus made permanent. It is also used on trees, killing the lice and restoring the vigor of- the trees.

Cureulios on Plum Trees—Description of and How to Destroy , Them.—Mr. A. R. Markham, of Mayville, wrote to Prof. A. J. Cook, of the Agricultural College, Lansing, asking as follows: "Will you kindly describe, through the columns of the Post and Tribune, or otherwise, the plum curculio so that an amateur grower can find him? There are many among our farmers who don't know the pest. I have hunted with great care but have not yet found a sufficient description for me or my friends to identify him. Please make the description sharp and decisive so we can find the terror."

To this Prof. Cook made the following answer through the Post and Tribune: " The plum curculio, which has now for more than a week been making its destructive punctures and characteristic crescents in our plums, and which will continue its ruinous work for a month to come, is a little weevil--that is a beetle, with a prolonged snout or proboscis—not more than 3/16 ths of an inch long. It is dark in color, marked with indistinct gray and buff. When at rest its snout or trunk is bent under the body. To surely find it at this sea-son place a white sheet or table spread under a plum tree which is bearing plums, and then give the trunk of the tree or the branches, if the tree is large, a sharp blow. The curculios will fall to the sheet. If early in the morning or late in the afternoon they will remain in their humped up condition, by which they feign death, and in which they resemble small dried buds so closely that they must be carefully inspected to remove the deception. If in the hot sun-shine, in the middle of the day, they will soon crawl, or often at once take wing. In this way any one will be able to identify the pests. Very soon their appearance is learned, and one has no trouble to see them at once, when they may be grasped between the thumb and finger and crushed. I have four plum trees. It takes me about 10 minutes each day to catch and destroy the curculios, and by this slight trouble we shall have a fine quantity of beautiful fruit. If we should neglect to fight the " little Turk " we would get not a plum."

Remarks.—On May 25th Prof. Cook had given, in answer to a Mrs. O. L. Morgan, of Hillsdale, Mich., a more full direction as to the sheet, which should cover all the space under the tree, or such part of the tree as was being jarred; and also of the mallet, etc., which should have a handle at least 6 or 8 feet long, and the ends of the mallet to be well padded with cloth, so as not to bark the tree, nor the large limbs, which must be hit quite hard to fetch them dot%. But I think a strip of board, 2 or 3 inches wide, 6 to 10 feet long, one end padded, will do as well, and white sheets enough laid down to cover the ground under the tree; and the curculios are then, of course, to be mashed, or destroyed, as you like, and all green and other worms, which also eat into apples, pears, cherries, plums, etc., which, when they shake down should also be destroyed. The shaking, or jarring down should be done just at dusk of the evening, and at early dawn, as long as they are found. It is said that corn cobs saturated with kerosene, and hung by strings to the branches, keeps the curculios away from the trees. This lady also made the following inquiry in relation to

1. CURRANT WORMS.—" Is London purple as good a remedy for currant worms as white hellebore, and in what proportion is it to be used in small quantities?

To which Prof. Cook gave this answer: " I should prefer white hellebore to London purple in fighting the currant worms, as it is just as effectual and not so poisonous. If it is thought best to use London purple, and it is safe with the requisite precautions, use 1 oz. of the purple to 5 or 6 gals. of water." Snowing the ability of this gentleman to answer all such questions correctly, I have given them most cheerfully. (For the strength of the hellebore water for this purpose, see how to use it, below.)

2. Currant Worms, to Avoid.—A writer of experience in the Fruit Recorder says: There is no necessity of breeding currant worms; which is done by leaving bushes untrimmed, the worms always attacking the new growth first." He continues: "My plan is this: In starting a currant patch I confine the bush not to exceed from 1 to 3 main stems, and give all the strength of the root to their support. As hinted above, sprouts will start from the roots each spring, but they must be rubbed off when small. All currant-growers are aware that worms first make their appearance on a new growth and then spread over the bush. Consequently, no sprouts, no worms. This is just as plain as that 2 and 2 make 4. I have followed this plan for the past 2 years to my satisfaction, and have barely seen the effects of worms on 1 or 2 bushes where my plan was not fully carried out. But such currants I never saw grow, the common red Dutch being nearly twice as large as the cherry currant and a bet-ter bearer. I had a few bushes that actually broke down from their load of fruit."

