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Fabric Cleaning

( Originally Published Early 1900's )



1. WASHING FLUID.—Labor-Saving and Not Injurious—Concentrated lye, 1 lb., muriate of ammonia, and salts of tartar, each 2 ozs. rain water, 2 gals. DIRECTIONS--Dissolve the lye (here is a lie; indeed, as lye proper is a fluid, bat this concentrated lye is a solid potash) in 1 gal. of the water and the salts of tartar, and muriate of ammonia in the other gal. of water, and put' all into a 2 gallon stone jug, cork and shake, when it is ready for use. Put a suitable amount of water into your boiler for boiling your clothes; and when it is of a proper heat to put in the clothes, if they are very dirty, stir in 1 small teacup of the fluid, stirring well before putting in the clothes; if not very dirty, cup will be plenty; add half as much more to each additional boiler, if more that one is to be used at the same time.

Remarks.—To soak clothes over night in cold water, use half as much of the fluid, stirred well into the water before putting the clothes into the tub ilia saves very much in the labor of the washing, as it neutralizes the grease, or sweat, and loosens the dirt, or rots its face; but re-member, no soap should be put upon the clothes, nor into the soaking water, unless you use our bar Stanley soap given below. If they cannot be soaked over night, soaking theta from early-rising till after breakfast, will help considerably, putting in some of the fluid, the same as directed for over night. Then run through the wringer, soap dirty places, and they are ready for the boiler, as in the directions above, boiling 10 to 20 minutes, after which but very little rubbing on the board will be needed, rinse well in the bluing water, as usual.

Mrs. Hardy, who gave me this receipt, and the foregoing instructions, is my sister-in-law, who has spent most of her life in a hotel, or a large boarding house, where much washing was to be done, and this is her favorite receipt after trying many others, and hence, from her practical knowledge and my own knowledge of the nature of the articles, I have every confidence it will prove satisfactory to all; still, as there are those who have tried other receipts, and think so much of them, I will give a few more.

2. Washing Fluid or Powder.—Sal-soda, 2 lbs. ; borax, I. lb.; salts -of tartar, 2 ozs.; muriate of ammonia, 14 ozs.

DIRECTIONS. I. For the Powder.—If it is to be used as a powder, pulverize all, and mix thoroughly, put into a large mouthed bottle and cork for use, and use one rounding tablespoonful in each boiler of clothes, and half as much for each additional boiler, and this same amount to a tub of clothes for soaking, -to be well stirred in, in either case.

II. For the Fluid.—If to be used as a fluid, dissolve the sal-soda and borax in 1 gal. of water, and the other articles in another gal. of water, mix and put into a 2 gal. jug and keep corked for use. To be used. in the same quantity and in the same way as No. I.

3. Washing Fluid.-Sal-soda, 1 lb. ; potash (or concentrated lye), 1 lb. ; each dissolved in 1 gal. water respectively, then mix together and bottle.—"Josie," of New York City, in Blade.

Remarks.—She does not tell how, nor how much to use ; but the author says, use the same as No. 1, and a two gal. jug will do to hold it in. It will be found good and no trouble to make.

4. New Mode of Washing, Saving Time, Labor and Fuel.

"The ill effects of soda on linen have given rise to a new method of washing, which has been extensively adopted in Germany, and introduced into Belgium. The operation consists in dissolving 2 lbs. of soap in about 3 gals. of water as hot as the hand can bear, and adding to this 1 teaspoon of turpentine and 3 of liquid ammonia; the mixture must be then well stirred, and the linen steeped in it for 2 or 3 hours, taking care to cover up the vessel containing them as closely as possible. The clothes are afterward washed out and rinsed in the usual way. The soap and water may be reheated and used a second time, but in that case % teaspoonful of turpentine and 1 teaspoonful of ammonia must be added. The process is said to cause a great economy of time, labor and fuel. The linen scarcely suffers at all, as there is little necsssity for rubbing, and its cleanliness and color are perfect. The ammonia and turpentine, although their detersive (cleansing) action is great, have no injurious effect upon the linen; and while the former evaporates immediately, the smell of the latter disappears entirely, during the drying of the clothes. —Rural New Yorker.

