General Treatment For Apple Orchards
( Originally Published Early 1900's )
Special Bulletin No. 61.
BY H. J. EUSTACE AND R. H. PETTIT.
In the winter or early spring, inspect the trees for San Jose, scurfy or oyster-shell scale. (Send twigs and strips of bark to the Experiment Station, if you cannot identify the scale yourself.)
These scale insects, especially the San Jose scale, must be destroyed promptly or they will kill the trees.
JUST BEFORE THE BUDS OPEN, if the scale be present, spray with the strong lime-sulphur wash. To be successful, the work must be done very thoroughly—this means that every part of the tree must be covered with the spray.
JUST BEFORE THE BLOSSOMS OPEN, OR WHEN THEY ARE "IN THE PINK," a spraying must be made to prevent scab and other fungous disease and the canker-worm, bud-moth and a few other insects. For this and the sprayings that follow, use the dilute lime-sulphur or the Bordeaux mixture. To every fifty gallons, add two or three lbs. of arsenate of lead. (With lime-sulphur, this is the only poison that can be used.)
IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE BLOSSOMS FALL, and before the calyx closes, another spraying must be made just like the one before. At this time direct the spray downward from above as much as possible, and with the highest pressure available, the object being to get some of the material into the calyx cups, to poison the larva of the codling moth when it attempts to enter.
This is a very necessary spraying. If well done it usually means a crop free from worms.
ABOUT Two WEEKS AFTER THE ABOVE SPRAYING, make another. Use same mixture and poison as in previous' spraying.
EARLY IN AUGUST, there will be a second generation of codling-moths. Just when this will occur for your locality can be determined. (See "When the codling-moth flies" page 168.
Protect fall and winter varieties against the codling-moth and a possible late outbreak of scab. Use the usual amount of poison, but the dilute lime-sulphur, or the Bordeaux which can be made somewhat weaker than before.
THE LESSER APPLE-WORM, which works more superficially than the codling-moth, when present requires a spray of poison when standard winter varieties are from 1 to 11/2 inches in diameter.
IF PLANT-LICE are present and if they do not leave the foliage shortly after the blossoms fall apply some contact spray, (see page 167) prefer-ably nicotine or strong tobacco tea. If the 40% nicotine is used add 1/2 pint to 45 gallons of water and be sure to hit each louse.
FIRE BLIGHT has been very serious in apple trees in some parts of the state during the past few years.
For description and method of control see "TREATMENT FOR PEARS" on page 153.