Remarks.—The plan of making a kind of tree of the currant gives so much better chance of cultivating around them, I have often wondered it was not adopted generally; and if any one will adopt this plan, he will see how much easier it will be to adopt the use of soot, as the Scotch do, to eradicate the worm, and at the same time to fertilize; as given in the next item.

3. Currant Worms to Destroy, and to Fertilize the Ground. —Instead of the powdered hellebore, as heretofore used, copperas water, at the rate of 1 lb. to water, 6 gals., not only destroys the worm, by pulling over the top of the bush to sprinkle it upon the under side of the leaves, but also fertilizes the soil. But possibly the Scotch method of dusting fine soot upon them after a shower, or when the dew is on, and also working small quantities of it into the soil around the bushes, is the best way after all, as it is claimed this latter plan in a year or two will eradicate them from the garden altogether.

4. Lime, Another Certain Remedy.-A horticulturist near this city, Toledo, O., says in the Post recently: "The only remedy for the currant worm known to us, is to begin early in the season to scatter air-slacked lime on the leaves. This work must be frequently and thoroughly done, always after sun-down. Throw the lime from below upwards, or pull the bushes over, in. order to let it catch on the under side of the leaves, and also from above. This will save the currants if done thoroughly and often."

Remarks.—I know the lime will prevent the conotrachcelus nenuphar (a big name for the plum weevil), or curculio, from stinging, and thus destroying plums, if thrown on freely, while in blossom, and for a few days thereafter: then why may it not also destroy or prevent the currant worm from putting is his work upon currants? I have not a doubt of it. The same wrier says also that cultivators of small fruits recommend Fay's Prolific currant as a healthy and vigorous grower, productive and easily picked from the bush, and as a rule making fruit-buds under cover of every leaf. Then it must be a good one to raise. I think the best plan of applying the lime, or any powder, upon cur-rant bushes, more especially upon fruit trees, would be to have a bellows like painters use to put sand upon their painted work, putting the powder in the hopper, the wind carries it out freely. The nose must be quite long for fruit trees.

5. Currant Worms; New Way of Destroying.—The Kalamazoo (Mich.) Telegraph gives a plan of destroying the currant worm, or caterpillar, as some call them, discovered accidentally by a piece of woolen rag having been blown into a currant bush by the wind, which was found to be covered with these leaf-destroying pests. Pieces of woolen cloth were then placed in every bush, and the next day the worms had almost wholly taken to them for shelter. In this way every morning they were taken out and destroyed, and the rag replaced for a new crop, until completely used up. If this fails to reach all, use the lime dust, or some of the solutions with the syringe or atomizer. See " Cur-rants and Gooseberries, Setting Out, etc.

6. Currant Worms and Rose Slug, now to Destroy with Hellebore.--I. For the Currant Worm.—There are many persons who from the certainty of hellebore to destroy them, claim it the best remedy yet known. If to be used, the American Agriculturist tells us how to do it. It claims, also, that if used in this manner it is perfectly safe. As to the way of using it is says : " Place a table-spoonful of the powdered hellebore in a bowl; pour, upon it a little boiling hot water; stir so as to wet every particle, then add more water, stir well and pour into a pail; then rinse the bowl and pour the washings into the pail, which is then to be filled with cold water. Thus prepared, the mixture is to be syringed over the bushes. Two, or at most three, applications will finish the worms, and it would be difficult to find a safer or more effective remedy. Success with this, as with all similar things, depends upon applying the remedy early. Those who will take the pains, and where there are but few bushes it is advisable to do so, can avoid much of the necessity of poisoning by destroying the eggs of the caterpillar. These are laid upon the underside of the lower leaves of the bushes, and the leaves themselves may be plucked and burned, or the eggs crushed between the thumb and finger."

Remarks.—This would be about at the rate of 1 lb. of the hellebore to 25 gals. of water; and if this much is needed, and it is put into a barrel containing this much water a day or two before it is to be applied, first pouring boiling water upon it in a pail, etc., as if the bowl was used, then stirring it 2 or 3 times daily, it will be ready for use; but cover up carefully, that nothing may drink of it and be thus also destroyed.

II. For the Rose Slug.—The same strength of the solution of the hellebore will also destroy the rose slug, generally, by a single application, if thoroughly done; but if one application fails apply again more thoroughly.

Chloride of lime dusted on both sides of the leaves has also destroyed the currant worm ; but this soon absorbs dampness from the air, hence must be kept in an air-tight can, only when being used.