Remarks.—This writer speaks of the " ill effect of soda on linen," etc.; but the author must claim if soda is properly used in washing, it will not injure clothes, i. e., if it is combined with potash or Iime, which give it its causticity, detergent` or cleansing powers. For, during the past 20 years or more, I think, of my wife's life, she always kept a washing fluid ready for use, made of sal-soda and stone-lime, some of which was always put into the water to soak the clothes in, and also into the water to boil them in, and I never saw a yellow shirt; nor heard of any discoloring nor rotting of the clothing. I will guarantee that by none of the processes here given will they be injured, nor become yellow. Borax, which is particularly the thing used in the next, I know to be an excellent article to cleanse clothing, as well as to cleanse the scalp from dandruff. A teaspoonful of powdered borax, to water enough, washing the head daily, will soon remove the dandruff, and leave the scalp in a smooth and healthy condition.

5. Washing—The Use of Borax in Washing Linen, Flannels, etc.,—The following suggestions as to the use of borax in washing is from a correspondent of the Western Rural who had tested them. She says:

For an ordinary washing, use 1 teaspoonful (the author would say 2, for borax is a neutral salt and it has no excess of alkali, nor acid, and therefore does not injure clothing) of borax to 5 gals. of water and 2 ozs. of soap (it would have to be soft soap, else dissolved); soak the clothes in this over night; give them a thorough boiling, without wringing before the boiling. When the clothes are very much soiled, see that the water is made soft with borax. {Made to feel soapy 2 tablespoonfuls to a pail. Clothes thus washed will tot turn yellow."

In washing flannels, use 1 table-spoonful of borax to 5 gals. of water, with-cut soap. It will not shrink them. For starching linen, use 1 tea-spoonful of borax to 1 pt. of boiling starch. For washing and bleaching laces, put 1 tea-spoonful of borax to 1 pt. of boiling water, leave your articles to soak in the solution for 24 hours, then wash with a little soap. For cleansing black cashmeres, wash in hot suds with a little borax in the water; rinse in bluing water —very blue—and iron on the wrong side while damp."

Remarks.—For its use in removing dandruff, see the close of the remarks last above. A drachm of powdered borax dissolved in 2 table-spoonfuls of vinegar is said to be an excellent lotion for ringworm of the scalp; and its pow-der dusted about pantries, libraries, etc., is also said to be effectual in driving away roaches and other insects.—King.

The author does not have to say "said to be," about its driving away roaches, as he has done it with great satisfaction, in drawers where they congregated so it could be got upon them; they left on the "double-quick."

6. Borax, as Used By the Washer-Women of Holland and Belgium.—" The washer-women of Holland and Belgium, so proverbially clean, and who get up their linen so beautifully white, do it by the use of refined borax (kept by druggists) as a washing powder, instead of soda, in the proportion of a large handful of borax powder to 10 gals. of boiling water, saving in soap nearly half. All of the large washing establishments adopt the same plan.

"For laces, cambrics and lawns an extra quantity of the powder is used, and for crinolines (skirts) requiring to be made stiff, a stronger solution is necessary. Borax being a neutral salt does not in the slightest degree injure the texture of the linen. Its effect is to soften the hardest water."—Youman's Dictionary of Every-Day Wants.

7. Washing Fluid, Requiring but Little Boiling or Rubbing. —"Camphor gum, 1/2 oz., dissolved in alcohol, 1/2 pt.; borax, lb.; sal soda, 1 1h.; dissolve the borax and sal soda in hot rain water, 1 gal., and stir in the others, and put into a 2 gallon jug, having 1 gal. of cold rain water in it, cork and shake, when it is ready for use. DIRECTIONS—Put 1/2 cup of this to 1 pt. of soft soap, and apply to the dirty parts of the clothing, and soak in warm water 3 an hour, or while breakfast is passing; need not then boil over 5 Minutes. Washing will be done in half the ordinary time. Does not rot clothing, but makes it white. Table-cloths stained with tea, coffee, or fruit, throw into boiling water a few minutes, when they will be free from stains (I have seen statements to pour hot water through such spots would free them from the stain), while soap or suds when the clothes are dry will set the stains permanently."—Germantown, (Pa.) Telegraph.

