A Study Of Breeds Of Cattle
( Originally Published 1912 )
This breed of Scotch dairy cattle originated under the rugged conditions of Ayrshire, and in their type and general characteristic they exemplify the form and quality of animals required to make the most economical use of food, and do the best under conditions too severe for finer and more delicate cattle.
The fine cut features of the face, brightness of eye, upturned horn, thin neck, fine shoulders, good heart and lung capacity, straight back, strong loin, large abdomen (showing food capacity) long, broad hips, large evenly balanced udder, large well placed teats and well developed mammary glands, a soft, loose skin of medium thickness covered with a thick coating of fine hair, equal red and white, brown and white, or verging to nearly all white, are the chief characteristics of the breed in appearance. In temperament they are docile, yet in their whole bearing there is a noticeable alertness peculiar to no other breed.
The Angus, a beef breed, are natives of Scot-land. They have no horns and are black in color, having a thick, short, but sleek coating of hair. They are handsome cattle and of splendid conformation.
They are not as large as some of the other beef breeds, but are profitable cattle to keep. While they are thrifty, they are not as hardy as the Galloway.
Brown Swiss Cattle.
The Brown Swiss, as their name indicates, come from Switzerland, and coming from such a mountainous country, are well adapted to grazing over rough and unbroken pastures. They are hardy and good size, and of a coarser build than other breeds. They give a good flow of milk of a fair percentage of butter fat.
Of all the breeds of cattle found in Great Britain, the Devons, which are a dark red in color, are among the purest and most ancient, and they are descendants of the same breeds as the Here-. fords and Sussex. They are called Devons for the reason that they originated in Devonshire.
They are smaller in size than the Herefords, Short-horns, Galloways and the Sussex. They are noted for the quality rather than the quantity of their milk. They are symmetrical in form and very docile in disposition, and mature quickly. They produce an exceptionally fine quality of meat, as well as milk.
Dutch Belted Cattle.
Dutch Belted Cattle are a Holland dairy breed, and are so named from the white belt or band which encircles their body. They are now bred to a limited extent in this country, being kept in about twenty-five states in the Union. They are of medium size, black in color, with the exception of the white band or belt.
The Galloways, a beef cattle, natives of Scotland, are not as large in conformation as some of the other beef breeds and do not mature at such an early age. They have no horns, black in color, having a very long, coarse coat of curly hair, and are best adapted for rough and unbroken country and our colder climates.
This breed is being rap-idly improved upon and are not only valuable as beef cattle but are exceedingly valuable for their hides, same being used for coats and robes.
The Guernsey cow originated on the Guernsey Island and is a very popular breed among dairy cattle.
This breed is quite distinguished, owing to its richness in color of hide. The milk and butter product is also of a natural, rich yellow color, which makes the Guernsey a very desirable breed in vicinities where there is a demand for such products.
The prevailing color of the Guernsey is white and red, shading into fawn.
The Herefords are natives of the shire of Here-ford, in England. In color they are red, with white faces and breast, a white stripe along the back, and white legs and belly. They possess the same beef qualities as the Shorthorns, but are better grass cattle.
The Holstein-Friesian cattle are very nearly uniform in build, size, and quality, and for generations the natural conditions under which this breed have been kept have been the most favorable for the production of a milk breed, and are the most celebrated of the Holland cattle, they being regarded as the original stock.
The Holstein-Friesiah, commonly termed the Black and White cow, is of splendid conformation. The head is long and rather narrow, eyes full, nose straight without flesh, nostrils large and well opened, mouth large and broad. The neck is long and fine, somewhat curved downward on top; brisket well set, withers and bag broad, with slightly sloping rump. The udder is of enormous size, extending well forward, where it has a squareness of form and is very broad. The teats are cylindrical in form, and usually from two and a half to three and a half inches in length.
Jersey cattle come from the Jersey Island, off the coast of France. In color they are of different shades of fawn, some blending to white and others to black. They give very rich milk, which is especially adapted for butter-making. They cross well with other breeds of cattle for dairy purposes.
Polled Durham Cattle.
The Polled Durham descended from both the Scotch and English Short-horns.
Polled Durhams are good beef animals, but the development has been largely in the direction of superior milking, qualities. They are raised quite extensively in the middle states.
Red Polled Cattle.
This breed of cattle is the result of a mixture of two types, which are known as Norfolk and Suffolk cattle. The Norfolk type was characterized by a blood red-colored body and mottled head, while the Suffolk type was originally a sort of mouse color. For over a century both have been freely intercrossed and have been recognized as one breed since 1846.
The Shorthorns are natives of England and Scot-land, where they are still raised in large numbers. At the present time they are also extensively bred in America. They are red, white or roan in color, or may be spotted red and white. They are low down and blocky, with a good coating of flesh of good quality, and are one of the most popular breeds of Beef Cattle.
This is a pure breed, native of Ireland, and de-rived their name from the county of Kerry. The/ are very popular in some parts of England, but as yet have not been extensively introduced into the United States. The quality of their milk is rich, almost equal to that of Guernsey and Jersey in butter fat, and they give a large quantity of milk for their size.
An enthusiast on the subject of blooded stock, Dr. Roberts is at all times ready to give any further information that may advance this industry.