7. Dust of Coal Ashes, Destructive to Currant, Cucumber and Cabbage Worms.—The Fruit Recorder says it has for 3 or 4 years saved their currants by dusting on the fine sifted ashes the same as the lime above, and adds: " They are as effective to keep the striped bug off the cucumber vines," and it thinks also effective against the cabbage worm. Certainly coal ashes is an excellent fertilizer for currants and all other small fruits, as given next below, and I have not a doubt, equally valuable for the orchard generally.

Coal Ashes as a Fertilizer for the Soils; Also Valuable for Cherry and Other Fruit Trees, etc.—I. For the Currants.—Common coal ashes, well distributed about roots of currants, is one of their best promoters soil about their roots and placing the ashes near them, cover firmly with earth above, and the bushes will bear such clusters as will speak the beneficial effects of this application of material too commonly thrown aside as of no use.

II. Cherry and other fruit trees also greatly accept this renovator, and if carefully bedded about the roots with coal ashes in the fall the yield of fruit the following year will surprise the cultivator. Especially is this effect produced in the black loam of Illinois. We have in our mind one fruit garden there where all the small fruit was treated in this way, and have never seen their yield excelled.—National Farmer.

Remarks.—Vick, the florist, says that "coal soot is one of the most valuable substances the gardener can apply, either as an insecticide (insect killer) or fertilizer. It will kill insects on cabbage and other young plants. In liquid form, of about a peck to a hogshead of water, sprinkled over strawberries and roses from the watering pot, it acts as a fertilizer and insect destroyer."

9. Currants and Gooseberries, Setting Out for Trees or Bushes.—Both the currant and gooseberry do better to grow from cuttings than from the roots. The wood of the last year's growth must be taken, cut it into pieces from 3 to 10 inches in length, and insert about half the length in the usual prepared garden soil, press the ground firmly with the foot, mulch, and there will be no danger of not growing. Set them where they are desired to remain permanently. If a small tree and not a bush is preferred, cut out all the eyes entering the ground. If a bush, let the eyes remain. We prefer the bush for two reasons: the first is, more fruit is obtained; the second, it is longer lived. In fact, the bush will live half a century, only requiring thinning out of the wood once in a while. As to the variety of currants, we prefer decidedly the old Dutch Red. It is not quite so large as some others, but it bears as abundantly and is less acid and of better quality. Of gooseberries we prefer the Downing. It is of good quality, an excellent bearer, and has never mildewed upon our premises.—Germantown telegraph,

10. Grafting Currants—To Avoid the Borer and Mildew. The Rural New Yorker says: "Lovers of the currant and gooseberry have reason to feel jolly over the success which seems to attend grafting them upon the Missouri currant (Ribes aureum), which is not Iiable to the attacks of the borer. Besides they are exempt from mildew. And thus by a single, happy hit the two great drawbacks to currant and gooseberry cultivation have been overcome. The beauty of these little trees when loaded with their pretty berries, as displayed at the Centennial, is of itself enough to insure their general cultivation. It would be well for those who intend experimenting with grafting currants to bear in mind that there is a great difference in the variety of the Missouri currant, some making better stocks than others."

Remarks.—I will add, here, that there is no fruit that will show more speedily than the currant the effects of high manuring. If large and luscious berries are expected, thin out the bushes, and cover the surface with good rich manure, after having poked some into the ground around them as far out as the roots extend.

Gooseberries, to prevent Mildew.—Edward Martin, of Freehold, N. J., says lie prevents mildew on his gooseberries by raising the English varicty, and applying soapsuds with a garden syringe, costing only $1.50, begining its application as soon as the fruit begins to form, twice a week for 3 or 4 weeks, has never failed him, saving the suds on wash-days, for this purpose.

1. CABBAGE WORM—Successful Remedy.—A correspondent of the New York Tribune makes the following statement as to the destruction of this late pest of the garden, not in the least injuring the cabbage, as anyone can judge. He says: "- I have used salt for the cabbage worm-at the rate of :a large tea-cupful to a pail of water—for the last two years with perfect success. Two applications have been all that were needed. It killed the worms (or at least they died) without hurting the cabbage at all."

Remarks.—The cabbage worm being a soft-skinned thing, I think the salt will destroy them; if it does not in any case, try the copperas for, as given for destroying the currant worm above. The copperas will not injure th' cabbage, and, I think, either might be used double the strength given, if needed.