Remarks.-I take this to be a very good fluid, as it has neither turpentine nor ammonia in it, and the quantity of camphor and alcohol is so small it will not be liable to open the pores of the skin, by which means colds are so easily taken by exposure while hanging out clothes after being over the hot suds in washing. The Bark Shanty Soap, below, will be just the kind to use with this fluid; but the common soft soap, such as is usually made from ashes and grease of your own saving, is, no doubt, the kind this Pennsylvanian refers to. I trust that all of our lady readers will be able to find something among these washing fluids or powders that shall fully meet their wants. Bluings are kept so generally now by the grocers and druggists they can be bought for less than they can be made.

8. Flannels, To Wash and Dry, Without Shrinking.—Flannels should be washed with as little rubbing as possible; or, better still, pounding without any, rubbing at all, and drying rapidly, and pulling freely, both, length-wise and across the goods, if you would avoid shrinkage.

9. Washing Muslins, Cambrics, and Calicoes.—Stir some of the starch, after it is prepared for use, into the water in which any of these goods are to be washed.

10. Or, soak them a while in water in which you have put 1 or 2 table-spoonfuls of salt to a pail of water.

11. For Black and White Calicoes.—A cup or two of weak lye to a pail of water is best for soaking in.

12. For Pink or Green.—One or 2 table-spoonfuls of good vinegar to the. pail of water is best.

13. For Purple or Blue: Use sal soda, or borax, in powder, 1 or 2 table-spoonfuls to a pail of water; but, now, if you use the washing fluid, above, soak them a little in that, and wash out, as usual, it saves all these troubles with the different colors.

14. Ribbons, to Wash.—Wash ribbons in cold suds-not very strong, and do not rinse.

15. Silk, Cashmere and Black Alpaca Dresses, to Cleanse. —Dissolve a table-spoonful of powdered borax in 1 qt. of warm water (soft water), and after dusting thoroughly brush such parts as need it, or the whole, if much worn, and iron on the wrong side.

16. Black Silk, Alpaca, Serge and Lawn Dresses, to Do, Over.—The following on the care and manner of doing over black silk, cash-mere, alpaca, serge and lawn dresses, which I take from Ha? per's Bazar, is well worth a place here, and will be found worthy of consideration by every woman into whose hands this book shall come. It says:

" No lady should ever don her alpaca, cashmere or serge without giving it a thorough dusting with broom or brush. Dust permitted to settle in the folds of pleat or shirring will soon be impossible to remove entirely, and give the whole gown that untidy air so much to be deprecated in everything pertaining, to a lady's person.

But after constant use for months, or maybe a year, the most carefully kept black dress will begin to show the effects of use, in a certain rustiness of hue and general dinginess of aspect, if no place actually rubbed or worn. Now is the time to expend a little skill and ingenuity in its renovation, when the economist may be rewarded by coming out in an old dress made new, sure of eliciting the admiration of at least all those who are in the secret. For the undertaking provide yourself with ten cents' worth of soap bark, procurable at an herb or drug store, and boil it in 1 qt. of hot water. Let it steep a while, and then strain into a basin for use. If the job is to be a perfect and thorough one, take the body and sleeves apart and to pieces; rip off the trimming from skirt and over-skirt. Brush off all loose dust first and then, with a sponge dipped in the soap bark decoction, wipe over each piece thoroughly, folding up as you proceed. Have ready a ladies' skirt board, for pressing, and well heated irons. Smooth every piece on the wrong side, including even silk tri trimmings; and when you have once more put it together you will be amazed to see the results of the simple process. One advantage in taking the whole dress apart is that, by putting the trimming on in some style a little different from what it was at first, the attraction of novelty is added to make the effect more pleasing. If one has not time, however, to go through the whole process, a dress may be greatly improved by being wiped over with this mixture (or the borax water above), and pressed on the wrong side while damp—indeed, for a time, it will look quite as good as new. The process maybe repeated from time to time, as shall seem advisable. I have seen a cashmere, which had been worn two whole winters, taken apart and treated in this way, and the closest observer would have supposed the dress to have been put on for the first time, such was its soft, fresh look, and the vividness of its black. Grenadine may be submitted to the same sort of cleaning with fine results. -