2. Cabbage Worm, the Best Remedy, as Shown by the New York Experiment Station.—Common yellow hard soap, 1 oz.; kerosene, 1 pt.; water, 1 1/2 gals. ; well mixed and stirred and applied by means of a watering-pot, proved the best of anything tried at the above station in 1883. They state that "it kills all the worms it thoroughly wets, and does not injure the plant." They say " it must be kept thoroughly stirred while applying. Several applications may be needed."

Remarks.-But, if they will bring the soap and water to the boiling point, then stir in the kerosene, it will make a permanent mixture, like Prof. Cook's in reference to nearly the same for lice or scale bugs on trees.

3. Cabbage Plants, Best Manner of Setting Out.—In setting out cabbage plants it has been found best to pull off the largest leaves, leaving only the center, as they are then more certain to live and to do better, from the fact that the large leaves often wither and die for want of a ready support from one transplanting.

1. ANTS, ROACHES, LITTLE SPIDERS, ETC.-To Destroy. Hot alum water," says a recent practical woman writer, is the latest suggestion as an insecticide (insect killer). It will destroy red ants, black ants, roaches, spiders, chintz bugs and all other crawling pests which infest our houses."

Remarks.—This writer does not say how much alum to use. I should say lb to 1 pail of water, sprinkled about their haunts boiling hot, would do the work well.

2. Another writer, after being pestered with red ants a year or two, drove them away by placing raw sliced onions about the closets.

3. Another by putting tar, 1 pt., into water, 2 qts., and placing in shallow dishes in the closets.

4. Another by wetting sponges in sweetened water and placing where they enter the house, if that can be found, else in the closets, and after an hour or two dipping into boiling water.

5. Another.—Destroys roaches by distributing the freshly dug roots of the black hellebore, bruised or strewed around the floor, or places where they frequent at nights, claiming it to be as infallible as it is poisonous, and they eat it with avidity. It grows in marshy places, and it is kept by druggists—these being dry however, would have to be soaked or steeped a little to allow it to be mashed. The water then might also be placed in shallow dishes, with bits of shingle laid on the edge to allow them to go up to it. See 8, 9 and 10, etc.

6. Ants, to drive from Lawns or other Grounds.—Carbolic Acid, crude, 1 part to the water 40 parts, (ounces, pounds, or pints); mix and sprinkle upon their mounds. Why not good then, about the houses where they infest? Standing the legs of safes for victuals in dishes of water will beat them all badly as to getting their dinner from that quarter.

7. Roaches.—Have been driven off, or killed, as I suppose by laying red wafers around for them to eat; the red being the result of the use of red lead, which is poisonous and destructive. Lozenges made with red lead would do the same thing; a mixture of red lead, say one oz., with corn meal, 1/2 pt. moistened with molasses to a consistence of batter, and spread on the bottom of plates turned up, or on thin pieces of boards, will also destroy them, as they eat it greedily.

8. Roaches.—I have seen it stated that a lb. of powdered borax scattered around their haunts would clear any house of roaches. I have scattered it upon them where they nested in drawers, etc., and have seen them scatter with the dust upon them, like leaves before an autumn wind—like the leaves, never to return. Yet I have heard others say it did no good; but with some of these plans, perseverance must conquer.

9. Roaches, Ants, Spiders, Chintz Bugs, etc., to Destroy.—The Journal of Chemistry publishes the following, as efficacious for all these pests. It says: "Hot alum water is a recent suggestion as an insecticide, (insect killer). It will destroy red and black ants, roaches, spiders, chintz (striped or spotted) bugs, and all crawling pests which infest our houses. Dissolve alum, 2 lbs. in 3 or 4 qts. of boiling water; then apply it with a brush, while nearly boiling hot, to every joint and crevice in your closets, bedsteads, pantry shelves and the like. Brush the crevices in the floor of the skirting or mop boards, if you suspect that they harbor vermin. If, in whitewashing a. ceiling, plenty of alum is added to the lime, it will also serve to keep insects at a distance, and also cause the white-wash to stick better; 2 lbs. to a pail is enough. Roaches will flee the paint which has been washed in cool alum water of this strength.