" When a black lawn has become limp, tumbled, and generally forlorn-looking, the best mode of treatment to subject it to is, first a submersion in a pan of warm water, colored highly with indigo; -then exposure to the air until ,, just dampness enough is left to enable one to press it to advantage with a hot iron; and if this is carefully done, always on the wrong side, the lawn will come forth quite fresh, stiff, and renovated from its blue bath, and again do good service for another while.

" Every particle of dust should be removed from a black silk or poplin every time it is worn, for nothing cuts either out so soon as these often imperceptible little gritty motes with which the air of a city is filled where coal is hi such universal use."

17. Washing or Cleansing Woolen Blankets.—It is quite as important to have the woolen blankets on our beds clean, as to have our sheets pure and white. For the emination from our bodies are more quickly absorbed by them than by the muslin sheets; and as the women look upon the washing of a pair of blankets as a great undertaking, I will give them the easy way, recommended by the Boston Jo armed of Chemistry, which is about the same as practiced by my wife, in her lifetime. It is as follows: Put 2 heaping table-spoonfuls of powdered borax and 1 pt. of soft soap (or its equivalent of dissolved bar soap), into a tub of cold soft water. Stir well to dissolve and mix; then put in the blankets, thoroughly wetting, and let them soak over night. Next day rub (the author says pound), and drain them out, and rinse thoroughly in two waters, and hang them to dry. Do not wring them by hand, but press out the water. They may be put through a wringer.

Remarks:—This makes light work of washing blankets. It will not be amiss, however, to say the washing water and the rinsing water should always be as nearly as possible the same temperature, but only to take the chill off, so as to avoid taking cold by having the hands in cold water—no soap should ever be rubbed on the flannels, but sudsing be used; and do not hang out on a very cold day, nor hang close to a hot fire or stove; and iron with a moderately cool iron—not very hot—while damp, and there will be but little, if any shrinkage, alter moderate pulling even of skirts or other woolen goods. Under-skirts, etc., of wool can be washed in the fluid water, as above given, othewise as nearly Iike blankets are done as you can.

18. Borax, Its Value Corroborated the same connection the Journal goes on to say, further, of borax:

19. Borax is the Best Roach Exterminator Yet Discovered.—This troublesome insect has a peculiar aversion to borax, and will never return where it has once been scattered. And, as this salt (chemists know all these things as a " salt ") is perfectly harmless to human beings, it is much to be preferred for this purpose to the poisonous substances commonly used.

Borax is also valuable for laundry use, instead of soda. Add a handful of it, powdered, to about ten gallons of boiling water, and you need use only half the ordinary allowance of soap. For laces, cambrics, etc., use an extra quantity of the powder. It will not injure the texture of the cloth in the least.

"For cleansing the hair, nothing is better than a solution of borax water. Wash afterward with pure water, if it leaves the hair too stiff. Borax dissolved in water is also an excellent dentrifice, or tooth wash."

Remarks.—See how well this plan agrees with the Holland and Belgium washerwomen above, as to the use of borax for laundry, or washing purposes. This writer says, also: " Dissolved in water, it is also an excellent dentrifice, or tooth wash, as scientists think it destroys the parasitic mite, or insect that exists in the fermenting food between the teeth."

Borax as a Tooth Powder, or for Washing the Teeth.—I use borax in powder every morning, to cleanse my teeth. Borax in powder, 1/2 oz., with precipitated chalk, 3 ozs., with a few drops of oil of winter-green, which keeps my teeth clean and white, by rubbing the brush first on soap, then into the powder. Soap is essential once a day in cleaning teeth. Borax is, indeed, one of the most valuable salts we have for washing and cleaning purposes; but as we have now had a pretty thorough course of instruction in the various methods of washing, we will take up the question of soaps, for domestic purposes. Our first one, however, claims also, to make washing easy, which I very well know it will do. If you use any of the white bar soaps, your soft soap will be white—if any of the rosin-colored or yellow soaps, to make it with, such will be the color when done.

1 . Bark Shanty Soap, or Washing Made Easy.—Good bar soap, 4 lbs. ; washing (sal) soda, 3 lbs. ; freshly burned stone-lime (which is also called " quick-lime "), l lb. ; salt, 2 ozs. ; soft water, 5 gals. Directions—First, put the stone-lime into one gal. of the water, which is boiling hot; and, after stir-ring it a few times within an hour or two, let it settle, then pour off the clear liquid into a suitable sized kettle to hold all, and add the balance of the water; cut the bar soap into thin slices, and put it with the soda, into the kettle, and boil until the soda and soap are fully dissolved, then stir in the salt, and pour when a little cool, into suitable jars (a pine half-barrel will do very nicely), and keep covered for use.

Remarks.—This soap will save much of the rubbing of the clothing if a cup or two of it, according to the size of the washing, is dissolved 'by stirring it into cold water enough to cover the clothes, and they are soaked over night is it; then dirty places are soaped with this before boiling; 15 or 20 minutes will be long enough to boil them, and slight rubbing of soiled places will be all that is needed, rinsing, bluing, etc., as usual. This amount of soap will do four times as much washing as the bar soap would have done by itself, and that, even if the money paid for the soda and the lime, which ought not to be above 15 or 20 cents, at most, had been added to the purchase of bar soap. The lime, especially, costs a mere nothing, but adds greatly, as well as the soda, to the deter-gent or cleansing properties of the soap. I call this "Bark Shanty Soap," front the name of the place where we lived one season, and where I obtained this recipe. It is on the shore of Lake Huron, 31 miles above Port Huron, where the timber is chiefly pine, and hence the ashes were not good for making soap; we, therefore, had to get the best substitute we could, and this being in use there, we soon learned its value, and will only add that although it will be found a great help and saving to those living in shanties, yet it will also be just as satisfactory to those living in cities, if they will give it a trial. It makes a half-solid soap very convenient to use.

2. Soft Soap for Washing and House Cleaning. - There are many other ways of making soap, nearly all of which contain some of the improvements or newer articles which have been introduced within the last few years in soap making, such as sal soda, lime, borax, etc. ; but few of them contain more than one or two of these. The next, although it has only one the sal soda—yet you will at once see that Mrs. J. Lute, of Liberty, O., who sends it to the Blade, thinks very highly of it; and I give it to show the value of the sal soda mixed with soap which, in , my own as well as in Mrs. Lute's opinion, will be a great help in washing clothes or house cleaning, as the case may be. She says:

"'Take 4 lbs. of white, bar soap, cut it fine, and dissolve by heating in 5 gals. of soft water, adding 2 lbs. of sal soda. When all is dissolved and well mixed, it is done. Yellow soap does very well, but I think the white is the best. This makes t very nice, white soft soap. You will think it a fraud when you first take it off the fire, but when it gets cool you will change your mind, and after one trial of it you will have no other. I have used it for three years, and am not afraid to recommend it to your readers."

Remarks.-If this is thus good, where the lime can be got, will not the following be considerably better?—I think so.