Remarks.—This is confirmed by the Cincinnati Times, only the Times recommended it as strong as 2 lbs. to 2 qts. of water, put on hot with a white-wash brush. It also recommends carbolic acid diluted with water, and applied with a brush of feathers for the destruction of red ants; and says: "If they do not leave the first time, apply again stronger, but it does not give the proper strength. The crude, or black, dirty acid, which the crude is, could not be used on shelves in the cupboard or closets, but the pure, which is clean and transparent would have to be used, such as druggists sell, of about 50 per cent. strength, for about 25 cts. an oz. This strength would kill them certainly, and I think if as much water is added, it would still be strong enough.

Roaches may be driven away by putting Scotch, or other highly dried snuff into their haunts, or crevices, and about the shelves, etc.

10. Roaches Utterly Destroyed.—A correspondent of the Country Gentleman says: " I give a recipe to your correspondent who wishes to know how to get rid of the insects he calls the cockroaches, although I think he misnames them. Let his wife finish making peach preserves late at night in a smooth, bright, brass kettle; then persuade her it is too late to clean the kettle till morning, but set it against the wall where the insects are thickest and retire to rest. In the morning he will find the sides of the kettle bright as a new dollar, but he will find every insect that was hungry in the bottom of the kettle, when, if he uses the recipe I did, he will treat them to a sufficient quantity of boiling water to render them perfectly harmless. As I thought molasses cheaper than peach preserve juice, I ever afterward baited the same trap with molasses, and I caught the last one of millions. I pity any person troubled with them. I have lived 30 years since making the discovery (accidental), and have never had to repeat it."

Remarks.—There is no mistake about the name, as Webster's Unabridged calls them cockroaches; but, for short, I have called them roaches, which everybody understands just as well; as it is only because they are so very troublesome, and hard to get rid of, that I have given so many plans by which they can be driven away or destroyed.

1. BED BUGS—To Destroy.—Take a quart bottle and fill it with equal parts of best alcohol and spirits of turpentine, and add camphor gum, 1 oz. Shake well when used, and with a small brush wet the crevices, foldings of the curtains, etc., if there is the least sign of the bugs having been about them. This is harmless, and safe, except by candle light. If any doubt of its success, touch a bug with the least bit of it you can put on him. Use it freely, as it is inexpensive, but positive, in its destructive powers; and does not stain bed clothing. Still I must give some more, which are poisonous. Though the next is not poisonous, but more likely to inflame, or explode, than this; but, no matter what may be used, look over the bedstead in a week or two to meet --any new ones, from nits not touched at first.

2. Naptha alone, or even gasoline, will destroy bed bugs utterly and quickly. Put on as No. 1, freely.

3. Bed Bug Poison.—Beat the whites of 4 fresh eggs well, and then put in 1 oz. of quicksilver; or in this proportion, for as much as needed, and apply with a brush, or feather, as most convenient—keep it out of the way of children, as it is very poisonous. Corrosive sublimate pulverized, 3 oz., beat in, in the same way, will do the same thing. Or it can be used in liquid form, as in the next recipe.

4. Bed Bugs, to Get Rid of.—Spirits of turpentine, 12 pt.; corrosive sublimate, 1/4 oz. When dissolved apply with brush or feather to every crevice. Go over every 2 weeks till all nits are hatched out and killed—2 or 3 times will do it every time. It is poisonous. These poisonous things are more certain to prevent a return than the others.

5. Another and better plan is to use carbolic acid, 2 drs., to water, 1/2 pt., and apply as the others.

6. And finally, the grease cooked out of salt pork, or bacon, applied hot, by keeping over a dish of coals, is said to be everlasting in its effects of killing and keeping them away. The reporter of the plan had been 30 years without their return. I should only fear the everlasting squeak of the bedstead, if applied in the joints, just where the bugs most do congregate.

7. Bed Bugs; to Clear from Old Cracked Walls, etc.—Tear off the old paper and wash the walls with pretty strong boiling hot lye, made from wood ashes, or the concentrated lye, of which soap is made. Two ozs. of this would be enough for a pail of water. Put it freely to every crack, and about the base, at the floor joint, as well as next the plaster; then repaper and you are safe. If the wall is rough, and danger of nits, wash the whole wall with the hot lye.