3. Hard Soap, Fifteen or Twenty Pounds from Seven.—Take 7 lbs. of good hard soap; cut it in thin slices; sal soda, 2 lbs. ; unslacked (that is stone) lime, 1 lb.; alum, 1 oz.; borax, 2 ozs.; benzine, 1 oz.; soft water, 2 gals. DIRECTIONS-Pat the sal soda and lime into a dish and pour over them the water, boiling hot, (what is better, is to use a kettle which you can boil these in till the soda is dissolved and the lime all slacked), stirring well a few times, and let settle; then (or in the morning, if done over night,) pour off the clear solution into the kettle containing the slices of soap, put on the fire and let it remain until the soap is dissolved; then, having dissolved the alum and borax in a little water, pour them in just as the soap comes off of the fire; and when a little cool put in the benzine, stirring well, and when it gets perfectly cold it will be hard, and can be cut in pieces to dry.

Remarks.—I have this from a Mrs. Baldwin, who has done a great deal of washing in her life, at Put-in-Bay, Ohio, and who has used this soap and knows its value, and hence recommends it very highly. And this recipe, I am well satisfied, has had a wide range, for I found, when I come to look over the items ou hand for this department, I had the same recipe from a friend who lived in the southern part of the state, and his family prized it highly. Of course, this could be made into a soft soap by adding 5 to 10 gals. more of water, according to whether you would have it quite firm, or more easily taken up with the hand, and I will say here, too, I think if to 1 cup of salt was put in with the alum and borax, it would be a little firmer, as a hard soap, and also dry a little quicker. Rosin is also put into hard soap for the purpose of making it tougher, so it will not rub off quite so fast when rubbing it upon the clothing. Some persons think the rosin is detergent, that is it helps to cleanse away the dirt, but this is a mistake, if not wholly, it certainly has but very little power to do this. A table-spoonful of spirits of turpentine, has more of this cleansing power than a pound of rosin, but it does make the soap wear or last longer. See next recipe for using rosin.

4. Hard Soap with Concentrated Lye.—"Take 2 boxes (2 lbs.) of concentrated lye; soft water, 5 gals. ; grease, 9 lbs.; rosin and borax, ,each, lb.; salt as below. Directions—Dissolve the lye in the water, and add the rosin, broken finely, and boil till dissolved, stirring well; then add the grease and the borax, in small pieces, and boil about 2 hours, or till the grease is taken up, and it becomes soapy. If the grease was salty, stir in % tumbler of salt; if it was not salty, a full tumbler of salt, dissolved in % gal. of warm water, and stir in, and continue the boiling % an hour longer. Soak a tub well in cold water, and pour in the soap, and let it stand till cold. Cut out in cakes and put in a cool dry place to dry. You may leave out the rosin, if you desire, I do not always use it."—Keystone, Cannonsburg, Pa.

Remarks.—As I said in last recipe, above, the rosin makes the soap wear longer, when rubbing upon the clothes, if it rubs off too slow, so you have to rub too long to get on soap enough, use less rosin, or none at all, as you prefer.

5. Hard Soap with Soda, Lime and Accumulating Grease, etc.—Mrs. C. W. Phillips, of Glencoe, Minn., informs us through the Blade, how to use the accumulating grease, by making a " hard soap which is excellent and economical." She says:

"Nearly every family accumulates, through the winter, drippings from beef, mutton, ham, etc. These can all be utilized by boiling the grease in water, allowing it to cool, then removing it from the water, and boiling by itself again till all the water is expelled. Of course; the whiter the grease, the nicer will be the soap.

Then take 6 lbs. of this grease, 6 lbs. of sal-soda, and 3% lbs. of newly burned or good stone-lime, with 4 gals. of soft water, and 1/2 lb. of borax; or in these proportions. Put soda, lime and water into an iron kettle and boil, stir till the soda is dissolved, and the lime is all slacked; then, when it is well settled; pour off the clear liquid; wash out the kettle and put in the liquid, grease and borax, and boil till it comes to soap, and pour into a well soaked tub to cool, and when sufficiently hard, cut into bars and put on boards to dry. It is very nice, even for washing white flannels and calicoes; and, if a little perfume is put in it is nice enough for the toilet."

Remarks.—The old Windsor soap, as it used to be made, was flavored with oil of caraway, but more recently the oil of sassafras, which is cheap, has been used for perfuming soaps; 1/2 to 1 oz. would be enough for a " batch of soap of 5 to 10 gals., according to whether a little or a considerably strong perfume is preferred. It should not be put in until the soap is pretty cool, then stirred in thoroughly.

The Rural Home, under the head of "Home-Made Soap," gives the same recipe as this last, except in used only 3 lbs. of lime and no borax-otherwise just the same—and makes these remarks about it: "Were the good qualities of this inexpensive soap more generally known no family would go without it. It is valuable for washing clothes, making them very clean and white, without in the least injuring them, and is excellent for flannels and petticoats. It is good, also, for the hands, making them soft and smooth." Could any higher encomiums or better recommendation be asked or given? I think not. And the only reason I give them is that the people may have confidence enough in these soaps to give them a fair trial, as they positively do not injure the clothing, but save much labor and expense, as compared with using only bar soap kept by-grocers. I had also another recipe from the Inter Ocean, but it was just like this, except a caution to " be very careful not to get any sediment in from the lime." Simply be careful to pour off the liquid clear of sediment in any recipe using the stone lime, as the lime will not dissolve, but simply slacks, yielding up its caustic power, for which purpose only it is used, except for the hand washing soap below, and there it is used only upon the hands; for clothing it is best not to get in any lime lest it spot some colored goods. I will give you one more of these hard soaps from soda, lime and grease, as the amount is smaller, and is from a lady who is not afraid to give her name, and address also.. It is as follows:

6. Hard Soap, With Soda, Lime and Grease Only.—Soft water, 1 gals. ; sal soda, 3 lbs, ; unslacked lime, 1 lb.; clean grease, 3 lbs. Directions —Put the three first articles together and boil to dissolve the soda and slack the lime; then let settle and pour off the clear liquid and put on the fire again with the grease and boil to proper consistence. One oz. of any flavored oil may be added, if desired.—Mrs. W. W. Morse, of Lann, D. T.; in Inter Ocean.

Remarks.—As named in another place, any of these hard soaps may be made soft by using the proper amount of water to give the right consistence.

7. "Why is Lime Used in Making Soap ? "—Explanation.-People seem to be so afraid of using lime in making soaps, like the foregoing; the question is often asked: "Why is the lime used? " and hence I will take the Yankee way of answering it: "Why does everybody that makes soap from ashes put lime in the bottom of the leach?" Simply because if he does not he will have great trouble, even if he can make it at all, unless he does put the lime in, is about all the reason they can give. But lime causes the absorption of carbonic acid in the lye from the ashes, and also gives the lye a caustic property that enables it to combine with the grease, and thereby makes the soap, which it could not do, or at least not well do, except for the lime. The lime, then, does not hurt soap, but makes a better soap than can be made without it. Well, then, if it is good to assist in making soap from ashes, or potash, which comes from the ashes, why should it be thought injurious to combine it with sal soda for the same purpose? The one question answers the other, and ought to satisfy every reasonable person that lime is good and not injurious, as some suppose, for soap-making purposes. The manufacturers make soap by the use of potash, or soda, in the form or what is known as soda-ash, which is caustic, by means of its process of manufacture; but this article (soda-ash) cannot always be obtained, while the sal soda, which is a carbonate, can always be got; then we combine the lime with it, which gives it the same causticity that soda -ash has, and we thereby get just as good a soap. So have no fears in using them.

8. Soft Soap From Concentrated Lye.—To make soft soap with -concentrated lye, take 1 lb. of it and dissolve it in 2 gallons of soft water; and, when it boils, add tallow, or clear grease, 4 lbs. Let it boil till it becomes clear; then add 2 gallons more of rain water. Mix well and set it by to cool; then take a cup of it, and add as much cold water as it will take, and still be as thick and ropy as you wish it, then add water in the same proportions to the whole.—Prairie Farmer.