Caterpillars on Fruit Trees, To Destroy.—If for no other reason than for the looks of an orchard every bunch of caterpillars should be destroyed as soon as seen; but if left alone they multiply and soon extend from tree to tree so quickly, to the destruction of the orchard, it should be done to eradicate them entirely from the grounds, as nothing is so unsightly as an orchard or tree infested with these pests. The most positively destructive way of ridding the trees of them is to have a sheet-iron dish made about 6 inches deep and 4 inches in diameter, with a tube-Iike piece, 5 or 6 inches long, standing at an angle of 45° (quarterly pitch) from the perpendicular, at the bottom, into which put the end of a slender pole, fitted to enter the tube 2 or 3 inches; the tube, say, 1 inch in diameter, having 2 or 3 small holes near its attachment to the main dish, to allow the circulation of air to prevent its heating and burning the pole; and near the bottom of the dish 3 or 4 holes of 1/2 or 3/4 inch diameter are to be made to allow a draft of air to make the char-coal burn, which is to be put into the dish and set burning; then an extra person besides the one managing the pole with the chafing-dish upon it, chops in a few pieces of broken up roll brimstone, when it is to be at once elevated to the nest; the fumes of the brimstone and the heat soon causes a stampede that is effecrual. If you don't believe it, please burn a match under your nose, and you can soon tell what the result would be, if long continued. To give the caterpillars a chance to drop out, pass the apparatus up through their nest. No living thing can stand the fumes of burning sulphur; but brimstone in small pieces is best for this as it does not burn out so quickly as the fine sulphur. As soon as a nest is seen go for it, and you will soon eradicate them. The plan of burning kerosene destroys the limbs too quickly. A day without wind is best, lest it drive the fumes away, rather than allow them to go directly upward through the nest.

Weeds, To Destroy, in Gravel Walks.—To destroy weeds in gravel walks sprinkle them with carbolic acid, about the strength of 1 of acid to 40 of water. I have found it successful, but the process must be repeated at least once a year.—London Journal.

Remarks.—There is no doubt of its success, but 1 lb. of stone lime boiled. to each gallon of water, stirring a few times while boiling, then the clear water sprinkled on, or poured along the cracks of plank walks, will kill them just as surely, and not cost one-quarter as much.

1. CISTERN—How to Build.—I see that a subscriber wishes ta know the best way to build a cistern. I have had the care of building quite a number, and would say to him, build two instead of one so large; dig the holes and put on two good coats of cement on the bank, and arch with good hard. brick. One of my neighbors has one that I built for him 16 years ago, in this way, and it has been in use ever since. I had one built for myself 6 years ago: the masons put brick all round, the brick settled and it leaked. I had another built 2 years ago, which was 8 feet across in the clear after finished, and 9 feet deep. This was plastered on the bank and arched with brick, and has been full of water ever since, and has not leaked a drop that I know of. I could mention more macle in this way, but this is enough. I would not have brick or stone in the sides of a cistern if they were put in for nothing; they are simply thrown away.—Mentor, in Country Gentleman.

Remark.?.—If the Portland cement, which is the best water-lime, I think, in use, is obtained, or the best water-lime which can be got is used, there can be no doubt of the success in soil that does not cave; but in clay soil, they claim, nothing but tubs built of plank will keep out the surface water. This may be so, but it seems to me, even on clay, 2 coats of a mortar made with the best Portland cement would keep the surface water out as well as it would keep in what comes in by the spout. It would save much expense if successful, which I fully believe it would be. Any plasterer would know proper amount of clean sand to use with it.

2. Cisterns, How to Build Square or Round-The Difference in Capacity with the Same Number of Brick.—But few perions are aware that a square cistern holds considerably less than a round one, the walls containing the same number of brick. But it is a fact, nevertheless. For instance: about 2,800, or at most, 3,000, brick will make a cistern 10 feet square and 10 feet deep, having an inside surface of 400 square feet, and will contain 1,000 square or cubic feet of water, equal to about 7,500 gallons, while the same number of brick will make a round cistern of about 12 3/4 feet in diameter and 10 feet deep, which will contain about 1,270 cubic feet, or 9,225 gallons, a gain of about 27 per cent. in capacity, with no more cost, either in brick, mortar, or laying the walls. Calculate about 7 brick to lay a 4-inch wall, for each square foot of wall desired, whether larger or smaller, deeper or less depth, it matters not. For the size above given, about 2 barrels of cement will be required, as the bottom ought to be about 2 inches thick. In laying the wall great care should be taken to ram or pack the dirt down very firmly behind it, so as to resist the pressure of water. The roof should be arched 2 feet below the top of the ground.

Crickets, to Drive Away or Destroy.—Put Scotch snuff into their holes. It is too much for them, and I think it would be more than roaches could stand the presence of. Put into crevices with a feather.

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