9. Soft Soap for. House Cleaning, Washing Clothes, etc: It is well to have two or three strings to one's bow: hence I give one or two more soft soap recipes. This one I take from the Medical Brief, of St. Louis: Hard soap, 3 lbs. ; sal soda, 1 lb. ; aqua ammonia and spirits of turpentine, each 1 oz.; soft water, 3 gallons. Boil the water and dissolve in it the soap and soda; remove from the fire and stir in the others.

Remarks.—Oil of sassafras, 1/2 to 1 oz., may be used for flavoring, if -desired, in this amount of any soaps.

A lady editress of one of the " Household Departments" of an agricultural paper makes it as follows, using less soda, and no ammonia nor turpentine, still it will be found excellent for the purposes named:

10. Soft Soap, for Removing Grease from Floors, Shelves, etc.—Sal soda, 3/4 lb.; bar soap, 1 lb.; cut into small pieces; put them into a stone jar on the back of the stove, or range, when not very hot, and pour over it a pailful of cold water; stir it once in a while, and after soma hours, when thoroughly dissolved, put it away to cool. It forms a sort of jelly, and is excel-lent to remove grease on floors or shelves.

Remarks.—The author will say good for cleaning all wood-work, and for general washing too.

11. Soap from Refuse Grease. Another lady says: The best way to use up small lots of refuse grease, is to buy a box of concentrated lye (for sale by all grocers) and follow the directions on the box. Nothing can be simpler, and we have never failed in getting the soap to come.

Remarks.—This lady's instruction is sound common sense, and confirms what I have said heretofore. A little judgment will enable any one to succeed, by simply modifying, or changing, sometimes, to meet different conditions which may arise, is not always being able to get just what is called for in one recipe, by taking up another, the articles for which can be obtained.

12. Pearline, Soapine, etc., to Make.-The Scientific American, which is one of our most reliable papers, informs us that these articles are made of powdered soap, and powdered sal soda, equal, or about equal parts of each. Thus you see for a few cents you can make what they ask much more for; and it shows, too, what is thought by scientific men of sal soda as an aid in washing.

13. Soap for Machine-Shop Men, Blacksmiths, Engineers, Printers, Scouring. etc.—Take 10 lbs. of hard, yellow soap; sal soda, 3 lbs.; borax and tallow, each 1 lb.; fresh slacked lime, as below; soft water, 3 gals DIRECTIONS—Put the water, soda and borax into the kettle, and when dissolved add the tallow and the soap, shaved fine; and when these are dissolved stir in as much freshly slacked, sifted lime as you can stir in well. The lime is to be sifted through a common kitchen sieve to avoid coarse lumps.

Remarks.—The lime thus stirred in greatly helps its scouring and cleansing properties; its roughness also helps greatly in washing hands covered with grease, ink, etc. It makes a good washing soap without the lime, but that adds more than half to its power of removing grease, ink; tar, etc., from the hands of machinists, where iron is worn into the grease on journals and by filing, etc. Without the lime it would make about 10 gals of splendid soft soap,, if preferred in place of the hard; and in this case the tallow need not be put in.

14. Medicated, or Sulphur and Tar Soaps, To Make.—So much is being said about sulphur soap, in skin diseases and for toilet purposes, it will be a satisfaction to many people, no doubt, to know that if you take a 1 lb. liar of any good, hard white soap, cut it fine and put it into a small jar and set that into a basin or pan of water and set on the stove till the soap is melted, then stir in, thoroughly, 1 oz. of the flour of sulphur and pour into a paper or wooden box to cool, after which you can cut it into squares and dry it, and your sulphur soap will be as good as any you buy. For the tar soap, do the same as above, except stir in 1/4 oz, of creosote, which is the same in action as tar—contains the active principle of tar. No harm in combining them in one soap the combination would work very mildly on any irritable skin.

Remarks.—Renovation, or general cleansing of clothes of all kinds, gloves, boots, shoes, etc., very properly follows the foregoing soaps, washing fluids, etc;

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